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The Origins of International Rivalry in Samoa: 1845–1884


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Foreword by A. P. Newton 7
  Rhodes Professor of Imperial History in the University of London
Geographical Note 13
Introduction 15
The scope of the essay.
The islands and their inhabitants.
The first European discoverers. Roggewein, Bougainville, and La Pérouse.
Chapter I. The Origins of British Influence—the Missionaries, 1836–45 29
The Missionary Societies, L.M.S., Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic.
The work of the L.M.S. in the South Seas.
John Williams and his choice of Samoa as a mission centre.
Effects of missionary work.
II. The Origins of British Official Interest in the Navigator Islands, 1845–55, and the French Menace, 1846–62 45
The need for protection of growing British interests.
Appeals for visits of men-of-war.
French activity, 1844–62.
III. The Origins of German Interests, 1854–75 57
Mid-century trade developments and the history of the copra trade.
The growth of German trade—the Godeffroy firm.
Its organization and methods.
Importance of this to Germany.
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IV. The Awakening of New Zealand's Interests in Samoa 82
The development of trans-Pacific trade, the result of gold discoveries in America, Australia, and New Zealand, and effects upon the islands.
New Zealand projects (1871–76) for the annexation of Samoa and other Polynesian islands.
V. American Interests in Samoa, 1839–76 106
Sketch of American interests in the Pacific. Three lines of approach. Interest of United States drawn through three individuals, W. H. Webb, James Stewart, and Colonel A. B. Steinberger.
Effects of these.
VI. The years of Unrest that Led to the German, American, and British Treaties with Samoa, 1876–79 131
Native ideas of kingship, property, punishment, as contributory to disorders in Samoa. Events leading to German agreement of 1877 and treaties of 1878–79. The establishment of Municipal Government.
VII. The Problem of the Government of Samoa, 1878–81 150
Discussion of the treaties. The attitude of the Great Powers. The Samoan Subsidy Bill and the effects of its failure upon Samoa.
VIII. The Experiment of Native Autonomy Proves a Failure, July 1881–November 1884 170
The years 1881–83.
New Zealand intrigue, 1883–84.
The beginning of State support to colonial enterprise, and the effect of this upon Germans in Samoa.
The German-Samoan Agreement of November 10, 1884.
Conclusion 194
Bibliography 199
Appendix 214
Index 223