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The King Country; or, Explorations in New Zealand. A Narrative of 600 Miles of Travel through Maoriland.


page 345


Potatau II.

The ancestry and tribal connections of Matutaera Te Pukepuke Te Paue Tu Karato Te-a-Potatau Te Wherowhero Tawhiao, or Potatau II., render him the most illustrious and influential chief in New Zealand. No Maori chief is truly great unless he can trace his descent to some of those who came in the first canoes from Hawaiki. Tawhiao can do this, his ancestor being Hotonui, who came in the canoe Tainui, which made the land at Kawhia. The ancestor, however, who makes the greatest figure in the history of the family is Tapaue, who had a number of children who did well in the world, and founded quite a number of tribes who exist to this day. These children were—Te Rorokitua, who was the ancestor of the Ngatipaoa, Te Putu, Tahau, Te Apa, Huiarangi, Ratua, Hikaurua. The son of Te Putu was Tawhia, whose son was Tuata, whose son was Te Rauanganga, whose son was Te Wherowhero, whose son was the present Tawhiao. The name of Tawhiao's mother was Whakaawi, a woman of high birth of the Ngatimahutu tribe.

Tawhiao's autobiographical narrative is as follows:—

"I was born at a place called Orongokoekoea, at Mokau. The whole of the Waikatos had been driven from Waikato by the invasion of Hongi, with his muskets, and the tribes had suffered greatly when the pa was taken at Matakitaki. The whole of the Waikatos were living at Mokau when I was born, from fear of Pomare. [The fall of Matakitaki took place in 1823, and Tawhiao would probably be born a year or two later.] We did not remain long at Mokau after the death of Pomare. We came back to Haurua, Kopua, and other places. I lived at Honipaka, in the Waipa. The Ngatitipa were at Haurau. Te Rauparaha had gone south long before that time, in prosecution of his conquests at Cook's Straits. Some of Rauparaha's people, however, the Ngatitoa and page 346Ngatikoata, came to Matakitaki, and were slain there. Te Waharoa was then living at Horotiu, and did not move. The Ngapuhi did not attack him. Pomare made peace with Takurua. Waikato heard that peace had been made. At this time Te Wherowhero had gone to Taupo. Rauroha said to Pomare, 'Go back to your own country,' but Pomare would not consent. Rauroha said, 'You have made peace with me; look at Matire.' [Matire Toha was subsequently married to Kati, Te "Wherowhero's brother, on the peace-making between Waikato and Ngapuhi.] Te Wherowhero wished to go to Pomare, but Te Kanawa resisted his desire, thinking there would be treachery. Pomare insisted upon going up to Waikato. He was met in battle by the Ngatitipa, the Ngatitamaoho. Te Aho, a son of Kukutai shot Pomare's fingers off, and when his people discovered that Pomare was wounded, they fled. The fight took place at Te Rore, on the Waipa, and the Ngapuhi fled to Whaingaroa. The chase continued to Te Akau, and as far as Awhitu. I remember when Matire Toha was brought to Waikato to be married to Kati. I remember the great crowds that were assembled at the time. Te Kihirini brought Matire to Waikato. She was very young then. The first Europeans we saw were at Kawhia. The first I remember was Captain Kent. The first missionaries in Waikato were Stack, Hamlin, Williams, and Morgan. The missionaries told us that we should be burned up unless we believed. I myself was baptized by the name Matutaera, at Mangere, by Mr. Burrows.

"I remember a European coming to ask Te Wherowhero to sign the treaty of Waitangi. That European was the missionary, Mr. Maunsell. [The Yen. Archdeacon Maunsell.] The Maori he had with him was Tipene Tahatika. Te Wherowhero said he would not sign. Mr. Maunsell remarked to Tipene, 'This ignorant old man, if he had signed, I would have given him a blanket.' Te Wherowhero was then at Awhitu. Te Wherowhero's name was afterwards put to the treaty, but it was written by Te Kahawai, not by himself. I was at the great meeting at Remuera. That was when Fitzroy was Governor. The principal speakers were Wetere te Kauae and Te Katipa. Governor Fitzroy visited Kawhia. The Rev. Mr. Whiteley and the missionaries had been there long before that time. When Sir George Grey came, he visited Rangiawhia, Te Awamutu, and other settlements in Waikato. He had thirty Maoris as his following. Sir George Grey pointed out Mangere as a place for Te Wherowhero. He said to my father, 'Come to Mangere, the land is for you.' I never attended any of the Mission, schools."

page 347

In reference to the beginning of the New Zealand war, after Te Wherowliero's death, and when Tawhiao had succeeded his father as king, he narrates:—

"I was at Rawhitu, a few miles above Rangiriri, when I heard that the soldiers had crossed the Mangatawhiri. Heta Tarawhiti and a few others were with me. The Waikatos were then at Rangiriri and other places. I warned them to avoid the soldiers. When I heard that the soldiers had crossed the Mangatawhiri, I warned the Maoris to avoid the soldiers. I told them they should not meet the soldiers on the line of the Waikato river, but should go inland by Whangamarino to Paparata, and then to the Kirikiri. [Apparently this was Tawhiao's military plan, instead of constructing pas on the river, like Meremere and Rangiriri. If his advice had been taken, the line of our advance would have been threatened, and the settlements around Auckland placed in great danger.] The next thing I heard was that a battle had been fought at the Koheroa, and that the people I had sent to evade the soldiers had also gone and fought at the Koheroa. Tapihana was the chief man whom I had charged. I sent a message also to Mohi and Ihaaka (occupying the settlement at Pukekohe, the Kirikiri and adjacent places), telling them to come out from their villages. The engineer of the pa at Rangiriri, who directed its formation, was Te Wharepu. I told the people that they should retire to the depth of the forest to evade the troops. The others would not consent. Te Wharepu was the leader of the others. They said, 'We will not agree; if our blood must be shed, let it be shed on our own land at Waikato.' I was at the fight at Rangiriri. Wiremu Tamehana and myself went to Rangiriri, and requested the people to move away from that place. That was the object of both Thompson 1 and myself in going. A dozen times I tried to persuade them to break up from Rangiriri, but finding that our efforts were unsuccessful, we left. The balls were then flying in all directions. I took refuge behind a flax bush. A bullet passed close to me, and struck the bush. I was not injured. I had a gun and cartridge-box. I saw some of my people escaping. I told them to be swift, and move on. They said, 'You must look after yourself; are you not in danger?' I said, 'No, I will rest a while here.' I took off my coat and vest, and., after a while, I succeeded in getting on board a canoe belonging to the Ngatitamaoho, and in making my escape. Previously ten guns were levelled at me, and a big gun also. Messengers had gone before, and told the people that I was safe."

1 A native known as The King Maker.

page 348

The Chiefs.

Wiremu Te Wheoro Te Morehu Maipapa comes from a distinguished line of ancestors. From a woman of celebrity, named Hourua, after whom the tribe was called, and whose worthy chief was that famous man Wiremu Te Awatora, of Raglan. Then from the renowned ancestor Tapoue, Te Wheoro becomes a near relative of Tawhiao, the present Maori King, which circumstance accounts for the fact of his taking possession of the Tiwai canoe, which conveyed the late Maori King, Potatau Te Wherowhero, from Manukau to Ngaruawahia.

The father and mother of Te Wheoro resided in the earlier times at their settlement, Kaniwhaniwha, on the Waipa River, but, as was the custom, they would remove to other places, being interested in other lands, thus verifying the old Maori proverb, "Ka mete kainga tahi; ka ora kaingarua" (he that has but one home will be subject to failure; he that has two homes will prosper). The name of Te Wheoro's father was Te Kaingamata, and his mother's name was Ngapaoa of the Ngatihinetu tribe of Rangiaowhia, Te Wheoro's grandfather was Te Whakaete, who was acknowledged to have been of great power among the Waikatos. Te Whakaete was killed at Maungatautari by the Ngatipukenga, a war party on its way to Te Wairoa, east coast, and headed by the chief Naunau. Te Wheoro's own settlement was at Te Kohekohe, Lower Waikato, and he was always a faithful adherent of the Europeans. His valuable services were brought into requisition by General Cameron when war was declared against the Waikatos. The calamities which befell his people arising out of the war must have greatly afflicted him, for he tried very hard to divert war during the Civil Commissionership of Mr. Gorst, M.P., in the Waikato, when Sir George Grey's Runanga system was introduced, and when the two Maori newspapers—the Government organ, Te Pihoihoi, and the Maori King organ, Te Hokioi—were waging a hostile war, which unhappily culminated in a breach of the peace, Manga Maniapoto having instructed his partisans to seize the press and type, which was duly carried out. Te Wheoro is called by the Maoris "he tangate rangatira" (a man of noble extraction), and although he is a Ngatihourua of Whaingaroa, a Ngatimahuta of Waikato-nui, and a Ngatihinetu of Rangiaowhia, his particular tribe is the Ngatinaho, the members of page 349which acknowledge his chieftainship and mana, and these people acted under him during the Waikato war. Of his fidelity, friendship, and singular loyalty to Europeans before the war, during the war, and subsequently up to the present time, abundant evidence may be adduced both by Maoris and Europeans, while Government despatches and military records simply corroborate facts well known to reliable settlers. Te Wheoro is in great favour with the King party, and besides being decorated with the New Zealand war-medal, and holding a commission as Major in the Colonial forces, he is a member of the House of Representatives for the Southern Maori Electoral district of the North Island.

Wahanui, the most influential chief of the Ngatimaniapoto tribe, is a man of giant proportions, considerably over six feet in height. His name in the Maori language signifies "broad," and was given to him in reference to his enormous stature. He was educated at the "Three Kings," and was originally intended for the Church, but returning to the King Country, he took up his home at Te Kopua in the centre of his tribe, where he has remained, watching over the interests of his race. For many years he was the king's principal minister and staunchest supporter. With a singularly dignified and courteous manner, he displays a remarkable intelligence, which is heightened in no small degree by a wonderful power of oratory which he usually employs with remarkable effect at the councils of the native tribes. He is one of the largest native land-owners, the territory of his tribe extending over the most fertile portion of the King Country.

Manga Rewi, a chief of the Maniapoto tribe, descended from a long line of ancestors, is a man of great intelligence, and, although now aged, is one of the most influential and respected representatives of his race. He has been throughout a strong supporter of the King Movement, and during the war was one of the most valorous and daring of Maori leaders.

Patara te Tuhi belongs to the same tribe as Tawhiao, namely, the Ngatimahuta, and is, besides, his brother-in-law. He is a clever man, and being ready with his pen, he was selected by the Kingites to edit the Hokioi, the newspaper which they established to advocate the Kingite cause. This paper was printed by types and a press obtained by the Maoris who went to Europe with Dr. Hochstetter, and which was given to them by the Archduke Maximilian, who afterwards had such an unfortunate career in Mexico. This powerful organ came to an untimely end, the printing-office having page 350been smashed up by an armed party under Rewi, and the plant thrown into the Waipa river.

Whitiora Wirimu te Komete, a chief of the Waikato tribe, is renowned for his bold defence of the Rangiriri pa against the imperial troops. He narrates his capture with ninety of his men as follows:—

"A white flag was hoisted on board the steamer, at the Waikato river, in consequence of which he ordered the flag of truce to be hoisted in the Rangiriri pa, which act he supposed would have led to a parley; but, to his great astonishment, General Cameron and fifty of his men came into the pa, and commanded the Maoris to deliver up their arms. We could easily have shot the fifty soldiers, including the General, if we had known that their coming into the pa was to deal treacherously with us. We could have maintained our post in the pa, and we had made up our minds to fight to the death. After admitting the soldiers into the fortress we discovered for the first time we were prisoners."

Paora Tu Haere is a chief of the Ngatiwhatua tribe.

Hati Wira Takahi, chief of the Ngapuhi tribe.

Paratene Te Manu, chief of the Ngatiwai tribe.

Tukukino, head chief of the Ngatitematera, was one of the principal Hauhau leaders during the war, and one of the most active obstructionists to European Settlement. He is at present one of the most aged natives in New Zealand.

Te Raia Ngakutu Te Tumuhuia, chief of the Ngatitematera tribe, was the last of the New Zealand cannibals. He attacked a pa at Katikati, in 1842, belonging to the Ngatiterangi, defeated the powerful chief Te Whanake, and feasted his own followers upon the slain.

Te Kooti is well known as the great Hauhau leader during the war. He is a man of singular intelligence, and still exercises a widespread influence over the tribes. He was sent as a prisoner of war, with other natives, to the Chatham Islands, and his escape from that inhospitable region with his followers, together with his massacre of the settlers at Poverty Bay, form one of the most remarkable and stirring events connected with the campaign.

page 351

List of the New Zealand Tribes, with Their Localities.

These tribes, which constitute the principal divisions of the Maori race, are all subdivided into hapus, or tribal families, bearing often a different appellation to that of the parent tribe, to which, however, each hapu claims a direct relationship.

Name of Tribe. Locality.
Aopouri and Rarawa North Cape to Hokianga.
Ngapuhi Bay of Islands.
Ngatiwhatua and Uriohau Manukau Kaipara and Waitemata.
Ngatitai Firth of Thames and Auckland.
Ngatipaoa Thames from Cape Colville to Katikati.
Ngatierangi Katikati to Maketu and inland.
Ngatiwhaka-aue Maketu and Lake Country.
Ngatiraukawa Otaki Arowhenua.
Waikato Valley of Waikato to Manukau.
Ngatimaniapoto Valley of Waipa to Mokau.
Ngatiawa West Coast from Mount Egmont to Mount Taupiri, Waikanae, Wellington, &c.
Te Whakatohea Bay of Plenty and inland.
Ngatipouri Cape Runaway and inland.
Ngatituwharetoa Lake Taupo and centre of North Island.
Ngatitama From Mokau inland.
Taranaki West Coast near Mount Egmont.
Ngatiruanui Waitotara and inland
Ngarauru Waitotara to Whanganui and inland.
Ngatihau Whanganui and inland.
Ngatiapa Rangitaue, Whanganui River, and inland.
Ngatitoa Near Wellington.
Ngatikahungunu Table Cape to Palliser Bay, and inland.
Te Urewera Taupo to Poverty Bay.
Whanauapanui Cape Runaway to Bay of Plenty and inland.
Rangitane Admiralty Bay and vicinity.
Ngahitao South and Middle Island.
page 352

The Flora.

Synopsis of the principal flora met with during the journey, arranged alphabetically in accordance with native names.


  • Hinau.—Eloecarpus dentatus. A graceful tree, 20 to 30 feet high; blossoms with a white flower; produces an edible berry ½ inch long, pulp astringent, stone deeply furrowed; bark furnishes a black dye, common throughout the interior of the island; finest specimens met with in the Teranga forest, west of Ruapehu, at an altitude of about 2000 feet.
  • Horoeka.—Aralia Qrassifolia. A small tree with a narrow leaf; frequent in the forests of the Lake Country and other parts of the interior.
  • Kahikatea.—Podocarpus dacrydioides. The white pine, growth 50 to 120 feet; found on the swampy lands and river-banks; berry edible, wood soft; largest trees seen in Valley of Whanganui.
  • Karaka.—Corynocarpus lævigatus. A beautiful tree, 30 to 40 feet high, with glossy ovate leaves and oblong berries, which, when ripe, are of a bright red colour. The natives affirm that this tree was brought by their ancestors from Hawaiki. Seen near Tauranga and in Lake Country.
  • Karamu.—Coprosma lucida. A handsome tree with dark, shining ovate leaves; growth 20 to 30 feet; berries small, bright red, and edible; foliage eaten readily by cattle and horses; widely distributed all over the central portion of North Island, especially in forests of Kamianawa Mountains and Western Taupo; grows up to altitude of 3000 feet.
  • Mahoe.—Melicytus ramiflorus. A bushy tree; growth 15 to 30 feet; frequent in forests of the interior; foliage eaten by cattle.
  • Makomako.—Aristotelia racemosa. A small tree, 10 to 20 feet high; bark black; bears a small berry; bark used by natives to produce a black dye; plentiful in forests of Whanganui.
  • Manoa.—Dacrydium Colensoi. Growth 10 to 50 feet; leaves an inch in length, those of the upper branches overlapping each other; wood very hard, formerly much prized by natives for the manufacture of spears and clubs; frequent in valley of Manganui a-te-Ao.
  • Mataii.—Podocarpus spicata. Growth 80 to 100 feet; berries edible; page 353common in all the forests of the interior; finest trees found in Valley of Whanganui.
  • Miro.—Podocarpus ferruginea. Growth 60 to 120 feet; produces a red berry, the favourite food of the wood-pigeon; frequent throughout the interior; finest specimens met with in forests west of Ruapehu, at altitude of about 2000 feet.
  • Nikau.—Areca Sapida. A beautiful and graceful palm, with ringed trunk, and bright green pinnate leaves 4 to 6 feet long, the sole representative of its genus in New Zealand; the pulp of the top portion of the stem is edible, and when young is a favourite article of food with the natives; very frequent in the forests of the interior, but appeared to attain its greatest growth and development in the damp marly soil of the Valley of the Whanganui.
  • Pohutukawa.—Metrosideros tormentosa. A grand, wide-spreading tree, with gnarled trunk and twisting branches, growth 30 to 50 feet; bears in the month of December a large crimson flower; inner bark used by the natives for diarrhœa; wood hard and red; grows usually near the sea, but also inland at Lake Tarawera at altitude of over 1000 feet.
  • Pukatea.—Atherosperma Novœ Zelandiœ. A straight-growing tree, with a buttressed trunk, growth 50 to 150 feet; grows to a large size in the forests west of Ruapehu, at an altitude of about 2000 feet.
  • Rata.—Metrosideros rohusta. A gigantic tree from 60 to 160 feet in height, base of trunk often exceeds 40 feet in circumference; blooms with a crimson flower: the trunk gives life to innumerable parasitical plants; wood hard, but not durable; inner bark powerful astringent, used by natives for diarrhœa; frequent in all the forests of the interior, the largest trees found being on the eastern side of Mount Perongia and in the dense low-lying forests of the Valley of Whanganui.
  • Rewarewa.—Knightia excelsa. A handsome tree, growth 80 to 100 feet; bears large clusters of red flowers; frequent in the Lake Country.
  • Rimu.—Dacrydium cupressinum, the red pine. A noble tree, growth from 80 to 150 feet; branches pendulous; wood red, heavy, and handsome. This tree attains to its largest size in the Terangakaika Forest, west of Mount Ruapehu, where it flourishes in great abundance at an altitude varying from 2000 to 2500 feet.
  • Tanekaha.—Phyllocladus trichomanoides. A celery-leaved pine, pro-page 354ducing a tough, timber-growth, from 20 to 30 feet; the bark affords a red dye which is fast becoming a valuable article of export for the purpose of colouring kid gloves; frequent in forests of Western Taupo and Te Toto ranges.1
  • Tawa—Nesodaphne Tawa. A fine tree, growth 60 to 80 feet; leaves lance-shaped; produces an edible berry; common throughout the interior.
  • Ti.—Cordyline Australia. Growth 10 to 30 feet; leaves uniform, from 2 to 3 feet long; flowers white and drooping; root edible; frequent throughout the interior, grows at an altitude of 3000 feet; frequent on Rangipo table-land.
  • Towai.—Fagns fusca. One of the most beautiful of New Zealand trees, growth 80 to 140 feet; leaves 1 to 1¼ long, deeply serrate; forms dense forests on the Kaimanawa Mountains and other parts of interior; attains to its greatest growth on the western slopes of Mount Ruapehu, where it grows at an altitude of over 4000 feet.
  • Totara.—Podocarpus totara. A fine forest tree; growth from 60 to 100 feet; met with in all parts of the interior.

Shrubs, Flowers, and Plants.

  • Anata.—A buttercup.
  • Hanea.—A cress.
  • Harakeke.—Phormium tenax. A New Zealand flax; flowers dark red; leaves long, drooping and narrow; the seeds may be used as a substitute for coffee; the root is employed by the natives as a purgative and worm medicine; the gum is applied to wounds and sores; the fibre of the leaf is used for rope-making and the manufacture of paper. Common throughout the interior in swampy places; growth from 4 to 8 feet.
  • Heruna.—Polygonum adpressum.
  • Kaikaiatua.—Rabdothamnus solandri. A plant.
  • Kokota.—Epilobium minuta. A small willow-herb.
  • Korikori.—A species of ranunculus.
  • Koromiko.—Veronica salcifolia. A common shrub, with lilac or white flowers, lanceolate leaves; frequent all over interior; grows luxuriantly around southern and western region of Lake Taupo. page 355A decoction of the leaves is valuable in dysentery. The foliage is eaten readily by cattle.
  • Koropuku.—A plant with a red berry, common in the vicinity of Tongariro.
  • Koru.—A blue and white flower.
  • Kotukutuku.—Fuchsia excorticata. A spreading tree-like shrub, leaves ovate lanceolate; bears a purple berry, yields a dye of the same colour; met with in all parts of interior.
  • Kowhitiwhiti.—Watercress.
  • Kalakuta.—A white flower.
  • Manuka.—Leptospermum ericoides. A tree-like shrub, widely distributed all over interior; finest specimens met with in the Geyser Valley, Wairakei.
  • Mataroa.—A flax-plant.
  • Matuakumara.—A plant.
  • Nahui.—Alternanthera denticulata.
  • Nene.—Dracophyllum latifolium.
  • Outatoranga.—Pimelia arenaria.
  • Panahi.—Convolvulus.
  • Panara.—Taupo primrose.
  • Papataniwhaniwha.—Lagenopliora Forsteri. A plant like a daisy.
  • Pototara.—Cyothodes oxydrus.—A plant with a small white fragrant flower, found growing on Rangipo table-land.

    Piripiri whata.—Carpodetus serratus.

  • Poipapa.—Chenopodium triandrum.
  • Poroporo.—An edible nightshade with a white flower.
  • Puatea.—A yellow daisy.
  • Puwha.—Sonchus oleraceus. Sowthistle, much used by the natives as a vegetable.
  • Rengarenga.—Andhropodium cirrhatum. A lily.
  • Rongotainui.—A flax used fox cordage and fishing-lines.
  • Taihinu.—A white flower found at Taupo.
  • Taretu.—A plant with blue berries.
  • Tataramoa.—Rubus australis. A climbing bramble, armed with prickles, branches pendulous, leaves coriaceous; berry, red or amber-coloured; known to the colonists as the "bush lawyer;" found in all the forests of the interior; most frequent in Valley of Whanganui.
  • Tikupenga.—Cordyline stricta.
  • Titirangi.—Veronica sjpeciosa.
  • Totaratara.—A small shrub with a white flower.page 356
  • Tupapa.—Lagenophora Forsteri. Native daisy.
  • Tutu.—Coriaria ruscifolia. A frequent shrub with glossy leaves and pendulous clusters of purple fruit, the seeds of which are poisonous as well as the foliage; produces a black dye.
  • Waewaekaka.—Gleichenia hecystophylla.
  • Wharangi.—Melicope ternata. A broad-leaved, poisonous shrub, very common in the forests of the Whanganui and Western Taupo.

Creeping, Climbing, and Parasitic Plants.
(Common throughout the interior.)

  • Aka.—Metrosideros buxifolia.
  • Kareao.—Rhipogonum scandens. A climbing wiry vine, the "supple Jack" of the colonists; leaves three to five inches long, linear, ovate; often grows in entangled masses, abundant in all the forests; largest specimens found in the swampy forests of the Whanganui. A decoction of the root forms a good substitute for sarsaparilla.
  • Kiekie.—Freycientia Banksii. A plant producing an edible flower and fruit.
  • Kohia.—Parsiflora tetrandra. A climbing plant.
  • Kowharawhara.—Astelia Banksii. A parasitical broad-leaved grass, growing in tufts on trees, bearing an edible berry.
  • Kowhaia.—Edwardsia microphilla. A passion-flower; colour, green and orange, with fragrant fruit.
  • Mawhai.—Sicyos Australis. A creeping plant.
  • Patangatanga.—Freycientia Banksii.
  • Pikiarero.—Clematis, bearing a beautiful white flower.
  • Puawananga.—Clematis indivisa, bearing a white flower.


  • Hiaue.—Creepinglycopodium.
  • Huruhuruwhenua.—Asplenium lucidum.
  • Kiokio.—Polypodium.
  • Kopakopa.—Trichomanes. A round-leaved fern.
  • Korokio.—The smallest tree-fern.
  • Kotote.—A small-leaved fern.
  • Kurakura.—A small kind of lycopodium.
  • Maerere.—A small-leaved fern.page 357
  • Makaka.—Adianthum.
  • Mangapowhatu.—Polytrichum cyphoma.
  • Mangemange.—Lycopodium articulatum. A creeping fern.
  • Mokimoki.—Long-leaved, fern.
  • Mouku.—An edible fern.
  • Ngutu-Karkariki.—Parrot's bill fern, so called from the form of its foot-stalk; the fronds are plume-shaped.
  • Panaka.—Asplenium. A very graceful fern.
  • Para Marattia.—Salicina. A large fern.
  • Paretau.—Asplenium obliquum. A large-leaved fern.
  • Puaka rimu.—The tree lycopodium.
  • Raorao.—Pteris esculenta. A common edible fern, the root of which formed at one time the principal food of the Maori.
  • Raumanga.—Polypodium. A broad-leaved fern.
  • Tapui kotuku.—Creeping lycopodium.
  • Tarakupenga.—Creeping lycopodium.
  • Waewaekoukou.—Lycopodium volubile. A running fern.
  • Ti Taranaki—A fern growing on the plains, having its fructification on a separate stalk.

1 Mr. G. W. Griffin, United States' Consul at Auckland, whose valuable reports upon the various commercial products of New Zealand have been recently printed by authority of the New Zealand Government, is the author of a very interesting paper upon the economic uses of this tree.

Tree Ferns.


  • Tote.—C. dealbata. The "silver-tree fern;" growth, 10 to 20 feet; trunk slender and black; fronds lanceolate, 8 to 12 feet long, dark green above, silvery white below. Abundant in the interior; finest specimens seen in forests of the Lake Country.
  • Ponga.—C. medullaris. The "black fern;" trunk very stout, 12 to 40 feet high, and covered with matted fibres; fronds very numerous, from 10 to 15 feet long; deep green above, pale below; abundant throughout the interior.
  • C. Cunninghamii. Trunk, 12 to 15 feet high; fibrous at base; fronds, 20 to 30 in a crown, 6 to 9 feet long; bright green; frequent in the Lake Country.

Flora of Tongariro and Ruapehu.

The flora of Tongariro and the surrounding region partakes of an alpine character, and is both varied and beautiful. Indeed, not only are many of the mountains forming the group clothed with a dense and attractive vegetation, but where the forests spread down to the page 358plains, the trees and shrubs are often so disposed by Nature as to form perfect gardens, which appear to have been artificially planted. During the exploration of both Tongariro and Ruapehu, I had an opportunity of examining the varied growth of trees, shrubs, and plants; and although I was unable, under the circumstances, to make a very extensive botanical collection, I secured some of the choicest specimens of mountain plants, and afterwards obtained their native names from the Maoris.

  • Houhou.—Panax Colensoi is an abundant plant in hilly districts.
  • Huripo.—A tall shrub, common around Tongariro, and remarkable for its fœtid smell.
  • Manao.—Pittosporum fasciculatum is found in both islands.
  • Monao.—Cyathodes acerosa is plentiful throughout the whole country.
  • Papauma.—Griselima littoralis is a plentiful tree, especially in the high interior districts.
  • Patotara.—Leucopogon Colensoi is a common mountain plant found in both islands.
  • Peki Peki.—Clemisia spectabilis is an alpine plant, abundant on the open mountains of the South Island, but is seldom found in the north.
  • Purea.—Cassinia fluvida is a plentiful mountain plant on both islands.
  • Rimu.—Dacrydium laxifolium is abundant on the high mountains. It is the smallest known pine in the world.
  • Taubinu.—Olearia nummularifolia is plentiful on the mountains of the South Island, but is found less frequently in the north.
  • Toatoa.—Phylloctadus Alpinus is a sub-alpine tree, frequently met with in both islands.
  • Towai.—Fagus fusca. This is the largest and by far the most attractive tree growing in the vicinity of the high mountains of this portion of the island. It is somewhat stunted around Tongariro, but attains to colossal size on the western slopes of Mount Ruapehu.
  • Tumigi.—Leucopogon fasciculatus is a shrub having small, thick leaves, with white underneath. It is very plentiful at Tongariro.
  • Tutu.—Coriaria mystifolia is common in mountains and dry places
  • Waewaekohu.—Gleichenia dicarpa is a widely-distributed mountain plant.

The Gnaphalium bellidioides is a mountain plant met with in both islands. This plant was the last sign of vegetable life on Tongariro, where it grew up to an altitude of 6000 feet. I also found it growing on Ruapehu, with the Ligusticum aromaticum, at an -page 359tude of 7000 feet, where both these plants likewise formed the last sign of vegetation. It is worthy of remark that the natives could give no names for these latter species.


  • Kakaho.—Arundo Australis. A tall grass or reed, very common around Lake Taupo.
  • Karetu.—Torresia redolens. A sweet-smelling grass.
  • Kopoupou.—Scripus lacustrina. A rush, frequent in the Lake Country.
  • Kurikuri.—A grass with a prickly flower-head, Western Taupo.
  • Mata.—A reed-like grass.
  • Matarauriki.—A tussock grass, Rangipo table-land.
  • Mouka.—A wide-leaved grass.
  • Ngawha.—Native bulrush, frequent in Lake Country.
  • Oioi.—Leptocarpus fasciculus. A common rush.
  • Otaota.—A thin grass.
  • Parakerake.—A fine grass, frequent at Taupo and Rangipo table-land.
  • Pouaka.—A fine grass, emitting, when bruised, a fœtid smell; found at Western Taupo.
  • Pureirei.—A swamp-grass.
  • Raupo.—Typha latifolia. A flag-rush, common everywhere in swamps and banks of rivers; used by natives for building.
  • Tarareke.—A flax-grass.
  • Tarapuarere.—A flowering grass.
  • Toetoekiwi.—A low, rush-like grass, frequent in swamps.
  • Toetoe.—Epicacris pauciflora. A handsome cutting grass, common in swampy places.
  • Tupari.—A broad-leaved grass.
  • Tutaikuri.—A swamp-grass, the native couch.
  • Wi.—A fine grass, frequent around Lake Taupo.
  • Wiwi.—A small swamp-rush.

Mosses, Fungi, and Lichens.

  • Hakekakeka.—A brown, edible fungus.
  • Harori.—A white, edible fungus.
  • Haroritui.—A tree-fungus.
  • Hawai.—A tree-fungus.
  • Karerarera.—A slimy plant.
  • Karengo.—A slimy plant, growing on stones in the water.page 360
  • Koukou.—A tree-moss.
  • Kokirikiri wetu,—A globular fungus.
  • Kopura.—A scented moss, frequent in forests of Whanganui.
  • Maru.—Stag's-horn moss.
  • Pukurau.—Lycopodon fontainesii. A fungus,
  • Tikitiwhenua.—A toad-stool.

The Fauna.

The almost total absence of land mammalia forms one of the most remarkable features in the fauna of New Zealand. Of this class New Zealand can boast of only two genera: the bat—pekapeka of the natives, two species—and a small indigenous rat, the kiore, now almost extinct. The author met with one or two specimens of the latter animal at Ruakaka, in the King Country, but there, as in other parts of the island, it has been mostly exterminated by the Norwegian or grey rat. The kararehe, a native dog, the origin of which is uncertain, has entirely passed away. Its remains, however, have been found with those of the moa in the limestone caves of the South Island. The natives claim to have brought the kiore with them on their migration from Hawaiki, and it is likely that they may have imported the dog at the same time, as a reference to it is made in connection with their earliest traditions. Of the maritime mammalia both whales and seals were formerly very numerous on the coast of the islands. There are known to be eight kinds of whales, and three of seals. The total absence of serpents and tortoises is again another notable feature.


By far the most attractive part of the New Zealand fauna is the birds, which include some of the most beautiful species of the feathered tribe. Of these the following are among the most remarkable:—

  • Hihipopokero.—Turdvs albifrons. A small brown bird with a white head.
  • Hioi.—Ptilocinctatis. A ground-lark, very common on the plains of the interior of North Island.
  • Huia.—Genus Melliphagus. A black bird, about the size of a jay; it has two little fleshy lappets under the beak: its tail feathers, tipped with white, are much prized by the Maories as ornaments for the hair.page 361
  • Hurukiwi.—A wild duck.
  • Kahu.—Falcon harpe. A large hawk.
  • Kaiaia.—A sparrow-hawk.
  • Kaka.—Nestor meridionalis. A large greenish-brown parrot. The author found this bird to be very common in the forests of the Whanganui, where its harsh note was the first sound to break the morning stillness. This family of parrots is characterized by an aquiline or overlapping beak.
  • Kakapo.—Strigaps habroptilus. A ground parrot; colour, green and yellow; it does not fly, although it has wings, but hops from branch to branch; it is nocturnal in its habits.
  • Kakariki.—Platycerus Novœ Zealandiœ. A pretty, green parrot.
  • Karewarewa.—Falco brunnea. A quail-hawk.
  • Katatai.—Ralus assimilus. A kind of rail.
  • Kauau.—Graculus carunculatus. A shag or cormorant.
  • Kea.—A large parrot, common in the South Island. It was formerly a vegetarian, but in recent times it has developed a strong taste for flesh, and has wrought great destruction among sheep flocks. The fat surrounding the kidney appears to be its chief delight. Planting its strong claws into the woolly loins of the live sheep, it, by the aid of its powerful beak, pierces through those parts of the flesh and fat around the kidney, which it greedily devours, while the animal is powerless to resist its attacks.
  • Kereru.—Columbus spadicea. A wood-pigeon.
  • Kiwi.—Fam. Struthionidœ. (See Wingless Birds.)
  • Kohihi.—Endynamys taitensis. A bird.
  • Kohaperoa.—A bird of passage, the New Zealand cuckoo; it is a handsome bird, spotted like the sparrow-hawk.
  • Kokako.—The New Zealand crow.
  • Kororeke.—The New Zealand quail.
  • Koriniako.—Genus Melliphagus. The bell-bird, one of the sweetest songsters.
  • Kotare.—Halcyon vagrans. The king-fisher.
  • Kotuku.—Ardea flavirostris. A large white crane.
  • Koukou.—A small nocturnal owl, the "morepork" of the colonists.
  • Kuruengo.—The shoveller, a duck of Lake Taupo.
  • Mata.—A swamp-sparrow, a small brown bird with long tail feathers.
  • Matuku.—Botaurus melanotus. A bittern.
  • Mirmiro.—Miro albifrons. A small, graceful bird.
  • Moa.—Fam. Struthionidœ. (See Wingless Birds.)
  • Moakeroa.—A black bird with red bill and feet.page 362
  • Ngirungiru.—-Petroica macrocophala. A tomtit.
  • Parera.—Anas superciliosa. A wild duck.
  • Pihana.—A little black and white bird.
  • Pihoihoi.—The New Zealand ground-lark.
  • Piwakawaka.—Rhipidura flabellifera. The fantail fly catcher, a small graceful bird with a spreading tail.
  • Poaka.—Himantopis. Pied stilt.
  • Popokatea.—Orthornyx heteroalytus. The New Zealand canary bird.
  • Poporoihewa.—A snipe-like bird.
  • Puetoeto.—A bird living in swamps.
  • Pukeko.—Porophyrino melanotus. The swamp-hen; red bill and feet, back black, breast bright blue.
  • Putaugitange.—Casarca variegata. The paradise-duck.
  • Riroriro.—Fam. Luscindœ. A small wren.
  • Ruru.—Strigidœ Athene. An owl.
  • Takupu.—A white gull.
  • Tarapunga.—A small gull, frequenting Lake Taupo.
  • Tatarihuka.—A small bird, held sacred by the Maories.
  • Tatariki.—Fam. Luscindœ. A small bird.
  • Tewakawaka.—Fam. Rhipidura fuliginosa. The black fantail.
  • Titi.—Palecanoides urinatrix. The mutton-bird
  • Toetoe.—Certhiparus Novœ Zealandiœ. A small bird.
  • Totoara.—The robin.
  • Tui.—Prosthemadera Novœ Zealandiœ. The parson-bird. A beautiful black bird, the size of a thrush; plumage a lustrous blue-black, irradiated with green hues, pencilled with silver-grey, and white delicate hair-feathers under the throat, suggestive of a parson's tie. It has a melodious, clear note, and mocks other birds. It is easily domesticated, and may be taught to talk.
  • Weka.—Ralus Australis. A large rail, the wood-hen, frequently met with on the high land of the interior.
  • Wio.—The blue mountain duck.
  • Wiorau.—A small grey duck, frequenting the forest streams.

Sea Birds.

The sea birds inhabiting the coasts of New Zealand are fairly numerous, and among them are two small kinds of penguin.

  • Hawe.—A large gull, the tail-feathers of which are highly prized by the natives.
  • Hoiho.—Eudyptes antipodes. A small penguin, inhabiting the coasts of the South Island.page 363
  • Kao.—A gull frequenting the shores at night.
  • Karoro.—A gull.
  • Kawan.—Graculus carruculatus. A shag or cormorant.
  • Kuaka.—A small sea bird.
  • Pekeha.—A gull.
  • Pitoitoi.—A small sea bird.
  • Taiko.—A gull.
  • Takahikahi.—A sea-shore bird.
  • Takupu.—A white gull.
  • Tara.—Lula Australis. A sea swallow.
  • Tarapunga.—A small, graceful gull, inhabiting Lake Taupo; very numerous in the vicinity of Tokanu.
  • Titipu.—A gull.
  • Torea.—Hœmatopus picatus. The oyster-catcher; has red legs and beak.
  • Toroa.—Diomedia exulans. The albatross.

Wingless Birds.

The almost extinct family of the Struthionidœ, or wingless birds, of New Zealand, forms one of the most interesting features in the fauna of the country. All the members of this genus are wholly different from the common types of birds. They are remarkable for short rudimentary wings, entirely unfit for flight, and for bones nearly devoid of air cells; the leg muscles are of unusual strength and thickness; the feet are powerful and long, with three toes, while the plumage is composed of light, shaggy feathers, almost resembling hair. Before its period of extinction, the largest member of this family, known by tradition to the natives as the moa, was the giant of the feathered tribe, the height of the several species of this bird, as computed from its remains, being as follows:—

Feet. Inches.
Dinornis Giganteus 11 0
Dinornis Robustus 8 6
Dinornis Elephantopus 6 8
Dinornis Casuarinus 5 6
Dinornis Crassus 5 0
Dinornis Didiformus 4 8

Although the remains of all these birds are of extraordinary proportions, the Dinornis elephantopus, or elephant-footed moa, is page 364distinguished by the singularly massive construction of its leg bones. The sole remaining representative of these colossal birds is the apteryx or kiwi of the natives. Of this genus there are several species. The Apteryx Australis was the first made known to science, in 1812. The Apteryx Mantelli differs from the former kind in its smaller size, shorter toes, and longer bill and less developed wings, while its plumage is of a somewhat darker colour. The Apteryx Owenii is slightly smaller than the former species, with a greyish plumage. During his journey through the interior the author found the kiwi to be yet common in the Kaimanawa Mountains, the forests of the Whanganui, in the mountainous districts of Western Taupo, and at Mount Perongia.


In New Zealand the lizards are represented by eleven species, five of which belong to the neat genus Naultinus.

  • Kakariki.—Naultinus elegans. A beautiful green lizard, now rarely found.
  • Kakawariki.—Naultinus punctatus. A green lizard with yellow spots on the back.
  • Mokonui.—A large lizard, said by the natives to be common on the Upper Whanganui.
  • Tuatard.—Hatteria puntata. A great fringed lizard, about eighteen inches long. It is now only found on the small island of Karewha, in the Bay of Plenty.
  • Around Lake Taupo the author found small brown lizards, about two inches long; and at Pangarara, near Tongariro, lizards eight inches long, of a dark-brown colour.


The insect life of New Zealand is represented by many curious forms.

  • Anuie.—A large caterpillar.
  • Aweto.—A caterpillar which feeds on the kumara.
  • Hara.—A large centipede, nearly six inches long.
  • Hataretare.—Slug-snail.
  • Hawate.—Caterpillar.
  • Heire.—Maggot.
  • Hotete.—Sphœria Robertsi. The vegetating caterpillar.page 365
  • Howaka.—A cerambyx.
  • Huhu.—A boring grub.
  • Huhu.—A moth.
  • Hurangi.—A fly.
  • Kukaraiti.—A grasshopper.
  • Kapapa. —A large cerambyx.
  • Kapokapowai.—A dragon-fly.
  • Katipo.—A venomous spider, one kind red and one black, with a red spot on the back.
  • Keha.—A flea.
  • Kekeriru.—-Cimex nemoralis. A large black wood-bug.
  • Kekerewai.—A small green beetle.
  • Kihikihi.—A grasshopper.
  • Kiriwhenua.—A garden bug.
  • Kopi.—Chrysalis.
  • Kowhitiwhiti.—A small grasshopper.
  • Kurikuri.—A grub which turns into a green, bronzed beetle.
  • Kutu.—Louse.
  • Mokoroa.—A large caterpillar.
  • Mumatana.—A large brown beetle,
  • Naenae.—Mosquito.
  • Namu.—Sand-fly.
  • Ngata.—Leech.
  • Ngaungau.—Midge.
  • Papapapa.—Small brown beetle.
  • Pepeaweto.—The grub which begets the hotete, or vegetating caterpillar.
  • Pepeatua.—Butterfly.
  • Pepeturia.—Large green moth.
  • Puawere.—Spider.
  • Purehurehu.—Large butterfly,
  • Puwerewere.—Spider.
  • Rango.—Large meat-fly.
  • Tarakihi.—Locust.
  • Titiwai.—Small luminous earthworm.
  • Toke.—A very long worm.
  • Kokoriro.—Large red weta.
  • Weta.—Deinacrida heteracantha A beetle two and a half inches in length.
page 366

A Brief Reference to the Maori Language.

The Maori alphabet is composed of fourteen letters, namely:—


  • H, K, M, N, P, R, T, W, NG.


  • A, E, I, O, U.


  • aa, ae, ai, ao, au, ee, ei, ii, oo, ou, uu.
Vowels. Sound. 1
a as a in father.
e as a in fare.
i as ee in sleep.
o as o in mole.
u as oo in shoot.
Consonants. How named.
h ha.
k ka.
m ma.
n na.
p pa.
r ra.
t ta.
w wa.
ng nga.

1 It may be set down as a general rule, to which there are, however, some few exceptions, that Maori words are always accented on the first syllable, but compound words, or words which have the dissyllabic root doubled, have a secondary accent on the second portion of the word.

The Parts of Speech.

The Article.

Te is the definite article, nga is its plural; as, te whare, the house; nga whare, the houses.

The indefinite articles are he and tetahi, a, an, or some; the plural page 367of tetahi is etahi, as he kuri, a dog; tetahi hoe, a paddle; etahi waka, canoes or some canoes.

The Noun.

The noun has two numbers, the singular and the plural, the plural being formed by the article nga prefixed to the singular; as, Te tamaiti, the child; nga tamaiti, the children.


The adjective does not precede the noun, as in English, but is placed immediately after it; as, he rakau roa, a tree long.


The personal pronouns are:—

  • Singular lst person, ahau or au, I.
  • Singular 2nd person koe, thou.
  • Singular 3rd person ia, he, she, or it.
  • Plural lst person, tatau or matou, we.
  • Plural 2nd person koutou, ye.
  • Plural 3rd person ratou, they.

Possessive Pronouns.

  • Taku, mine or my.
  • Ta taua, ta maua, ta tatou, or ta matou, ours.
  • Tau, thine or thy.
  • Ta korua, or ka koutou, yours.
  • Tana, his.
  • Ta raua, or ia ratau, theirs.

Relative Pronouns.

In the Maori there is no distinct form.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

Singular. Plural.
Tenei, this. Enei or anei.
Tena, that (next). Ena.
Tera, that (farther off). Era.
Taua, that (before mentioned). Ana.

Ia, that.

Interrogative Pronouns.

There are three, viz.:—

Wai, who; Aha, what; tehea or ehea, which.

page 368


These are of three kinds, active, neuter, and causative, each of which admits of the passive voice.

The passive is formed by adding to the active one of the following terminations:—a, ia, tia, hia, kia, ria, na, ina, ngia.

The causative verb is formed by the prefix whaka.


The present tense is formed by ka before the verb, or by e before and ana after it.

The past tense is formed by the prefix i.

The future tense is formed by the prefix Ka, e, and tera.


Ae, yes, affirmation.
Kahore, no, not, on the contrary.
Ekhore, not.
Au or aua, I do not know.
InaKaura, a little while ago.
Inapo, last night.
Inanahi, yesterday.
Inaoake, day before yesterday.
Aianei, to-day, now, presently.
Pea, perhaps, indeed, of course.
Ko, then, thither.
Konei, here, this place, this time.
Ake. upwards, onwards.
Atu, onwards, away.
Iho, downwards, up above, from above.
Mai, hither.
Tua, behind, rather.
Mua, before.
Roto, within, the inside place, inland.
Waho, without, the outside.
Puku, secretly, without speaking.
Niamata, in former times.
Meake, soon, presently.
Ahea, when, at. what time.
Pehea, how, in what way.
Oti, else, in question, then.
Ata, gently, deliberately.page 369
Marie, quietly.
Hanuga, besides, not.
Kau, only, alone.
Ki, very.
Ara, namely.


E, by.
0, of, belonging to.
Whaka, towards, in the direction of.
To, up to, as far as.
U, according to.
Kei, at, on, in, with.
Hei, for, at; of time or place, to.
No, from, belonging to.
Mo, for, because of, on account of.
Roto, inside, within.
Waho, outside, without.
Tua, other side.
Tata, near.


A, and, as far as, there.
Koia, therefore.
Oti, or Otira, but, at the same time.
Ahakoa, although, nevertheless.
Hoki, also, for, because.
Notema, because.


Na, or nana, behold! see!
E, or 0! oh !
Aue, alas!
Taukiri, exclamation of surprise.


Tahi, one.
Rua, two.
Toru, three.
Wha, four.
Rima, five.
page 370
Ono, six.
Whitu, seven.
Waru, eight.
Iwa, nine.
Tekau, or nga huru, ten.
Tekau ma tahi, eleven.
Tekau ma rua, twelve.
Tekau ma toru, thirteen.
Tekau ma wha, fourteen.
Tekau ma rima, fifteen.
Tekau ma ono, sixteen.
Tekau ma whitu, seventeen.
Tekau ma waru, eighteen.
Tekau ma iwa, nineteen.
Rua tekau, twenty.
Rua tekau ma tahi, twenty-one.
Toru tekau, thirty.
Toru tekau ma tahi, thirty-one.
Wha tekau, forty.
Wha tekau ma tahi, forty-one.
Rima tekau, fifty.
Rima tekau matahi, fifty-one.
Ono tekau, sixty.
Whitu tekau, seventy.
Waru tekau, eighty.
Iwa tekau, ninety.
Ko tahi rau, one hundred.
Ko tahi rau ma tahi, one hundred and one.
Rua rau, two hundred.
Toru rau, three hundred.
Wha rau, four hundred.
Rima rau, five hundred,
Ono rau, six hundred.
Whitu rau, seven hundred.
Waru rau, eight hundred.
Iwa rau, nine hundred.
Ko tahi mano, one thousand.
Ko tahi mano ma tahi, one thousand and one.
Rua mano, two thousand.
page 371

Ordinal Numbers.

Te tahi, or tuatahi, the first.
Te rua, or tuarua, the second.
Te tekau, the tenth.
Te tekau ma tahi, the eleventh.
Te rua tekau, the twentieth.
Te toru tekau, the thirtieth.
Te rau, the hundredth.
Te rua o nga rau, the two hundredth.

Useful Verbs.

To be able, ahei.
To add, hono.
To assemble, huihui.
To ask, inoi.
To believe, whakapono.
To boil, koropupu.
To burn, tahu.
To call, karanga.
To carry, kawe.
To be calm, aio.
To clean, horoi.
To clear, para.
To count, tatau.
To curse, kanga.
To cut off, tope.
To cut (in two), pounto.
To desire, hiahia.
To dig, ko.
To dive, ruku.
To divide, wehewehe.
To drive, whiu.
To drink, inu.
To eat, kai.
To enter, tomo.
To entrap, reti.
To exchange, hokohoko.
To fetch, tiki.
To fell (timber), tua.
To fish, hi.
To float, taupua.
To gather, kohikohi.
To go, haere.
To be healed, mahu.
To hear, rongo.
To hide, huma.
To imitate, whakatau.
To jest. hangarau.
To kill, patu.
To lead, arabi.
To light, whakamarama.
To light up, hopai.
To listen, whakarongo.
To look, rimi.
To make, hauga.
To measure, wharite.
To murder, kohuru.
To pay, utu.
To plant, whakato.
To play, takaro.
To plunder, muru.
To pray, muru.
To run, oma.
To rest, okioki.
To see, kite.
To sell, hoko.
To sew, tui.
To shine, tiaho.
To sing, waiata.
To speak, ki.
To stop, whakamutu.page 372
To sow, rui.
To swim, kaukoe.
To take, tango.
To teach, ako.
To understand, mohio.
To undo, wewete.
To watch, mataara.
To wash, horoi.
To work, mahi.

Useful Nouns.

Abyss, torere.
Anger, riri.
Boundary, rohe.
Bridge, arawhata.
Canoe, waka.
Carving, whakairo.
Child, tamahiti.
Council, runanga.
Dance, haka.
Daylight, awatea.
Dog, kuri.
Door, tatau.
Dust, nehu.
Egg, hua.
Eel, koiro.
Feather, how.
Fence, taiepa.
Firewood, ahi.
Floor-mat, takapau.
Ford, kauranga.
Girdle, tatua.
Hand, ringaringa.
Heat, pukaka.
Hatchet, patiti.
Jealousy, hae.
Lake, roto.
Landing-place, tauranga.
Man, tangata.
Mind, hinengaro.
Plain, raorao.
Precipice, pari.
Proverb, whakatauki.
Priest, ariki.
Rope, whakaheke.
Row, rarangi.
Seaside, tatahi.
Ship, kaipuke.
Shoal, tahuna.
Skin, hiako.
Sky, rangi.
Smoke, auahi.
Song, waiata.
Spear, tao.
Speech, reo.
Sport, takaro.
Spring of water, puna.
Steam, korohu.
Summit, teitei.
Tree, rakau.
Valley, wharua.
Verandah, whakamahau.
Water, wai.
Waterfall, wairere.
Woman, wahine.
Year, tau.

Useful Adjectives.

Abundant, ranea.
Afraid, wehi.
Aged, kaumatua.
Ashamed, whakama.
Bad, kino.
Bald, pakira.
Black, pango.
Blind, matapo.
Brave, maia.
Bright, kanapa.page 373
Broad, whanui.
Calm, marino.
Carved, whakairo.
Concealed, huna.
Conceited, whakahihi.
Confused, porauraha.
Damp, maku.
Dark, pouri.
Deep, hohonu.
Deceitful, hangarau.
Dry, maroke.
Fat, momona.
False, horihori.
G-ood, pai.
Great, Nui.
Hard, pakeke.
Heavy, toimaha.
High, teiti.
Hot, wera.
Idle, mangere.
Light, mama.
Loose, korokoro.
Narrow, whaiti.
Near, tutata.
New, hou.
Noisy, turituri.
Open, tuwhera.
Playful, takaro.
Quarrelsome, pahani.
Quick, kakama.
Quiet, marie.
Red, whero.
Ripe, pakari.
Round, porotaka.
Salt, mataitai.
Shallow, pakupaku.
Sharp, koi.
Short, poto.
Slippery, pahekeheke.
Slow, ngoikore.
Small, iti.
Soft, ngawari.
Sour, kawa.
Strong, kaha.
Tall, roa.
Tame, rarata.
Thick, matotoru.
Thin, keroki.
Timid, wehi.
True, pono.
Uncooked, kaimata.
Wasteful, maumau.
Weak. iwikore.
Wet, maku.
White, ma.
Winding, awhiowhio.
Wild, maka.
Wearisome, hoha.
page 374