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Historical Records of New Zealand Vol. II.

King's Journal — Extracts from the Journal of Lieut.-Governor King, of — Norfolk Island, 1791–96. — (In the Petherick Collection, Melbourne.) — [The pages given in the margin are those of the Manuscript Journal.]

King's Journal

Extracts from the Journal of Lieut.-Governor King, of
Norfolk Island
, 1791–96.
(In the Petherick Collection, Melbourne.)
[The pages given in the margin are those of the Manuscript Journal.]

1791. November 12.

At Phillipsburgh, a small progress has been made in working the Flax Plant, from which a very indifferent, & coarse kind of Canvas has been made; but I do not think, it will arrive at a desirable Perfection before a New Zealander can be brought here, or some Flax Dressers can be sent there, to observe method of preparing it.

page 536

From the Authority of Captain Cook and Mr. Foster, I have not a doubt but the Plant is the same, as that growing at New Zealand; and from which, a very fine & strong Flax is procured; That method I do not think we shall ever obtain, without the assistance of a Native of that Country; or some Person being sent there to observe their Method; As the Master of the William & Ann intends to try for Whales on theN.E. Coast of New Zealand, I proposed to him* to endeavour by fair means to obtain Two of the Natives from about the Bay of Islands, & Mercury Bay; the first of which Places, is not more than Three Days Sail from hence, with a fair wind; As some Difficulty was made, which could only be obviated by a recompence, I took it upon me to promise on the part of Government to give him One Hundred Pounds, if he succeeded, & brought back Two of the Natives; The Master promised to perform 19th what I wished for, & sailed from hence on the 19th with that determination; what made me the more [In margin in King's hand: “The Ship went to Doubtless Bay, but could nor prevail on any of the Inhabitants to go with him.”] anxious to obtain this Information was the Necessity there appeared to me, of rendering this Island as independent as possible, for every Article of Cloathing & Food; to effect the first End. Nature seemed to have Cloathed the Cliffs, & Shores of this Island, (where nothing else will grow,) with such a Quantity of Flax, as will be inexhaustible: When I was last in London, Sir Joseph Banks shewed me a quantity of Flax, which he had obtained from the Natives about the Bay of Island: & the great Quantity which he got, in Exchange for Trifles, is a convincing Proof, that their method of preparing it, must be extremely Expeditious & Simple.

April 30 1793. I was also informed, that the Daedalus Store Ship had arrived at Port Jackson: and that the Agent according to Instructions which he had received from Captain Vancouver, had brought to Port Jackson, Two men Natives of New Zealand, who are sent hither for the purpose of giving such information, as they may possess, respecting the Manufacture of the Flax plant.

I also communicated the New Zealanders method of dressing the Flax; which has a present appearance of being very tedious, perhaps when they have been longer with us, we shall mutually improve. A Flax dresser with Three women, attend them as often as we can prevail on them to Instruct; As yet; it requires entreaty to persuade them to give us the least Information.

* King had already made the same proposal to Vancouver at the Cape of Good Hope (H.R. of N.Z., Vol. I, p. 191.)

The 19th referred to here is evidently 19th January, 1792.

page 537

May 1793. Soon after the New Zealanders landed here. (but not without a very serious promise of sending them home). I found every information that could be got from them, respecting their Mode of Manufacturing the Flax plant, was obtained in one day, which I think we shall improve upon; I have appointed Two men, one of whom is a Flax Dresser, to superintend Twelve Women, who with the New Zealanders instructions, I hope will make a successful progress.

To prepare our visitors for the Ship's departure, I made them understand, by the help of a coloured General Chart, the situation of this Island from the Place they were taken From on New Zealand [in the margin, in King's handwriting, “Knuckle Point”]; their being taken off that Island by the Daedalus and carried to Port Jackson; being brought from thence here, and that the Ship was going to England; at the same time giving them to understand, that Five or Six months hence (after having learnt the women to prepare the Flax) they should be sent back to New Zealand. After having made them fully acquainted with this Intention, and the distance from hence to that place, I left it to their choice either to go to England in the Hormuzear, or remain with me; they did not hesitate in choosing the latter, but when the Captain and his Wife took their leaves, they were sensibly affected, and cryed bitterly however kind Treatment soon made chearful. It is needless to say that they both live with me, and lye in my house, where every possible care and attention is shewd them.

On the 8 [in the margin “1793 Nov.”] The Two New Zealanders had frequently importuned me to send them Home and were constantly lamenting their separation from their Family and Friends. The promise of their being sent home when they had instructed us in the method of dressing the Flax they now reminded me of; and that this was the second time of their being disappointed; I therefore thought the present a very favourable opportunity* to comply with their wishes; I have always observed that every instruction that they were capable of giving us, in Manufacturing the Flax plant, was acquired in an Hour; The manner in which they were taken away from their Familys and Friends; and their great uneasiness to get back again; These reasons with the probable advantage which may arise to these Colonies, by their again mixing with their Countrymen, the Short distance of their residence from hence, and the wind being unfavourable for the Britannia proceeding on her Voyage, induced me to assume a responsibility in detaining that ship for Ten days, or a Fort-

* The Britannia, Raven, had arrived from Dusky Sound.

page 538 night
to return the Two New Zealanders to their Homes. On consulting with the Master we concluded that Ten days, or a Fortnight's detention would make no material difference in her voyage, particularly as the wind was now unfavourable for his proceeding, and a fair wind for Knuckle Point on New Zealand; from which place, I understood that the above two men were taken, which is not more than one hundred and fifty leagues from hence; In consequence of which I gave him an Order to proceed on that Service.

The treatment of the New Zealanders had been such, that I am certain they will ever retain the most greatful remembrance of every person on this Island. I always had a wish to accompany them back, that no unpleasant circumstances, happening in the course of the passage, might make them forget the kind treatment they received here, And as I had taken it upon me to detain the Britannia, a few days for that purpose, I judged it would be advisable to proceed in her myself, in order to prevent any unnecessary delay, or to return immediately, In case of calm and contrary winds. My being absent from the Island at this time for Ten days of a Fortnight did not appear to me to be of any material consequence; as it will be three weeks before the commencement of the Harvest and I had every reason to be assured of the regular and orderly behaviour of the Inhabitants, during the few days I might be absent.

As not more than three Subalterns are on Detachment here, which will not admit of a Regimental Court Martial being held, I did not think myself justifiable in leaving the Command with the Eldest Subaltern, when a Captain belonging to the New South Wales Corps was on the spot; the Service I was going on did not preclude the possibility of Accidents happening to me, I requested Captain Nepean to take the command during my absence. On his ready compliance therewith I signified my intention of proceeding to Knuckle Point to land the two NewZealanders, and of Captain Nepean's Commanding during my intended absence.

It was my intention, if the the wind should enable us to get to our destination the Third day after leaving this; To land and make such cursory observations (on the Soil and Quantity of manufactured Flax, which could be obtained) as I might be able to make in one day. I therefore ordered Two non Commissioned Officers and Twelve privates as a Guard, in case I should land; who with the Chaplain, an Assistant Surgeon, and the Store Keeper (who had Charge of some Articles which were intended for the Natives), with the Two New Zealanders; were embarked in the Afternoon of the 8th, at four in the Afternoon of the 12th we rounded the North Cape of New Zealand; the page 539 winds during the passage altho favourable, were very light, with some Calms of very short duration.

As I have hitherto omitted any mention of the Two New Zealanders, who have been six months with us, I shall state such observations as I have been able to make respecting them, and the Information they have given us respecting their country, &c.

Woodoo* Co-oo-tye Towa-ma-howey is five feet eight inches high, of an athletic make, his features are European and very interesting, he is of the district of Teer-a-witte, which by Tooke's (the other New Zealanders) Chart, is another district of that name, but does not lye so far to the Southward as the part of Ea-hei-no-maue so called by Captain Cooke, as we are certain that Tookes residence is about the Bay of Islands (in King's handwriting “since found to be at Doubtless Bay”) and they both agree, that the distance between their dwellings is only two days walk by Land, and one day by water: That part called Teer-a-witte by Captain Cooke is at a very considerable distance from the Bay of Islands.

Woodoo is nearly related to Po-vo-reek, who is the Principal Chief of Teer-a-witte; he has two wives and one child, about whose safely he is very apprehensive, and almost every evening at the close of the day, he, as well as Tookee, lament their separation by crying and singing a song expressive of their grief; which is at all times very affecting.

Tookee Teter-re-nue Wurri-pe-doe is of the same age as Woodoo; (viz., twenty four years) and is three inches shorter, stout and well made, their colour is olive, with strong black hair, and tattowed on the hips; Tooke's features are rather handsome and interesting, with an aqualine nose and good teeth; he is a native of the district of Ho-do-doe (which is in Doubtles Bay) of which district Tooke's Father is the Etang-a-roak, or Chief priest, and to that office, the son succeeds on his father's death; Besides his father, who is a very old man, he has left a wife and child all of whom he is very anxious and uneasy about, as well as the Chief (Moodewye) who he represents as a very worthy Character. Tooke has a decided preference to Woodoo, both in disposition and manners; altho the latter is not wanting in a certain degree of good nature, but he can at times be very much of the Savage; Woodoo, like a true patriot thinks there is no Country, People, or Customs, equal to his own; which makes him less curious in what he sees about him, than his companion Tooke, who has the happy Art of Ingratiating himself into every person's esteem; except when he is lamenting

* Huru.

At Cook Strait.


page 540 the absence of his Family and Friends he is cheerful, often facetious and very intelligent. And was it not for the different disposition of Woodoo, we should form the more favourable opinion of the New Zealanders in General; I do not mean to say, that if Tooke was not here, that we should form an indifferent opinion of Woodoo, On the Contrary, the manners and disposition of the latter are far more pleasing that I ever expected to find in a Native of that country.
At the time they were taken from New Zealand, Tooke was on a visit to Woodoo, the method of their being taken was thus related by them: The Daedalus appeared in sight of Woodoo's habitation in the Afternoon; and was seen the next morning, but at a great distance from the Main Land; altho' she was near Two Islands which are inhabited, and which Tooke, in his Chart calls Ko-mootu-Kowa and Opanake, Curosity and the hopes of getting some Iron, induced Povoreek the Chief, Tookee, & Woodoo, with his Brother, and One of his wives, with the priest; to launch their canoes; they first went to the largest of the Two Islands, where they were joined by Tee-ah-wer-raok, the Chief of the Island, Komootukowa who is Woodoo's Father in Law, & by the son of that Chief, who governs the smaller Island, called Opanake; they were some time about the ship before the canoe in which Tooke & Woodoo were ventured alongside, when a number of Iron Tools and other Articles were given into the Canoe; the Agent Lieutenant Hanson (of whose kindness to them they speak in the highest terms) invited and pressed them, to go on Board, which

Note.—Although the Editor has made most careful search, he has been unable to find any trace of the Journals kept on board H.M.S. “Daedalus” when the New Zealanders were taken away to Sydney. The nearest approach to a record of the transaction from the European side is contained in the M.S. Journal of the “Chatham,” now in the possession of Mr. A. H. Turnbull, of Wellington, a portion of which forms pp. 496 to 508 of this volume. Under date 25th October, 1793, the writer describes the return of the H.M.S. “Daedalus” to the Expedition, after she had left the New Zealanders at Sydney, and states that Mr. Paget that evening dined on board the “Discovery” with Lieutenant Hanson, and, on his return to the “Chatham,” gave the following account of the movements of the “Daedalus” on the New Zealand Coast: “At New Zealand they did not anchor, their business at this place was to endeavour to get two or three of the Natives to go with them to Botany Bay, for the purpose of cultivating the Flax plant, but as the Natives came off to the vessel in great numbers, and knowing them to have the character of a very troublesome, daring, insolent people, Lieut. Hanson did not think it prudent to stop to make a strict scrutiny into the abilities of any particular people, more especially as the crew of the Daedalus, at all times weak, but then were much more so, from a number of sick among them, he therefore by presents inveigled two young men out of a Canoe, and taking them below, under pretence of giving them something more, he instantly made all sail; Victuals were given to these poor fellows, and different methods used to keep their attention alive below for a couple of hours, when going on Deck, instead of finding themselves in the same place as when they Came on board, and their canoe alongside, into which they were ready to jump— to their inexpressible grief and astonishment they found themselves some Leagues from the Land, and no Canoe to get on shore in; In a little time they appeared contented.”

The writer of the Journal adds this criticism upon the news Paget had brought: “Though this method of enriching the new Colony of Botany Bay, with the only people who understand the culture &c. of the Flax plant, which grows in such abundance there, and which may thro' these means be render'd of great utility; I say tho' this method may not perfectly coincide with the feelings of these people, who as I have once before mentiond Philosophise by the Fireside, yet were they in the same situation, it is most probable they would act in the same manner. A large ship, valuably laden, poorly manned, and with the best part of the crew sick, must act with prudence, and it is some degree of satisfaction to know, that these two men, though they at first very naturally wished to be in their Native Country, at last, when they got to Port Jackson, seem'd to discover no regret at the alteration in their residence, and they were treated in the Mndest manner.”

On the margin, written in pencil, are the words: “I don't think so now 1815, I am 20 years older.”

page 541

Tooke and Woodoo were anxious to do immediately, but were prevented by the persuasion of their countrymen; at length they went on Board, and according to their Expression, they were blinded by the curious things they saw, Lieutenant Hanson prevailed on them to go below, where they eat some meat; at this time the ship made sail. One of them saw the canoes astern, and perceiving the ship was leaving them, they both became frantic with Grief, and broke the Cabin windows [In the margin in King's handwriting “Lieut Hanson very fully corroborated this narrative”] with an intention of leaping over Board, but were prevented. Whilst the Canoes were in hearing they advised Povoreck to make the best of his way home for fear of his being taken also [see note at foot of pp. 54041].

They did not remain more than Two days at Port Jackson; when the Shah Hormuzear was coming here they were sent by Lieutenant Governor Grose to give us what instruction they were able in the method of manufacturing the Flax plant.

Since their arrival they have lived with me and eat at my table, and every pains has been successfully used to attach them to us. Thus with the kind and attentive behaviour of the officers, and every other description of people, cannot fail of impressing them and their countrymen; with the liveliest gratitude, and which I am certain neither of our Two Friends will forget. For sometime after their arrival here, they were often sullen, and as anxiously avoided giving any information respecting the Flax, as we were desirous of obtaining it. The apprehension of being page 542 obliged to work at it, I have since found was a principal reason for their not meeting our wishes so readily as we expected. By kind treatment, and leaving them to their own inclinations, they soon began to be more sociable, and interesting, and soon after by making them understand the situation, and short distance of New Zealand from this as I explained in page 78, and that as soon as they had taught the women here to “Emou-ka-Ea-ra-ka-ke (i.e.) “To work the Flax”; that then, they should be sent home again, on which promise they readily consented to give us all the Instruction and Information which they possessed, and which turned out to be very little. This operation being the peculiar province of the women, and as Woodoo is a warrior, and Tooke a priest, they gave us to understand that dressing of Flax never made any part of their studies, but the little Information which they did give, was sufficient for us to improve upon, both in Quality and Quantity.

Some time after their arrival here, Tooke drew a Chart of Ea-he-no-maui, and Poe-nam-moo, i.e. the Northen and Southern Islands of New Zealand, at that time I had no copy of Capt. Cook's Voyages, to compare with Tookes Chart, but on the Brittanias arrival, the master of that ship favoured me with Cook's first voyage, in which is a Chart of New Zealand; and on a comparison, the similitude of Took's Chart to Captain Cook's is very striking; particularly the East side of Ea-hei-no-maue, where Tooke lives. According to this Chart and Tooke's information Ea-hei-no-maue, or the Northern Island of New Zealand, is divided into Eight districts the principal of which is Pt. Souducky the Inhabitants of which are in a constant state of warfare with the other tribes, and in which they are joined to the people of Moodoo, Whenua, Sottua, Whoodoo, and Wangaroa; but according to Tooke those Tribes are often united with those of Chike-han-ga Teer-a-witte and Ho-de-doe against P. Souduckey (the bounds of which district I am inclined to think is from about Captain Cook's Mount Egmont to Cape Runaway for a reason which I shall soon give). Tooke says they are not without long intervals of peace; at which times they visit and traffic for Flax and the Green Talc Stone, of which they make Axes and Ornaments. He obstinately denies that the whole of New Zealand are Cannibals, it was not without much difficulty that we could persuade him to enter on the subject, or to pay the least attention to it; and whenever an Enquiry was made, he expressed the greatest horror at the Idea. In the course of a few weeks, he owned that all the Inhabitants of Poo-nam-moo (i.e. the Southern Island) and those of P. Souducky eat their enemies taken in battle, which Woodoo corroborated. As his father was killed and eaten by the P. Souducky people. Notwithstanding the pro- page 543 bity of our visitors, particularly Tooke, yet I am inclined to think that horrible banquet is general through both Islands.

Tooke describes a large fresh water River on the West side of Ea-hei-no-maue, but he says it is a Bar River; and not navigable for larger vessels, than the small war canoes, the River and district around it, is called Cho-ke-han-ga. The Chief, whose name is To-ko-ha, lives about half way up, on the North side of the River; he describes the Country to be covered with pine trees; of an immense size; I have before observed, at the time Tooke drew his Chart we did not possess any of Captain Cookes Voyages; but when I obtained his first Voyage, from the master of the Brittania, I made Tooke observe that Captain Cooke did not notice any River on the West side; altho' he coasted along very near the shore, on which he asked with much earnestness if Captain Cooke had seen an Island covered with Birds; on pointing out Gannet Island he immediately fixed on Albatross Point, as the situation of the River, which Captain Cooke's account seems to favour, who says “On the North side of this point (Albatross) The Shoar forms a Bay, in which there appears to be anchorage and Shelter for Shipping.” The probable situation of his River, (if there is one) being thus far ascertained; leads me to suppose, that the district of T' Souduckey extends from Cape Runaway on the East side, to Cape Egmont on the West, and bounded by Cooke's Streight on the South side, which is nearly one half of the Northern Island—of the River Thames, I could not obtain any satisfactory account, but I have great reason to suppose, that the River he has marked in the District of Wonga-roak is the Thames. Tooke's residence appears to be on the North side of the Bay of Islands, in the district called by him Ho-do-do, which he says contains about a Thousand Fighting Men and are subject to the following Chiefs, i.e. Teray-te-wye, Wyte-ah. Moode-wye, Wa-way, So-moco-moco, Pock-a-roe, and Tee-hoo-ra, the latter of which is the principal Chief's son. The subordinate distinction of persons at New Zealand, are as follows, and we are told that the inferior classes are perfectly subordinate to their superiors.

Etanga teda Etiketica. A principal Chief, or Man in very great authority; his Superior Consequence is signified by a repetition of the word Etiketica. This Title appears hereditary.

Etanga roak, or Eta-honga. A priest whose Authority in many cases is equal, and in some Superior to the Etiketica.

Etanga teda Epodi. A subordinate Chief or Gentleman.

Ta Ane Emoki. A labouring man.

The dead are buried in graves; and they believe that the Third day after the interment; the Heart separates itself from the Corpse. This separation is announced by a Gentle air of page 544 wind, which warns an inferior Ea-tooa (or Divinity) hovering over the Grave of its approach, and carries it to the Clouds. In Tooke's Chart he has marked an imaginary road which goes the length ways of Ea-kei-no-maue, viz. from Cook's Streight to the North Cape which Tooke calls Terry-inga; whilst the soul is received by the good Eatooa; an evil spirit is also in readiness to carry the impure part of the Corpse to the above road, along which it is carried to Terry-inga from whence it is precipitated into the Sea. Suicide is very common among the New Zealanders, which Act, they often commit on the slightest occasions by hanging themselves. The mode of putting an end to their existence, both our Visitors seemed to be perfect adepts in, having often threatened to hang themselves on very slight occasions, and some times made very serious promises of putting it into execution if they were not sent to their own Country. As these threats were used in their gloomy moments they were soon laughed out of them. I could not discover that they have any other division of time than the revolution of the Moon, until the number amounts to one hundred, which they term “Takie Etow” i.e. One Etwo, or Hundred Moons, it is this they count their age, and all other events. They both agree that a great quantity of manufactured flax might be obtained for trifles such as axes, chizzles, &c. They say that in most places the flax grows naturally in great quantitys. In other parts it is cultivated by separating the roots and planting them out, three in one hole, at the distance of a foot from each other. They give a decided preference to the flax plant that grows here, both for quality and size.

Preparing the Flax from the Plant, weaving it into cloath or making fishing lines; it is all performed by the women; When the leaves are gathered, the hard stalk which runs through the centre is taken out with the thumb and nail, the red edges of the leaf are also stripped off; the two parts are then separated in the middle, making four slips of about three quarters of an inch wide, and the length of the leaf, which on this Island is about three feet long. Two of these slips are put one over the other, holding them in the centre with the thumb of the left hand, resting on the upper slip; the sharp edge of a muscle shell is then drawn across them, so as to cut through the vegetable covering, but not to touch, or divide, the Fibres (which is the Flax), The slips thus prepared, are taken up singly, the left thumb resting on the upper part of the slip, just above the cut. The muscle shell which is held in the right hand is then placed on the upper part of the slip, just below the cut, with the thumb resting on the upper part; The muscle shell is then drawn to the end of the slip, which effectually seperates the vegetable covering from the flaxen filaments, the slip is page 545 then turned, and the same operation is performed on the remaining part, which leaves the flax entire: After procuring the Flax by this simple method, if it is designed for fishing lines or any other course work, nothing more is done to it, but if designed to make Eka-kuow or fine cloth, it is beat a considerable time in a clear stream, and when dried, twisted into such sized thread as the work requires, which finishes the process; until it is wove, which is performed in the same manner as fringe work is made: I have before observed that our visitors knew very little about the Flax or its preparation, but from what little they did know, and communicated to us, considerable improvements have been made. Instead of working it as soon as gathered, we find it better to place several bundles in a close room, for seven days before it is used; which softens the leaf and makes it easier to work—we also find it easier and more expeditious, to separate the vegetable covering from the fibres, which is done with three strokes of the knife—when it is twisted together, and put into a tub of water, where it remains until the days work is finished. It is then washed, and beat in running water, and after it is dried, needs no other preparation until it is hackled and spun. The following is a statement of the number who are now employed at this work:—

Invalids gathering the Flax 2 men
Women preparing it 10 women
Washing it 2 men
Flax Dresser 1 man
Spinners 4 women
Weaver 1
In all 20

By whose weekly labour, twenty yards of canvas of the size of No. 7 is made; At first view this may appear a small quantity for the number employed, but it must be remembered that the women, and most of the men who are employed at that work, could be of no other service; The labour of manuring and cultivating the ground, loss of other crops, the many different processes used with the European flax, and the accident it is liable to, during its growth; is by using this flax avoided, as it needs no cultivation, and grows sufficiently abundant on the Cliffs of the Island, where nothing else can grow, to give constant employment to six hundred people. The only Loom there is on the Island, is a very bad one, nor is there a weavers tool of any kind; Had we Ilays or Reeds, and other tools proper for different kinds of linnen, some progress might be page 546 made in weaving, but at present, a canvas rather finer than Number Seven is the finest we can accomplish.

It may be expected that after a six months acquaintance, that we should not be ignorant of each others Language Myself and some of the Officers, (who were so kind as to communicate the information they obtained from our visitors) could make our ideas known, and tolerable well understood by them; They, by intermixing what English words they knew, with what we knew of their language could make themselves sufficiently understood by us; During the time they were here, I did not possess any of Captain Cooks Voyages; but since their departure, I find from his Second Voyage, that it has a great similitude, to the general language spoken in those seas. The Vocabulary which I have added to this Journal, [This vocabulary is not in the manuscript—The Editor] was collected by myself and the Surgeon, and is, I believe, very correct, particularly the Numerals. Much other information was given us by our two friends, but as it may be liable to great error I forbear repeating it.

12th [November]. Having rounded the North Cape of New Zealand, the fourth day after leaving Norfolk Island: we saw a number of houses and small hippah, on an Island which lies off the North Cape, called by Tooke, Moode Mookoo, soon after we opened a considerable hippah, or fortified place, situated on a high rounded hill just within the Cape, from whence six large canoes were seen coming towards the ship; as soon as they came within hail, Tooke was known by those in the Canoes, which were soon increased to seven, with upwards of twenty men in each, they came alongside without any intreaty, and those who came on board were much rejoiced to meet with Tooke; whose first and earnest enquirys were after his family and Chief; on those heads he got the most satisfactory intelligence, from a woman, who he informed us is a near relative of his mother. His father and Chief, were still inconsolable for his loss; the latter (who Tooke always mentioned in the most respectful manner) was, absent a fortnight past, on a visit to the Chief of the hippah above mentioned, where he remained four days; and Tewy-te-wye, the principal Chief of Tooke's district, was daily expected. With this information he was much pleased. It was remarked, that altho there were upwards of One hundred New Zealanders on board, and along side; yet Tooke confined his caresses and conversation to his Mothers relation, and one or two Chiefs, who were distinguished by the marks (Amoko) on their face, and by the respectful deference which was shewn them by the Emokies (i.e., the working men) that paddled the canoes, who at times were beat most unmerciful page 547 by the Chiefs. To those, who Tooke informed me were epodes (subaltern Chiefs) and well known to him, I gave some chizzles, hand axes, and other articles equally acceptable; A traffic soon commenced, pieces of old iron hoop, were given in exchange for abundance of manufactured flax cloth, patoo-patoos, spears, talc ornaments, paddles, fish hooks, and lines; At seven in the evening they left us; having made sail, with a light breeze at West intending to run for the Bay of Islands, (which we understood is Tookes residence) from whence we were twenty-four leagues distance; At nine o'clock, a canoe, with four men came along side, and came on board without any fear; The Master of Britannia being desirous to obtain their Canoe, the bargain was soon made (with Tookes assistance), and concluded much to the satisfaction of the proprietors; who did not discover the least reluctance at sleeping on board, and being carried to a distance from their homes: Our new guests very satisfactorily corroborated all that Tooke had heard before. After supper, Tooke and Woodoo asked the strangers for the news of their country, since they had been taken away; this was comply'd with by the four strangers, who began a song in which each of them took a part, sometimes using fierce and savage gestures, and at other times sunk their voices, according to the different passages or events they were relating: Woodoo who was paying great attention to the subject of their song, suddenly burst into tears, occasioned by an account they were giving of the T. Souducky tribe having made an irruption on Teer-a-witte, (Woodoo's district), and killed the Chiefs son, with thirty warriors; he was to much affected to hear more, but retired into a corner of the cabin; where he gave vent to his grief, which was only interrupted by his threats of revenge.

Owing to calm weather, but little progress was made during the night, At daylight (13th) a number of canoes were seen coming from the hippah, in the largest of which was thirty six men, and a Chief, who was standing up making signals, with great earnestness; On Coming along side Tooke recognized the Chief to be Ko-to-ko-ke, who is the Etiketika, or principal Chief of the hippah, from whence the boats had come the preceding evening: The old Chief who appeared to be about seventy years of age, had not a visible feature, the whole of his face being covered with spiral lines; on his coming on board he embraced Tooke with great affection; after which Tooke introduced me to him, and after the ceremony of Ehonge (i.e., joining noses), he took off his how, how, or mantle, and put it on my shoulders; In return I gave him a similar mantle made of green baize decorated with broad arrows. Soon after, seven page 548 other canoes with upwards of twenty men and women in each, came along side; At Tookes desire the poop was “Etaboo,” i.e., all access to it forbidden by any other than the Old Chief. Not long before Ke-to-ke-ka came on board, I asked Tooke and Woodoo if they would return to Norfolk Island or land at Moodee Whenua in case the calm continued, or the wind came from the Southward, which there was an appearance of; Tooke was much averse to either; his reason for not returning to Norfolk was the natural wish to see his family and Chief. Nor did he like the idea of being landed at Moodee-Whenua as notwithstanding what he had heard respecting the good understanding there was between his district and that of Moode Whenua, yet the information might not be strictly true: Nothing more was said about it and it was my intention to land them nearer to their houses if it could be done in the course of the day, altho it is now a perfect calm. Soon after the Chief came on board, they told me with tears of joy that they would go with Ko-te-ko-ke, who had fully confirmed all they had heard before, and had promised to take them to Tookes residence the next morning; where they would arrive by night. To wait the event of the calm, or the wind coming from the Northward, might have detained the ship some days longer—Could I have reached the place were Tooke lives in four days from leaving Norfolk, I certainly should have landed him there, but that not being the case (as this is the fifth day) I did not consider myself justifiable in detaining the ship longer that was absolutely necessary, to land them in a place of safety, and from whence they could get to their homes. Notwithstanding the information Tooke had received, and the confidence he placed in the Chief, yet I felt much anxiety about our Two Friends, and expressed my apprehension to Tooke, that what he had heard might be an invention of Ko-to-ko-ke's and his people to get them and their effects into their power; I added that as the ship could not be detained longer I would rather take them back than leave them in the hands of suspicious people. To this Tookee replied with an honest confidence that “Etiketica no Eteka” i.e., that a Chief never deceives, I then took the Chief into the Cabbin, and explained to him with Tooke's help (who was present with Woodoo), how much I was interested in their getting to Ho-do-do, and added that in two or three moons I should return to Ho-do-do: If I found Tookee and Woodoo were safe arrived with their effects; I should then return to Moodo Whenua, and make him some very considerable presents In addition to those which I should now give him, and his people for their trouble in carrying our Two Friends to their home. I was so well convinced of the Old Mans sincerity that I considered it page 549 injurious to threaten him with punishment for failing in his engagements, The only answers Ko-to-ko-ke made, was by putting both his hands to the sides of my head, making me perform the same ceremony, and joining our noses; in which position we remained three minutes, The Old Chief muttering what I did not understand—after which he went thro the same ceremony with Our Two Friends, which ended with a dance, when the two latter joined noses with me, and said “That Ko-to-ko-ke was now become their father and would in person conduct them to Ho-do-doe” [In King's writing in margin: “which was faithfully performed”] whilst I was preparing what I meant to give them, Tooke (who I am now convinced is a priest) had made a circle of the New Zealanders round him, in the center of which was the Oldest Chief, and recounted what he had seen during his absence—at many passages they gave a shout of admiration, On telling them it was only three days sail from Norfolk to Moodoo Whenua, whether his veracity was doubted, or that he was not contented with the assertion alone, I cannot tell, but with much presence of mind, he ran upon the poop, and carried a cabbage to them, which he informed them was cut five days before in my garden. This convincing proof produced a general shout of surprise. Every thing being now arranged, and ready for their departure, Our two friends requested that Ho-to-ko-ka might see the soldiers exercise, and fire; This I could have no objection to, as the request came from them, but I took that opportunity of explaining to the Chief, (with Tooke's help) that he might see by our treatment of him and his two countrymen, that it was our intention and wish to be good neighbours and friends, with all Eaheino-maue; and that these weapons were never used, but when we were injured, which I hoped would never happen, and that no other consideration, than satisfying his curosity, could induce me to show what these instruments were intended for. About 150 of the New Zealanders were seated on the larboard side of the deck, and the detachment paraded on the opposite side; after going thro the manual and firing three Volleys, two great guns were fired. One of which was loaded with a single ball, and the other with grape shot, which surprised them greatly, as I made the Chief observe the distance the shot fell from the ship. The wind had now the appearance of coming from the Southward, as that wind throws a great surf on the shore, they were anxious to get away; Tooke and Woodoo took an affectionate leave of every person on board, and made me remember my promise of visiting them again when they would return to Norfolk Island, with their fami ies. The venerable Chief, after having taken great pains to pronounce my name, and made me well acquainted page 550 with his, got into his canoe, and left us; On putting off from the ship, they were saluted with three cheers, which they returned as well as they could, by Tooke's directions: It was now seven in the morning, (13th) at nine a breeze came from the North; with which we stood the eastward; after a passage of five days from New Zealand, (having had light winds), and ten days absence from Norfolk Island, I landed at 3 o'clock in the afternoon of the 10th, and resumed the Government, when I had the satisfaction to find, that every thing had been conducted with the greatest propriety during my absence The little intercourse I had with the New Zealanders (as I was only eighteen hours off that Island, twelve of which was in the night) does not enable me to say much respecting them; or to form any opinion of them; As much of our friendly proceedings, in the slight interview, might be owing to our connection with Tooke and Woodoo, and their being with us. These two worthy savages, (if the term may be allowed) will, I am confident, ever retain the most grateful remembrance [In the margin, “1793, Nov 19th”] of the Kindness they received on Norfolk Island; and if the greater part of the Countrymen have but a small portion of the amiable disposition of Tooke and Woodoo, they certainly are a people, with whom a good understanding may be cultivated, with common prudence and precaution; I regret very much that the service which, the Britannia was ordered on, did not permit me to detain her longer, when in a few days with the help of our Two Friends, much useful information might have been obtained, respecting the quantity of manufactured flax, that might be procured, which I think would be of very great consequence, if better known; the great quantity that was procured in exchange for small pieces of iron hoop, is a probable proof, that an abundance of this valuable article might be easily obtained.

The articles I gave Tooke and Woodoo consisted of hand axes; a small assortment of carpenters tools; six spades; some hoes; with a few knives, scissors, and razers; two bushels of maize, one of wheat, two of pease, and a quantity of garden seeds. The master of the Britannia furnished me with One hundred looking glasses at 6d. each and one hundred pounds of biscuits, which was given to the New Zealanders who came on board, also ten young sows, and two boars; which Tooke and the Chief faithfully promised me should be preserved for breeding; which I am inclined to think they will observe. As time did not permit me to embark any provisions for the use of those I took with me, we were supplied by the Master of the Britannia. Payment was made by a Bill on His Majesty's Treasury for One hundred and forty seven pounds two shillings; which included one hundred and ten pounds as a part of the page 551 Storekeeper, Superintendants, and Master Carpenters Salaries; to enable them to send for some articles which they and their families were very much distressed for. The remaining thirty seven pounds was in payment for the provisions and other articles furnished by the master of the Britannia at New Zealand, two females, and one he goat, which were intended for Tooke, unfortunately died on the passage.

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1795. February. On the 20th the Fancy arrived here in forty-seven hours from the North Cape of New Zealand, which she made on her passage hither, from the River Thames, on that Island: I received a letter from the master, informing me that he was much distress'd for provisions, not having more than six days meat on board, at a reduced allowance, and requested being supplied with salt provisions, and some sugar, for his sick, to last him to Port Jackson, where he expected to receive a supply: The Deputy Commissary was directed to supply him with two tierces of beef, and two of pork; with twenty pounds of sugar and 22 yards of Island cloth, to repair his sails; all which he promised to return to the Commisiary at Port Jackson, to whom his receipts were forwarded. After having procured what he wanted from Individuals, he sailed for Port Jackson on the 5th.

1795. March. The Master of the Fancy informed me, that he arrived of the North Cape of New Zealand in 57 hours after leaving this Island (last November 5th)—That he went into Doubtless Bay, where he found Tookee, who stayed on board some time with his wife and family; but would not consent to return here until I went for him; he had not forgot his English, and he informed Mr. Dell the Master, that he had one pig left, and some of the seeds were growing; Doubtless Bay (which is the place of Tookes residence, and not the Bay of Islands) being very rocky, and unsafe to stay in, the Fancy left it two days after her arrival; At Tookes recommendation two Natives went on board the Fancy, with an intention of coming hither, but the wind not permitting the vessel to get out: they left her on her return to the anchoring place, and being sea sick, declined going. This circumstance I cannot help regretting very much, as those lads might have remained here some time, and I think would have been very useful. After leaving Doubtless Bay the Fancy went to the River Thames; where she lay three months, moored on the Fours and outrigged. Captain Dell describes the navigation of this River as very good, and that any ship may lay at the Head of the large river in perfect safety. The Fancy lay some miles page 552 up the small fresh, water river.* They in general kept on very good terms with the Natives, who on many occasions assisted them very much; but they found it necessary to be on their guard. During the Fancy's stay here they cut 213 spars fit for masting ships of any size the timber is light, with turpentine in its heart, and grows in the greatest abundance in many places, close to the banks of the river; which abounds in salmon, flounders, bream, soles, and many other fish; also great quantities of crabs, clams &c Close to the place where the Fancy lay, some thousand acres of the flax plant were growing in a very luxuriant manner: The Fancy's running rigging was mostly made from the flax: On her departure, the Natives regretted their seperation, and promised very faithfully to take care of the spars they had cut. from the specimen of the pine I saw, it bears no resemblance to the pine of this Island, but is not unlike the White pine; and its having the turpentine in the wood is certainly a very great thing in its favour, which the pine of this Island has not. Chalk and flint stones also abound there.

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1796. January 19th. Early this morning, a brig and schooner were seen close in. On the return of the boat, I found the vessels were the Fancy and a small schooner called the Providence; ten days from Dusky Bay in New Zealand having on board the officers and part of the Endeavours crew. I received a letter from Mr. Bampton informing me that the endeavour and the Fancy snow had sailed from Port Jackson in September last, for Dusky Bay in New Zealand; where it was proposed to load both these vessels, as well as a small vessel, left at that place, (but not launched) by the Master of the Britannia [page 515] with spars and plank for India: which would have been a very profitable undertaking. In getting to the Southward they met with continual heavy gales of wind, which disabled the so much, that it was determined to run her on shore, at the first place they could make. A fortunate change of wind enabled them to reach Duskey Bay, when the ship was condemned as unfit to proceed and laid on shore in Facile Harbour. The crew of the Endeavour consisted of 230 persons; including several convicts who had secreted themselves on board that ship, and several others who had permission to leave the Colony. Almost the whole of the Endeavours provisions were spoiled; but that loss was not much felt at Dusky Bay where they procured a great number of fish; the Schooner left by the Britannia was finished and launched: this vessel was named the Provi-

* The Waihou at the head of the Firth of Thames.

page 553 dence
, about 50 tons burthen, and the Fancy, were found in-sufficient to take the people away. The Endeavours launch was therefore lengthened and (indistinct) upon and would be about 50 tons burthen, when completed. The Providence and Fancy sailed from Dusky Bay 2 of December leaving the Resource nearly ready for launching; in which the remaining people were to proceed, either to this Island, or Port Jackson, for a supply of provisions to continue their voyage to India. The articles wanted by these vessels, were mostly supplied by individuals, except 1200 lbs of salt beef, two ton and a half of dholl, three pieces and a half of Island Canvas, to make sails for the Schooner, with some nails and iron work: As pork ready salted could not be procured from individuals, I directed the Deputy Commissary to supply 1200 lb. of salt beef from the Stores on receiving sufficient security that an equal quantity of fresh pork should be returned by any individual whom the Master could agree with, to furnish that quantity. Respecting the dholl he was furnished with what he wanted out of the Stores, for one ton of which he exchanged 2500 lb of salt, which we were much in need of: the remaining ton and half with other articles were valued by proper persons at £31 2s. for which sum I became answerable to Government, having been obliged to advance a sum of money to the Master to defray his expenses with the individuals; for flour, stock, and other articles, which amounted to £150. The wants of these vessels being fully relieved, they sailed from hence the — Instant. Previous to their departure, several Lascars and Portuguese seamen, left the Schooner, from an apprehension of its being an unsafe vessel, but I believe extreme hunger, and real misery, was their principal reason; The Master had previously made application to me, to land those objects; to this I agreed, on account of their wretched state, he informed me they were in; which indeed was miserable beyond any human conception. Several settlers having made an offer to take care of these unfortunate men; until they might be fit to gain their livelihood; they were allowed to take them, on condition of their not becoming an incumbrance to the Stores.