The Old Whaling Days
Chapter V. — Foveaux Strait and the Islands, 1830 to 1835
Foveaux Strait and the Islands, 1830 to 1835.
The first recorded visitor to this southern region, during the period under review, was an American sealing captain.
Capain Benjamin Morrell of the American schooner Antarctic sailed from New York on 2nd September, 1829, and anchored at Carnley Harbour, Auckland Island, on 28th December of the same year. Three days afterwards he sent two of his officers to look for seals, and on 4th January, 1830, they returned, having pulled round the Island without seeing a single fur seal and not more than twenty of the hair kind. Quoting his own words:—
“Although the Auckland Isles once abounded with numerous herds of fur and hair-seal, the American and English seamen engaged in this business have made such clean work of it as scarcely to leave a breed; at all events there was not one furseal to be found on the 4th of January, 1830. We therefore got under way on the morning of Tuesday, the 5th at 6 o'clock, and steered for another cluster of islands, or rather rocks, called ‘the Snares,’ one hundred and eighty miles north of Auckland Group and about sixty south of New Zealand…
“We searched then in vain for fur-seal, with which they formerly abounded. The population was extinct, cut off, root and branch, by the sealers of Van Dieman's Land, Sidney, etc.”
From the Snares Morrell visited Pegasus, called by him South Port, and there he found a Sydney gang engaged in building a vessel—probably the gang stationed there by Stewart, and now engaged on the Joseph Weller.page 83
Sailing over to Molyneux Bay he found, situated at the head of the harbour, a village known as Tavaimoo, of twenty-eight miserable huts. The best of the dwelling places he describes as being like barns, about ten feet high, thirty long, and twelve or fifteen broad. The insides were strongly constructed and fastened with supple vines. The same materials which they used for daubing their faces they also used for painting their whares red and black. The huts were entered through a hole just large enough to admit a man stooping, and smoke escaped and light entered by a still smaller aperture. An inferior class of dwelling found in the village was about half the size of the above and seldom more than four or five feet in height, framed of young trees and thatched with long grass. A few bags or baskets containing fishing gear and other trifles constituted the only furniture.
These natives of the Molyneux were evidently of a very low standard of civilization, and, although they must have been in touch with Europeans for some time before the visit of Captain Morrell, the contact had evidently not elevated them. The American makes no mention of finding white men in the native camp. The date of this visit was 7th January, 1830.
On the tenth, Morrell reached Banks Peninsula and anchored in Cook's Harbour (Port Cooper). Only a few natives were in the bay, and they eked out a precarious existence on shell fish. From that anchorage the Antarctic skirted the coast as far as Cape Campbell, all along the route the natives inviting those on board to land. They did not come to an anchor, however, until they had sailed past Cook Strait, when some fifty natives met them and took them ashore at Flat Point, beyond Cape Palliser. From there a course was steered for the Bay of Islands.
Both Captain Morrell and his wife, who accompanied him, have published very interesting accounts of the voyage.
The Preservation Bay whaling station has long been held to be, or to share with Te Awaiti the honour of being, page 84 the first shore whaling establishment in New Zealand. Both Williams and Shortland, of whom the former managed, and the latter recorded the doings of the station, make the date of its foundation, 1829, and Shortland further says that during that year three boats were employed and 120 tuns of oil were taken at it.
On the other hand, so far as New South Wales records can be ascertained, there are no indications that any oil was received at Sydney from Preservation Inlet during 1829. Williams brought from New Zealand, in the Caroline, flax, seal skins and timber, but no mention is made of oil. Her first cargo of that commodity reached Sydney on 11th August, after the whaling season of 1830 had commenced. Unless therefore the oil of the previous year was sold at the station to seagoing vessels, Shortland must be incorrect. Before taking over the management of the whaling station, which was owned by Bunn & Co., Williams commanded the Caroline, which traded backwards and forwards to New Zealand. After he took over the management, the command of the Caroline devolved on Farley, and then on Anglin, after whom Mt. Anglem is called. Judged from the nature of the cargoes brought up in the Caroline, the establishment of the station, for sealing and for timber cutting only, can be claimed as early as 1829. The evidence points to 1830 as the date of the foundation of Bunn's whaling establishment at Preservation Inlet.
On 7th February, the Samuel returned from Chatham Island with timber, pork, potatoes, flax and skins. She had sailed there from Sydney on 29th November, 1829, to obtain some skins which had been collected by a party of sealers in the employ of Mr. Street. On arrival at the Island the sealing gang informed Captain Worth that their whole kit had been carried off by the Cyprus, which had called there with about 50 men on board. The vessel was in a very cripled condition, was dismantled of part of her rigging, and had all her sails split or torn to ribbons. page 85 The Cyprus was an old Macquarie Island trader which had been seized by the convicts at Van Diemen's Land and was now scouring the sea.
The Caroline made the first two trips of the year in February and in May with cargoes of flax and seal skins, bringing up in all 4 tons of flax and 1200 skins. Then came the first oil recorded from Preservation. The first cargo of 40 tuns arrived on 11th August, and the second, of the like quantity, on 21st October. There also came 4 tons of bone, and 125 skins. The season was a very satisfactory one and the July reports stated that at Dusky Bay the whales were tumbing over one another like porpoises, and the only danger was that there might not be a sufficient supply of casks.
In his evidence before the Lands Claims Commissioners, Williams stated that in 1830 he built a dwelling house for himself and his family, and a store, capable of holding 300 tons of goods for trade and to supply shipping. Six houses were erected for whaling companies and a boatshed for 16 boats. From 50 to 60 men were employed whaling during the season and, when that was over, sealing and sawing timber. The contents of the store may be judged from the ship's manifest on her voyage from Sydney to the station on 25th August:—2 pun. rum, 3 casks, 1 case slops, 10cwt. biscuit, 3 tons flour, 56lbs. musket balls, 3 packages ironmongery, 1 cask vinegar, 3 doz. quart pots, 1 box medicines, 1 box raisins, 2 coils rope, 12 coils coir rope, 12 iron pots, 1 doz. whale lances, 2 jars turpentine, 2 grindstones, 1 bag rice, 1 box pepper, 40 tons casks and stores. No exception can be taken to the nature or variety of the material supplied.
During the year two other vessels, the Fairy and the Emma Kemp, took part in the sealing trade. The former arrived in Sydney on 27th February with 600 skins and some flax, while the latter, under the command of J. H. Skelton, arrived on 12th November with 113 skins. 8 tons flax and 4 tons pork.
Before the whaling season opened, on 29th March, 1831, the schooner Samuel, under the command of Captain Anglin reached Sydney with a cargo of 440 seal skins and 10 tons of flax, and brought the distressing news that the brig Industry, under the command of Captain W. Wiseman, had been wrecked at Easy Bay, Stewart Island, in a dreadful gale of wind on 28th February. The captain, ten seamen, and six native women, were drowned. Two men only escaped and were expected to come up to Sydney in the Caroline. Wiseman is described as a remarkably active and fine looking man whose father resided at the Hawkesbury. He was married to a daughter of John Grono, formerly in the New Zealand trade, but at this date a ship builder at the Hawkesbury and one of the owners of the Industry. He left a widow and one child. Wiseman had been in New South Wales and connected with its shipping for a long time, and in the course of his trading voyages had visited New Zealand, South Shetland, South America and various places in the South Seas. Tradition among southern natives says that the Industry called at Codfish Island, where she was lying when the gale came up, and that, under the direction of Chaseland, one of the few who escaped a watery grave, she ran for Easy Harbour.
The year 1831 records nothing special about Bunn's establishment beyond the regular visits of the Caroline, taking up to Sydney 114 tuns oil, 2 cwt. whalebone, 674 skins and ½ ton of flax, as follows:—
|Apr.||6||Farley||½ ton||20 Tuns||530|
On her last trip she proceeded from Sydney to Newcastle and transhipped her oil into the barque Integrity, which was lying there.page 87
This year Messrs. Enderby, of London, the well-known whaling firm, sent out to explore the high southern latitudes an expedition of two vessels—the brig Tula, of 148 tons, under the command of John Biscoe, R.N., and the cutter Lively, of 49 tons, under the command of George Avery.
The expedition sailed from Gravesend on 14th July. 1831, and arrived in due course at Van Diemen's Land, from whence it sailed, on 9th October, 1831, round the North Cape of New Zealand to the Bay of Islands, which was reached in 21 days. On 5th November it proceeded to the south and made for Chatham Island. On the seventeenth, the 44° Rocks were sighted and land was visible at different times, but it was not until the nineteenth that boats were sent ashore. These returned with three natives who expressed their willingness to remain on board. Biscoe describes them as quite naked but wearing over their shoulders a stiff mat, which, when they squatted down on the deck, stuck out like the shell of a turtle and formed a roof for turning the water off. As there was no work for them they were returned to the shore. Thick dirty weather prevailed until the twenty-third when the 44 degree rocks were again sighted and a boat sent for seals, but the rocks proved so perpendicular that it was difficult to land upon them, and only seven skins were secured. Thinking that these were stragglers from some rookery near at hand, Biscoe tried the rocks to the south, but owing to bad weather could not effect a landing and accordingly bore up for Chatham Island. After spending some time in a further unsuccessful hunt after seals, on 2nd December, anchor was cast in a bight of the largest of the Cornwallis Islands, and the boats were sent out to the different islets for skins. Pigs were found on the island, but seals, which were so much desired, were nowhere to be seen. In one of his excursions Biscoe found the wreck, of a small vessel of about 100 tons, which he concluded to be the Glory, lost there in January, 1827. On the twelfth sixteen skins were procured on the Sisters rocks.page 88
From there the expedition made for the Bounty Islands, which were sighted on the twenty-fourth. The boats were sent ashore but returned without anything, having seen only five seals which could not be approached. Landing on one of the rocks they found a hut, the roof of which was formed of skins and wings of birds, a baking dish, a water cask, a bottle half filled with oil, some pieces of firewood and an Irish provision cask. So far the expedition had failed to find likely sealing ground. From the Bounties Biscoe made southward. With his Antarctic explorations we are not concerned, but, considering his poor equipment, Biscoe earned for himself a high position amongst Antarctic explorers.
His journal, for which we are indebted to the courtesy of the R.G.S., will be found as Appendix B.
In the early days of 1831 the Venus tried the old Campbell and Macquarie Island grounds for seal skins and elephant oil, but with no success whatever. She first made Macquarie Island and the captain landed at both ends of the Island, but could see no signs of elephants. “Macquarie Island is entirely cut up,” was his report. After leaving that place Harvey went south as far as 72°, but, finding such a succession of fogs that it was impossible to see further than a mile from the ship, he gave up his search for fresh fields and returned. The Venus next put into Campbell Island to set up casks for whaling. Here 170 prime skins were procured. About 20 tons of salt was landed at the head of Preservation Harbour, and from what Captain Harvey saw there he came to the conclusion that “it would pay a boat's crew to remain.” From Campbell Island the Venus sailed for Cloudy Bay, where she was reported at anchor on 28th May. When she reached Sydney on 31st December, 1832, she had a cargo of 140 tuns black oil, 6 tons whalebone, 25 tuns sperm oil, and 170 skins.
A letter of Captain Harvey to Captain Kelly, the owner of the Venus, written during the vessel's stay in Sydney, is now in a private collection of manuscripts in Tasmania.
From Bunn's establishment in 1832 the Caroline came up to Sydney on 1st April, 17th June, and 29th August, bringing up with her 80 tuns oil, 12 cwt. bone, 685 skins, 26 tons flax and 12,100 feet of timber. At the end of the season Bunn put on the Bee, and brought up in her from the same station, another 90 tuns oil, 5½ tons whalebone, 3000 feet of timber, 700 baskets of flax and 15 skins. Her passenger list comprised Mr. James Joss, Mr. Griffiths, Mr. Wareham, Mr. E. Barker and a Maori woman.
About the end of the year Williams purchased from the local chief, Te Whakataupuka, the land from the northward of Dusky to the south head of Preservation Inlet for a payment of 60 muskets. Williams says it was effected in 1829 but no deed was drawn up until 1832, on which date Te Whakataupuka attached his moko or copy of his tattoo marks, to a deed of which the following copy is to be found amongst the papers connected with Williams' application before the Lands Claims Commissioners. This is probably the first conveyance of land in the South Island.
“To all whom it may concern be it known that I Taboca Rangatera or Chief of the Southern Territories of New Zealand, have this (9th) ninth day of November In the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and thirty two sold unto Peter Williams of New South Wales his Heirs, Executors. Administrators or Assigns for ever all my right Title and Interest in and to all that portion of my territory situated being and lying on the West side of the Middle Island New Zealand beginning from the North Head of Dusky Bay in Latitude 45° South and 166° 15 East and ending at the South Head of Preservation in Latitude 46° 30′ South and 166° 43′ E. also all those Islands within those boundaries and all the other Islands not herein mentioned including also all Rivers Streams Inlets Fisheries Tenements Buildings Cultivations &c. &c. to him the said Peter Williams his Heirs Executors page 90 Administrators or Assigns from henceforth and for ever in Consideration of which I Taboca Rangatera Acknowledge to have received Sixty Muskets. In Witness whereof I have this day set my hand and Seal in my Tatto likeness Opposite.”(The Chief's Tatto.)
Middle Island or Tavai Poenammoo.
Witness James × Spencer.
The Rev. R. Taylor, writing in 1855, described Te Whakataupuka as a great chief of the Middle Island, known to the sailors as Old Wig and celebrated as much for his cunning as for his courage. He died, Taylor says, of measles, in 1833.
In 1833 the Caroline, after bringing up the very creditable cargo of 1000 seal skins, with some timber and bone, on 27th March, sailed south on 18th April with fishery stores. During the succeeding months Anglin was occupied in visiting the southern islands sealing, and did not return to Sydney until the latter part of the year. The Caroline's place was taken by the Sydney Packet, a vessel of 84 tons, under the command of Captain Joss. This vessel was purchased by George Bunn in March and sent away with a cargo of whaling stores. She reached Sydney on 23rd June, 2nd September, and 11th November, with 409 casks of oil, 332 skins, and 259 bundles of bone. In addition to these cargoes, Captain Hall, in the Waterloo, brought up 39 tuns of oil from Preservation, on 2nd August.
In her November trip the Sydney Packet left Bunn's establishment at Preservation Inlet, on 25th October, with 259 bundles whalebone. 127 casks oil and 200 skins. Captain Joss brought up an oar branded “Mosman,” supposed to belong to a vessel wrecked at Auckland Island between February and August. He stated that there could also page 91 be seen strewn on the beach, wreckage of the vessel, wool and oil staves in abundance, cabin furniture made of cedar, flooring timbers, pitch pine spars, cedar plank and part of a wool press.
The wreck was discovered by a party of sealers belonging to the Caroline who were stationed on the island and who brought up the marked oar, part of an iron bar on which was W.C. in a circle and a five gallon keg on each end of which was branded “Knowles & Co.” Anglin of the Caroline, after bringing up these articles from the islands, gave them to Joss of the Sydney Packet who deposited them in Bunn's stores in Sydney. It was Anglin's intention to visit the scene of the wreck upon his next trip and see it for himself. The Sydney press suggested that a vessel should be fitted out to run down and ascertain whether further information could be got of the wreck which was believed to belong to a vessel of 400 tons.
On 9th January, 1834, George Bunn, one of the first merchants of Sydney and the senior partner of the firm which owned the Preservation Bay whaling station, died.
On 14th March the two Preservation Bay vessels came up to Sydney. The Sydney Packet sailed from New Zealand on the second, with 185 skins, 68 casks oil and 14 tons flax. The Caroline came up with a cargo of 350 skins, having on board Edwin Palmer, who had been sealing at Auckland Island, and who had examined the wreck. He reported that no information could be got of the vessel's name. Many tons of the wreck had been beached, and consisted of wool, oil, and shipping stores. Palmer thought she must have been wrecked eleven months before, as he had visited that part of Auckland Island a short time previous to discovering her and had not seen anything of the kind. Palmer evidently had charge of the gang which discovered the wreck. In spite of the hopeless report it was still thought than an expedition might bring some- page 92 thing to light, but nothing special appears to have been done.
At this stage a sad accident took place in connection with the Preservation Bay whaling station. A boat's crew went to Ruapuke Island for a few days' recreation, and, as they did not return for some time, another boat was sent in search of them. On arrival at Ruapuke they were told that the boat had sailed for home. Nothing had been heard of them when the Sydney Packet sailed. Their loss was a severe one to the whaling establishment as three clever headsmen and two boat steerers were among the number. Their names were Fife, Williams, Russell, Lee, Garvin and Bonnivar.
The Sydney Packet sailed on 7th April, 1834, taking down a quantity of whaling gear for the supply of the gangs belonging to the house of Bunn & Co. Her general cargo consisted of 12 casks flour, 24 casks beef, 11 casks pork, 22 bags sugar, 2 casks ironmongery, 2 casks slops, 2 boxes soap, 1 cask beer, 2 chests tea, 2 puncheons, 1 hogshead rum, 2 kegs tobacco, and stores. The Caroline returned in ballast on 20th May, but Anglin had taken over the Lucy Ann belonging to Weller, and his place was now taken by Bruce.
The Caroline brought back to Sydney on 21st July, 104 casks black oil, and, as passengers, Messrs. H. Harding, A. Mossman, and Thomas Mowat. She had sailed from New Zealand on the sixth. On her voyage up she experienced terrible weather, her bulwarks and binnacles were carried away, and one of her boats was stove in. She sailed again on 8th August in ballast. On 21st August the Sydney Packet returned from New Zealand, from which she had sailed on the first, with 150 casks black oil and 2 casks seal skins. The consignee of the cargoes of the two vessels was E. B. Mowle, that House having evidently taken over the business of Bunn & Co. Captain Joss reported that there was not a vestige left of the wreck on Auckland Island.
The Caroline reached Port Jackson on 16th September, 1834, with 97 casks of oil. A local paper says: “When page 93 the signal from New Zealand was yesterday displayed, we were anxious to know whether any and what information was brought from that quarter and on applying to Messrs. Mowle & Co. we learn that the Caroline is from Port Bunn where everything was tranquil. No intelligence of the Alligator has, of course, reached Sydney by this vessel.” She came up in eleven days, during which time she encountered very rough weather and a sea carried away 7 of her starboard staunchions and bulwarks, and broke in two the ironwork of the pump. Captain Bruce saw no vessel either going or returning. The excitement in Sydney was caused by a report brought up from Otago in the Lucy Ann that the natives had become very troublesome and that some of them had gone to Port Bunn to cause trouble there. H.M.S. Alligator had left for New Zealand to recapture the remnant of the Harriett's crew wrecked at or near Cape Egmont. From the report brought up in the Caroline the excitement under which the natives laboured while at Otago had effervesced before they reached the southern station.
The Sydney Packet, Joss, sailed with fishery stores on 26th September and returned on 21st November with 40 tuns oil and 8 tons whalebone. In the shipping report it is stated that E. B. Mowle & Co. had a large establishment at Port Bunn. The natives were reported to be in a state of perfect tranquillity. The Customs record gives Williams as the master of the Sydney Packet. Probably he came up from the whaling station, as it was the end of the season, to make arrangements for next year's work rendered necessary by the death of Captain Bunn. At what date exactly the property was disposed of is not certain, but it was owned by Jones and Palmer, in March, 1835.
Throughout the year's traffic it will be noted that the timber trade had ceased, oil, whalebone and seal skins being the staple articles of export.
During the year an attempt was made to revive the old sea elephant trade of Macquarie Island, which had now page 94 been untouched for a period of over two years. Captain Mann went down in the Eleanor, on 19th March, with a full equipment of the necessary material. After landing his gangs he endeavoured to touch at Auckland Island to ascertain the name of the vessel lying on the beach there, but the weather was so rough that he had to abandon his design and make for Cook Strait. The Eleanor reached Sydney on 7th June, having on her voyage spoken a Hobart Town sealer. the Penelope, all well but with no seals. Towards the end of the year—on 15th October—the brig Bee was sent down under the command of Captain Robertson, to minister to the wants of the gang and to bring back the oil. She found, however, that in the seven months the gang had been on the Island it had not been able to secure one cask of oil. The seals had completely abandoned the Island. Captain Robertson, on 20th December, brought back 5 seamen of the gang; the remainder he was to call for later.
Captain Robertson did not delay long in Sydney, but sailed on 3rd January for the balance of the Eleanor's sealing gang at Macquarie Island. On 26th February he had them all on board—a gang of 12 men—and sailed from the Island without oil or skins, a clean ship but for 300 tuns of empty casks. During his visit he called in at Chatham Island and found there eight or ten runaways. He reached Sydney on 19th May.
The day after the Bee left, the Sydney Packet sailed for her usual destination and returned on 12th March with Messrs. Palmer and Wareham as passengers. She sailed from New Zealand on 23rd February with a cargo of 496 seal skins, 10 tuns seal oil, and 47 casks black whale oil, consigned to E. B. Mowle.
On 11th March, the New Zealander reached Sydney, having sailed from the southern part of New Zealand on 28th February. The schooner was under the command of Captain Cole and had on board oil and potatoes. Mrs. page 95 Cole was a passenger, but the places called at by this vessel are not given. Amongst other descriptions of her trip, however, one paper speaks of it as “a speculative trip of five months among the Eastern Islands.” In view of the fact that on 12th January, 1839, four men were found on Campbell Island who stated that they had been left there four years before by the New Zealander, it is more than probable that this “speculative trip” took the New Zealander as far south as Campbell Island.
Early in April the schooner Sydney Packet was purchased, through Polack of Sydney, for £800, by John Jones, for many years a waterman of Sydney Cove. By her new purchaser, who was now the owner of the Preservation Bay whaling station, she was fitted out for bay whaling and sailed on the twenty-first under the command of Captain Bruce. Her first voyage under the new ownership ended on 12th July, when she reached Sydney with two passengers—James Spencer and a New Zealander. She left Preservation Bay on 22nd June with 45 tuns of oil. No other vessel was sighted during the trip. Her cargo was consigned to J. Jones. “Johnny” Jones, whose name was afterwards to become a household word in Otago, thus received his first cargo of oil from New Zealand.
In trying to ascertain the first record of “Johnny” Jones' connection with New Zealand trade the author found mention made of a boy named John Jones advertising his intention of shipping in the Venus in 1808.
It was noticeable that renewed activity was imported into the movements of the Sydney Packet when she came under the ownership of “Johnny” Jones. She sailed for the whaling establishment on 21st July with a cargo of casks, whaling gear, rum, tobacco, flour and stores, and returned on 16th September with 45 tuns oil, 30 cwt. bone, 1 cask seal skins and 5 tons potatoes. She had sailed from Preservation on 21st August and J. Jones is stated to have been supercargo. He had evidently gone down and superintended operations in person. The people on the schooner found the measles very bad among the Maoris. On her page 96 next run she reached Sydney on 31st October, with 80 casks black oil, 6½ tons whalebone and 4 tons potatoes. James Saunders was the only passenger. She set sail again on 5th December.
It will be remembered that Te Whakataupuka sold a portion of his land to Peter Williams in 1832, and that Taylor gave 1833 as the date of the old chief's death from measles. There is reason to believe that Taylor is wrong in the date given, because as late as September, 1834, Te Whakataupuka took part in the raid on the Otago station, and left to raid the gangs at Port Bunn, when he was carried off by measles which raged among the southern Maoris during 1835. As a result Tuhawaiki became the foremost Maori in the southern portion of the Island. He described himself as the nephew and successor to Te Whakataupuka and stated that he received a portion of the payment made by Mr. Williams. He was present when the original deed was executed.
Peter Williams now applied to the new dominant chief and got his old grant confirmed. This was done by a document of which he submitted the following as a copy.
“To all whom it may concern be it known that I Toawick are now become Rangatera or Chief of these Southern Territories do hereby Testify that the above deed is true and correct and that the above Tatto is the true likeness of the late Chief Taboca—likewise for and on behalf of myself I do Grant the same unto Peter Williams his Heirs Executors Administrators or Assigns for ever in Witness whereof I have set my Tatto likeness Opposite this 31st Day of December 1835.”
George Moss Mowry, X his mark.
Tomarama Mowry X his mark.
Barago Mowry X his mark.
When statistics were being collected in 1836 relating to shore whaling on the New Zealand coast, Jones was page 97 applied to, among the others, and he replied, regarding the Preservation Bay whaling station, in the following terms:—
Sydney, 24 March, 1836.
According to your request I beg to transmit you the following information relative to my Establishment at New Zealand. I have 39 men employed in the Fishery which I have carried on for the last 12 months and procured 125 tuns oil none of which has been exported by me.
I also beg to state that the late George Bunn was in possession of the said Establishment for about 6 years and procured upwards of 500 tuns of oil during that period.
I have the honor to be, Sir
Your obedient Servant,
To Major Gibbs
Collector of Customs.
The station therefore had yielded 625 tuns of oil, and the letter seems to indicate that it was in operation in 1829.