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The Old Whaling Days

Chapter XXII. — The Coming of the Company, 1839 and 1840

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Chapter XXII.
The Coming of the Company, 1839 and 1840.

It is not intended to take up the history of the New Zealand Company prior to the arrival of its pioneer ship on the New Zealand coast. The origin and growth of the Company is so intimately associated with the steps which the British Government took to obtain possession of the country, that no history of it would be complete which did not deal with that event, and it is not convenient here to go into matters which relate to New Zealand as a whole, rather than the southern portion of it.

The Tory was the first vessel sent away by the Company from London. She was under the command of Captain E. M. Chaffers, and had a number of the advance officers of the Company on board. Of these, there were in the cabin, Colonel and E. J. Wakefield; Dieffenbach, naturalist; Heaphy, draughtsman; Dorset, surgeon; and Nayti, a Maori who had been taken to Europe in the French whaler Mississippi, after whaling in Cloudy Bay in 1836, interpreter; while in the steerage were R. Doddrey, storekeeper; and Colonel Wakefield's servant. There were thus eight passengers. The Tory sighted land on 16th August, and next night cast anchor at the mouth of Ship Cove. As in the case of Cook, so now, Natives were early on the scene, and many had already arrived on deck and tendered their services as pilots, before the anchor was let down.

The following day—Sunday—was spent in warping into the Cove and mooring to a tree, as near as possible in the position occupied by Cook during his visits to the same Cove. Early in the day a visit was received from a party of Admiralty Bay natives, en route to Cloudy Bay with pigs and potatoes to sell to the whalers. This was the first news Captain Chaffers received of the presence of what is now known as Tory Channel, and of Te Awaiti, which is rather page 348 remarkable, as Cook describes a visit to this waterway during his last visit to the Sound. As his chart, however, was made during his first visit, the fact that he afterwards found an opening to the Strait has very often been overlooked.

The period from 18th to 31st August was spent at anchor in Cook's old Cove, getting supplies of wood, water, and food, for the requirements of the ship, and of her passengers and crew. The Tory had received fairly heavy punishment during her passage, and timber had to be shipped for new studding-sail booms.

Captain Chaffery had only one occasion for alarm while at anchor. The Cove was tapu when the Tory cast anchor in it, on account of Te Hiko, the owner, having recently buried a child there. One day a chief, “Dog Skin,” deanded “utu” for the broken “tapu,” and on being refused, stole a fishing seine. When the Captain went on shore to obtain restitution the demeanour of the Natives was such that he at once returned and prepared the ship for eventualities. A boat load of Natives came off, looking like mischief, but seeing all hands armed and ready, retired. The incident passed over without a breach of the peace.

Colonel Wakefield and Dieffenbach spent a large portion of their time ashore, or visiting the various portions of the Sound and gaining what information they could from the Maoris, with the result that they early decided that Queen Charlotte Sound, magnificent as were its shipping facilities, was not suited for the site of the new settlement. On 29th August, Wakefield, prevented from going himself, sent Mr. Doddrey. the storekeeper, through to Te Awaiti, and the following day that officer returned with Williams, the carpenter of the settlement, and Arthur Elmslie, who lived at Te Awaiti. whaling during the season, and for the rest of the year was, and had been for five years, a resident of Cannibal Cove. It was a strange coincidence that Colonel Wakefield had in his possession a letter from Elmslie's father, addressed to the son, suggesting to him to accept employment in the Company's service.

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Aided by these two whalers, the Tory, now thoroughly provisioned with pork and potatoes, was got under weigh, and set sail for Te Awaiti, on Saturday, 31st August. After an interesting voyage, with boats towing ahead to keep the ship in the channel while passing through Tory Channel, the anchor was dropped near the whaling establishment of Te Awaiti at six in the evening. The first visitor was Richard Barrett, afterwards to figure so prominently in the land sales to the Company, and a merry party it was says Wakefield, that sat round their “grog” that night in the cabin of the Tory.

On Sunday morning the passengers went ashore, “after prayers,” says E. J. Wakefield, and obtained their first experience of a whaling station. In the water, hugh sunken carcases of whales, on shore, great skulls, vertebrae, shoulder blades, and ribs, met the eye, while the soil was impregnated with the smell of oil, and the air was loaded with the stench of decayed whale. But the dead carcases, and the bone, and the oil, and the stench, meant riches and wealth to the whalers, and the author has no doubt that “Dicky” Barrett's description of the scene would differ very materially from that given by E. J. Wakefield. Two stations were found at Te Awaiti, one presided over by Barrett, and the other by Geo. Thorns; and a third was in a neighbouring cove, controlled by Jas. Jackson. The last named very strongly urged on Colonel Wakefield the merits of the Pelorus as a site for his settlement, and first called his attention to John Guard, who had piloted Lieutenant Chetwode when he made his survey. Largely through Jackson's representations Wakefield decided to have a look at the Pelorus before going further, and Guard was sent for to Port Underwood to pilot him round.

Everything was ready by Friday morning and Colonel Wakefield set out with his nephew, J. Guard, Mr. Wynen, an intending settler, and a Cloudy Bay Chief who had some influence over the Natives at Admiralty Bay, to see whether the glowing terms in which the Pelorus country was described were justified. The boat was manned by Natives, page 350 and proceeded viâ Tory Channel round Jackson's Head, as far as a little cove opposite the Admiralty Islands, the first night. So far as beauty was concerned the River was of a class by itself, and timber of the finest quality covered the magnificent mountains, and feathered game of all kinds could be got ashore; but as a site for a Settlement it possessed little value, and by Monday, Wakefield had started to retrace his steps.

On the Tuesday, as they were returning. Jackson appeared in a whaleboat manned by Europeans. He had taken a lively interest in the expedition and feared that Guard and Wynen might, by procuring earlier information than he of what Wakefield's decision would be, secure some advantage over him. He therefore followed up to learn for himself. With his superior crew he returned at once to Te Awaiti. With the slow-going Maori crew Wakefield was caught by bad weather at Jackson's Head, and did not reach Te Awaiti until 3 p.m. on Monday, the sixteenth.

Unattractive as the Pelorus was Wakefield intended to purchase it, if only for a harbour of refuge, or an approach to any open country which might be found at the back. The eagerness with which his movements had been followed, and the manifest intention of intending settlers to purchase land where the site of the new Settlement was to be, together with information from Port Nicholson of missionary hostility to his actions, determined Wakefield that no time should be lost, and that he should proceed across the Strait at once, leaving the Pelorus negotiations until a later date. As an intermediary with the Natives, Barrett was selected, and put, with his wife, family and retinue, in the “tween decks” of the Tory, and a Te Awaiti combination of honest whaler-carpenter-sawyer-trader named Smith was employed to represent the Company after the land purchase was completed. With this cargo the Tory awaited a favourable wind to cross the Strait. At daylight on Friday, the twentieth the elements were favourable, and she sailed.

Barrett was in many respects a remarkable man. “Dressed in a white jacket, blue dungaree trousers, and page 351 round straw hat, he seemed perfectly round all over; while his jovial, ruddy face, twinkling eyes, and good-humoured smile, could not fail to excite pleasure in all beholders.” Outside of personal appearance and temperament he had other sources of influence. He was related by marriage with the principal Chiefs of Port Nicholson, where Wakefield hoped to establish the Settlement; he had also lived among his wife's people as a flax trader at the Sugar Loaf Islands in Taranaki; had taken part with them in the defence of Nga-motu; and, when tribal disasters had driven them south, had shared the risks of their migration and had finally taken up his abode at Te Awaiti as a whaler. The ground which Wakefield sought to acquire had been New Zealand's great battle ground for the preceding six years, and there was not an incident in that sanguinary contest that Barrett did not know, a most important thing when Native titles came to be considered.

The Tory cast anchor at the north of Somes Island, and about half a mile from the sandy beach of Petone, but before she did so the two leading chiefs, E. Puni and Wharepouri had already come on board and expressed the greatest satisfaction at the prospect of their lands being bought for a white Settlement. At this time, in spite of the great number of Europeans in Cook Strait, only one white man—Joe Robinson—lived in Port Nicholson. He had been there for two years, and had built a boat of eight tons, with timber sawn with a handsaw, and nails made from old hoops.

The Colonel lost no time in making himself familiar with the Harbour and its surroundings, so far as these could be reached by boat, and on Monday, 23rd September, the first korero with the Natives took place at Wharepouri's pa. Though the Natives were not unanimous, a decision favourable to the sale was arrived at. The following day the second korero took place at the principal village near the Tory's anchorage, and again the Natives came to the decision to sell.

In regard to the price, which up to this time had not page 352 been mentioned, Wakefield invited them to come on board the following day when he would show them what he was prepared to pay. They came, but it was Thursday before the goods were ready for their inspection. The price was satisfactory, a parchment deed was prepared, and the goods were arranged into parcels to be transported to the headquarters of the different tribes. On Friday the Deed was executed and the goods sent by the ship's boats to the various places indicated. On Monday the thirtieth, the New Zealand flag was hoisted on shore and saluted with 21 guns, and a great Maori war-dance and review completed the ceremonial portion of the sale. Mr. Smith was now put into possession, with instructions to get things ready for the immigrants which were shortly to arrive, by inducing the Natives to erect dwellings, plant potatoes, and get together great numbers of pigs.

On 4th October, Wakefield sailed for Cloudy Bay, where he found the Honduras, which had come up from the southern whaling stations and was loading with oil. He also learned that Guard and Wynen, who had accompanied him to the Pelorus. were now themselves in treaty with the Natives for the land there, thinking, doubtless, that Wakefield had no intention of purchasing it from the owners, who were resident at Cloudy Bay. Advantage was taken of the presence of the Honduras to send mail matter to England.

As Barrett had returned to Te Awaiti for a visit, and had not yet put in an appearance, Wakefield took the Tory round to the Sound when he found that Mrs. Barrett's illness prevented him getting the services of his popular interpreter for his visit to Te Rauparaha, and he had to be content to fill the vacancy with John Brooks, a Cloudy Bay sawyer and good Maori linguist. While at Tory Channel four of the sailors got their discharges and two others deserted.

On the sixteenth, the Tory made Kapiti Island, and found that, during the morning, Te Rauparaha's friends had been defeated in a bloody battle fought on the mainland at page 353 Waikanae, and the crafty old general had been compelled to seek personal safety by plunging through the surf and regaining his canoe. In this terrified mental condition he had seen the Tory, and, thinking her a man-of-war sent to punish him, had fled to Tom Evans' whaling station. There he appears to have been fortified sufficiently to send word over to Wakefield where he was, and that gentleman lost no time in interviewing him.

The temperament of Te Rauparaha and his relation to the outside world made the task of securing the sale of the land here a very different thing from the Port Nicholson undertaking. The war on the mainland between the two principal tribes was another difficulty. However, at the second interview, Te Rauparaha was converted by the persuasive eloquence of Wakefield, and the few days the Tory was off the Island would have been fewer still but for bad weather and Te Hiko's illness. At the last moment Te Rauparaha's greed, and his jealousy of Te Hiko, almost brought the negotiations to a close, and only the calmness of Wakefield, in the face of a physical demonstration of a most trying character, restored order, and, after a day or two's delay, brought the rival Chiefs together, when they signed the Deed of Conveyance, took their guns ashore, and arranged for the other Chiefs to come off and do likewise.

Everything being fixed up from the point of view of the Kawhia Chiefs resident at Kapiti and Mana Islands, Wakefield turned his attention to the mainland, and, on 27th October crossed over and discussed the question of sale with the Waikanae Natives. They were willing, only too willing, but the payment had to be guns and powder, a form of barter which Wakefield was not quite so well provided with as were the Sydney traders. Postponing the completion of the sale until the Natives would be in a more settled condition, he did what he could to bring about peace by taking over three of the Chiefs to talk over matters with Te Rauparaha. He accepted their assurance that they would sell no land until his return, and got such an appearancy of amity established, that the three Chiefs remained page 354 with Te Rauparaha while Wakefield himself pushed on to Queen Charlotte Sound to effect the purchase of the lands there.

While the Tory was at Kapiti, Nayti, who had come in the Company's Expedition from London, with all sorts of explanation of his conduct, gave way to the call of the whare and of the blanket, and returned to his countrymen.

Arrived at East Bay, in Queen Charlotte Sound, Wakefield set himself to gather together the various tribes, to complete the sale. He first crossed over to Te Awaiti, and, with Barrett, visited the Native villages in the locality, Here he found all in a state of ferment on account of the war at Waikanae, and men were getting ready in great numbers to cross over and avenge the attack on their friends. They were induced, however, to postpone their warlike preparations and adjourn en masse to East Bay to discuss the proposed sale. On Saturday, 2nd November, the sale was agreed to; on Monday, the purchase money was inspected and approved; but bad weather prevented the completion of the contract until Friday.

Both at Port Nicholson and at Kapiti the purchase “money” had been divided in a proper and businesslike manner, but on this occasion one of the smaller tribes was unable to effect its division without a “scramble.”

“I was in the tween decks,” says E. J. Wakefield, “when it began; and, hearing a loud and continued stamping on the deck, thought the natives were ‘rushing’ or attacking the ship. Under this impression I sprang aft to obtain a weapon of defence from among those always ready in the cabin. On my way I met Witi, one of the Chiefs of a tribe which had effected a quiet division; and he reassured me by telling me that no harm would be done to the white people, and that I had better go up in the rigging and look upon the way in which the Natives divided their goods.

“Following his advice I clambered up into the longboat between the masts, and was at first bewildered at the sight. About one hundred and fifty page 355 natives were piled above the various heaps of goods, writhing, struggling, stamping, pulling each others' hair and limbs, tearing blankets, shivering whole cases of pipes and looking-glasses, and withal yelling and screaming in the most deafening manner. Some of the wildest had stripped naked. Disengaging themselves for a moment from the mass, they tightened the thong of their tomahawk-handle round their wrist and prepared to plunge into the thickest of the mass, where some dearly-prized article was in contention among a heap of furies…. The combatants looked exceedingly crestfallen as they gathered up the remains of the broken things; but took especial pains to tell us that it was no fault of ours, but the porangi, or “foolishness” of the Maori.”

The following day Wakefield went ashore and took possession of the purchased territory, giving the names North and South Durham to the area acquired on the two sides of Cook Strait.

After returning to Kapiti some of the Natives belonging to that place, the Tory was detained for about a week by calms, during which time some Wanganui Chiefs, who were assisting their allies at Waikanae, came on board and sold their interests to Wakefield, arranging at the same time to send a representative with him to get the transaction completed on the ground. This plan was, however, frustrated by bad weather at the mouth of the River, and the danger of a lee shore compelled Captain Chaffey to sail on and postpone the completion of the negotiation until a later date.

A remnant of the once populous Taranaki tribes dwelt on the Sugar Loaf Islands. These were visited, and Barrett and Dr. Dieffenbach sent ashore, the former to arrange for a sale by the Natives, the latter to ascend Mt. Egmont and explore the surrounding country, the Tory meantime proceeding to Hokianga.

While at Kaipara the Tory got on a sand bank, and, while she was being repaired, Wakefield chartered the page 356 Guide at the Bay of Islands and hastened back to meet the immigrant ships which were now due. He reached Port Hardie on 11th January, and, three days later, sent the Guide to pick up those of his party he had left at Kaipara. After arranging with a whaler named Maclaren, who lived at Oterawa during the “off” season, to keep a look out for the immigrant ships and pilot them, he proceeded in a whaleboat viâ the Sound, and Te Awaiti, to Port Nicholson, which he reached on 18th January.

Wakefield just arrived in time. He was only two days home when the Aurora cast anchor at the mouth of the harbour, where she was detained for two days. Since he had left the Bay several intending selectors had arrived on the look-out for land, and had hunted up some of the Maori Chiefs who had been absent on the occasion of Wake-field's purchase, with the object of purchasing their interest in the land on which the town was to be built. The Revd. Hy. Williams had also been and gone, and there was trouble facing Wakefield as the result of that, as the Revd. gentleman claimed to have purchased a portion of the site of the town from the Native teacher, Davis, who had been an obstacle to Wakefield's negotiations. On 31st January, the Oriental, the second immigrant ship, arrived, and on 7th February, the Duke of Roxburgh reached port. By this time 506 immigrants had been landed under the Company's flag.

Meantime the Guide had picked up the other members of Wakefield's party at Kaipara, and had sailed for Moturoa, where Barrett and Dr. Dieffenbach were found. The former had successfully negotiated the purchase of the land from the Natives, and the latter, accompanied by Hebberley, had ascended Mount Egmont and explored the whole of the surrounding country. Owing to a succession of severe gales it was 15th February before E. J. Wakefield could get the signatures from the Natives and the purchase goods handed over to them. The land purchased extended from half-way between Mokau and the Sugar Loaf Islands to the Mangatawa River, south of Cape Egmont, and inland to a point on the Wanganui River. The remainder of the land towards page 357 the Wanganui had all been negotiated for, but the inferior equipment of the Guide, under the weather conditions prevailing, rendered it impossible to visit the various spots along the lee shore, and the party made for Port Nicholson and came to an anchor on the twenty-first. That evening the Scotch immigrants arrived in the Bengal Merchant, bringing the number of arrivals up to 666.

On 2nd March, the first meeting of the “Committee” took place. To understand exactly what the Committee was we must remember that when the immigrants left the Mother Country their adopted land was not British territory, and no civilized code of law ran thereon. It was necessary, therefore, to create some form of organised government among themselves, and this was done by securing the signatures of all the immigrants, prior to their sailing, to an Agreement, which set up a Committee of fifteen, with certain powers of increase, Colonel Wakefield being President and G. S. Evans, Secretary, five forming a quorum. Generally speaking, this Committee was to enforce the laws of England in the Settlement. In its hands were powers of taxation, administration of justice, and the calling out of the military forces. It was a genuine attempt to get over the difficulty of the absence of civilized sovereignty in the new country, and was signed before the emigrants left the Thames. The first meeting of this singular Committee took place at Petone in Mr. Smith's house, on 2nd March, 1840, but only routine work was transacted, as many of the Committee had not yet arrived.

On 7th March, the Adelaide and Glenbervie arrived with 181 passengers.

The question was now settled as to where the town was to be placed. Although the first ship had anchored near Petone it had been Colonel Wakefield's intention to survey the site of the City on the shores of Lambton Harbour, but Mr. W. M. Smith, the Surveyor-General, who arrived in the Cuba when Wakefield was away purchasing land, preferred the flat lower valley of the Hutt, to the hilly ground of Thorndon, and, ignoring the instructions left by Wake-field, went on with the survey of the town at the Hutt. As page 358 the settlers continued to arrive the objections to this site grew greater and greater. With southerly winds an inconvenient surf rolled on to the beach and interfered with the landing of goods dry, while at Thorndon there was a beach where no surf could break on. At Petone the swampy ground required drainage, and the river giving access to the land was not navigable, while at Thorndon the land was gathered along the coast line, and all parts were within easy reach of the water. Lastly, the anchorage at Petone was seen to be too exposed, while that in Lambton Bay was an ideal one. It was decided that when the Adelaide arrived a vote should be taken on the question of sites. This was done, Lambton was chosen, and the change was made. One of the inevitable results was that the survey arrangements on the new site were very backward, but that was a small matter when compared with securing permanently the best site.

The constitution of the Committee now received the ratification of the Chiefs, and its members proceeded to carry on the work of administration. “Measures were put in readiness for all sorts of public works; the appointment of officers, the regulation of finances, and the selection of sites for a powder magazine, infirmary, and other public institutions.”

The last portion of the Company's land purchase, that of the Wanganui Block, was not proceeded with until the latter end of May. E. J. Wakefield sailed in McGregor's schooner, the Surprise, which had figured so prominently in Foveaux Strait earlier in the year, and entered the Wanganui River on the nineteenth. While there the Revds. Williams and Hadfield arrived on their mission of obtaining signatures to the Treaty of Waitangi. The negotiations here differed from the others, in that all purchase of land from the Natives was now forbidden by Proclamation, but Wakefield took up the work where it had been intercepted by the bad weather encountered on his former visit, and, in a few days, had effected the purchase of the land in the vicinity of Wanganui. It is alleged by Wakefield that Williams tried to dissuade the Natives from selling, but page 359 why he did so is strange, in view of the fact that he must have known that all sales were now prohibited, and anything that Wakefield could now do could have no effect at law.

One of the clauses of the Agreement entered into between the settlers, before their departure from England was that they should submit themselves to be mustered and drilled, under the direction of the Company's principal Agent for their mutual protection. On 30th May a notice was issued by Colonel Wakefield requiring all inhabitants between 18 and 60 to form themselves into a militia under his direction. The notice required them to parade for an hour a week “with such arms as they may be in possession of.” The Chiefs had been consulted, and their approval obtained, and it was anticipated that the Natives themselves would be induced to join the movement.

All was, however, brought to an end by the arrival of an Agent of the British Government in the harbour, on board the Integrity, on 2nd June, with full authority to proclaim British Sovereignty.

The following table gives the particulars of the arrival of the immigrant ships of the Company, at Port Nicholson, prior to the Proclamation of British Sovereignty. In all cases the numbers given of the passengers are those which sailed from England or Scotland:—

Date. Name. Tons. Captain. Passengers
1839 Sep. 20 Tory 382 E. M. Chaffers 6
1840 Jan. 4 Cuba 273 Jno. Newcombe 30
Jan. 20 Aurora 550 Thos. Heale 148
Jan. 31 Oriental 506 William Wilson 155
Feb. 7 Duke of Roxburgh 417 Jas. Thomson 167
Feb. 21 Bengal Merchant 503 Jno. Hemery 160
Mar. 7 Adelaide 640 W. Campbell 176
Mar. 7 Glenbervie 387 Wm. Black 5
Apr. 21 Bolton 540 J. R. Robinson 232
Total 1079
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The Duke of Roxburgh sailed from Plymouth, the Bengal Merchant from Glasgow, and the others from London. The date (Jan. 20), assigned to the Aurora, is the date she anchored at the Heads, where she was detained for two days.

But these were not the only arrivals at Port Nicholson. No sooner was the site of the Settlement determined on, than restless and hardy pioneers from the neighbouring Colonies took advantage of the establishment of law and order to make for the new land, and vessels were laid on for Port Nicholson, at Sydney, Port Phillip, and Hobart Town. A list of these assumes fair proportions, as can be seen from a perusal of the following:—

From. Arrival. Vessel. Tons. Captain.
Sydney 1839 Dec. 4 Success 80 Catlin
Sydney Dec. 4 Aquilla 40 Watson
Sydney 1840 Jan. 4 Elizabeth 196 Garrett
Sydney Jan. 22 Susannah Anne 79 J. Anderson
Sydney Jan. 22 Eleanor 152 Rhodes
Sydney Feb. 25 Lunar 165 Phillipson
Sydney Mar. 16 Lady Lilford 596 Kermeh
Sydney Mar. 20 Nimrod 174 Hay
Port Phillip Mar. 21 Earl Stanhope 350 Tilley
Sydney Mar. 29 Hannah 90 Liddell
Hobart Town Mar. 29 Integrity 220 Pearson
Sydney Apr. 5 Middlesex 564 Munroe
Sydney Apr. 22 Sally Ann Rumin
Sydney May 3 Justine 265 Lucas
Sydney May 29 Bee
Sydney May 30 Martha 121 Lancaster

This list does not include arrivals of the small local craft which plied between the young Settlement and such ports as Cloudy Bay, Te Awaiti, Kapiti, the Bay of Islands, Chatham Island, and any part of the New Zealand coast. This list will supply the reader with information concerning the assistance given to the Company's Expedition by the neighbouring Colonies.

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Of several of these vessels the nature of their addition to the Settlement can be given. Their passenger lists comprised the names of many who afterwards took a prominent part in the development of the young Province, but space does not permit of mention being made here of who they were, nor is it necessary that more than their numbers should be given. It may be mentioned, however, that practically all the first stock brought to the Settlement came in them:—

Ship. Passengers. Sheep. Cattle. Horses
Success 12
Lady Lilford 25 600 59 2
Nimrod 22
Earl Stanhope 42 70 3
Hannah 1
Integrity 9 35 11
Middlesex 17 700 80
128 1300 244 16

Our list of shipping might end with the names of what might be termed the local craft, excluding, of course, boats used inside the waters of the harbour. They were, the cutter Harriett, 45 tons; the Black Hole; the schooner Jewess, 67 tons; and the schooner Surprise, 30 tons.

In addition to the reputation which the Integrity enjoyed as the first Tasmanian vessel to the new Settlement, she also enjoys the reputation of having successfully defied the law which was being enforced by the Company. Mr. Wade had chartered the vessel, and to him were consigned the horses and cattle brought in her. A dispute arose between the charterer and the Captain, and the former called to his aid the legal machinery of the little Colony. Captain Pearson was arrested on 14th April, and brought before the Court, and, refusing to recognise its authority, was committed. The following day he escaped from custody and rejoined his ship. All efforts to get him out of the ship failed, and he set sail on 6th May for the Bay of Islands, vowing vengeance on the “democrats.”

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When the Bay of Islands was reached, Governor Hobson was informed of what had taken place. The reader has only to recall that Hobson had been sent to New Zealand to keep the New Zealand Company “in their place,” and to imagine how proceedings such as these would appeal to a naval officer who now found himself the representative of the Sovereign over the area in question, and it will not come as a surprise to him that this was “the last straw.” A Proclamation was issued against “certain persons… formed… into an illegal association,” and who “have assumed and attempted to usurp the powers vested in me.” “Troops” were ordered out; and the Integrity was chartered and sent away with a strong force against those guilty of “high treason.”

None of the incidents are, historically, in question, and we may, therefore, look at the humorous side of the question and appreciate the triumph of the Captain, who, when arrested, defies the Court, is put into prison, escapes to his ship, without undue haste or loss of dignity sails away, causes a “high treason” Proclamation to be issued, secures a lucrative charter for his vessel, brings back to Port Nicholson all the majesty of British Sovereignty, sees his passengers pull down the emblems of local power and establish in their place the Union Jack, and is present, when his judges, jailers and every one else are publicly reproved and stripped of every vestige of authority. It is difficult to conceive any direction in which Captain Pearson's triumph could have been extended.