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State Authority, Indigenous Autonomy: Crown-Maori Relations in New Zealand/Aotearoa 1900-1950


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1 Hill, Richard S, 'Autonomy and Authority: Rangatiratanga and the Crown in Twentieth Century New Zealand: An Overview', Wellington, 2000 (for a short summary see Hill, Richard S and O'Malley, Vincent, The Maori Quest for Rangatiratanga/Authority, 1840-1920, Wellington, 2000). The terms 'authority' and 'autonomy' have often been used conjointly in recent times to reflect Maori aspirations: eg, Sorrenson, M P K, 'Towards a Radical Reinterpretation of New Zealand History: The Role of the Waitangi Tribunal', in Kawharu, I Hugh (ed), Waitangi: Maori and Pakeha Perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi, Auckland, 1989, p 159, refers to the chiefs in 1840 viewing the Treaty as 'a guarantee of their autonomy and authority'. My practice is to use 'autonomy' as an approximation of rangatiratanga and 'authority' as a shorthand for state authority and all it implies, including coercive and hegemonic functions.

2 Smith, Linda Tuhiwai, Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, Dunedin, 1999, p 1 (for 'privilege' quotes); Freire, Paulo, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 1970 (New York, 1988), especially chs 1, 4; Fanon, Frantz, The Wretched of the Earth, New York, 1963; Sutherland, I L G (ed), The Maori People Today: A General Survey, Wellington, 1940, p 10 (for 'sad story' quote).

3 Akenson, Donald Harman, 'No Petty People: Pakeha History and the Historiography of the Irish Diaspora', in Fraser, Lyndon (ed), A Distant Shore: Irish Migration and New Zealand Settlement, Dunedin, 2000, pp 13-15 (includes 'bi-culturally' quote); Meredith, Paul, 'Hybridity in the Third Space: Rethinking Bi-Cultural Politics in Aotearoa/New Zealand', He Pukenga Korero, 4(2), 1999, pp 12-14 (for 'reconceptualisation' quotes); Simon, Judith (ed), Nga Kura Maori: The Native Schools System 1867-1969, Auckland, 1998, p 2.

4 The literature on resistance is vast. For a brief attempt at comparative resistance of relevance to New Zealand, see Gump, James O, 'A Spirit of Resistance: Sioux, Xhosa, and Maori Responses to Western Dominance, 1840-1920', Pacific Historical Review, Feb 1997. For other comparative work, see Kersey, Harry A Jr, Indigenous Sovereignty in Two Cultures: Maori and American Indians Compared, Wellington, 2000; Weaver, John C, The Great Land Rush and the Making of the Modern World, 1650- 1900, Montreal/Kingston, 2003; and O'Malley, Vincent, Indigenous Land Rights in an International Context: A Survey of the Literature Relating to Australia, New Zealand and North America, Wellington, 2000. For Maori armed resistance and military response, see Belich, James, The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict, Auckland, 1986. For a perspective regarding ongoing resistance in New Zealand, and the Crown's coercion-based responses, see Hill, Richard S, Policing the Colonial Frontier: The Theory and Practice of Coercive Social and Racial Control in New Zealand, 1767-1867, Wellington, 1986 (two-book set); The Colonial Frontier Tamed: New Zealand Policing in Transition, 1867-1886, Wellington, 1989; and The Iron Hand in the Velvet Glove: The Modernisation of Policing in New Zealand, 1886-1917, Palmerston North, 1995. These books form the first three volumes in 'The History of Policing in New Zealand' series. For the fourth, see Dunstall, Graeme, A Policeman's Paradise? Policing a Stable Society 1918-1945, Palmerston North, 1999. See too Spoonley, P, Macpherson, C, Pearson, D and Sedgwick, C (eds), Tauiwi: Racism and Ethnicity in New Zealand, Palmerston North, 1984, pp 103-4.

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5 The amount of literature on the Treaty of Waitangi' is sizeable and ever expanding. For a starting point, see Orange, Claudia, The Treaty of Waitangi, Wellington, 1987; for a brief account, Gilling, Bryan and O'Malley, Vincent, The Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand History, Wellington, 2000.

6 Ward, Alan, An Unsettled History: Treaty Claims in New Zealand Today, Wellington, 1999, p 1 and Parts I and II; see too Alan Ward's 1974 work A Show of Justice: Racial 'Amalgamation' in Nineteenth Century New Zealand, Auckland, 1995 (rev ed), and Durie, Mason, Te Mana, Te Kawanatanga: The Politics of Maori Self-Determination, Auckland, 1998. Several works since the 1960s have challenged the historiography of the past and led to a paradigm shift. See especially James Belich's works: New Zealand Wars; 'I Shall Not Die': Titokowaru's War 1868-1869, Wellington, 1989; Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century, Auckland, 1996; and Paradise Reforged: A History of the New Zealanders from the 1880s to the Year 2000, Auckland, 2001 (whose themes inform significant aspects of this book). See also Parsonson, Ann, 'The Challenge to Maori Mana', in Rice, Geoffrey (ed), The Oxford History of New Zealand, Auckland, 1992 (2nd ed); Veracini, Lorenzo, Negotiating a Bicultural Past: An Historiographical 'Revolution' in 1980s Aotearoa/New Zealand, Wellington, 2001; and Ballara, Angela, Iwi: The Dynamics of Maori Tribal Organisation from c.1769 to c.1945, Wellington, 1998, p 336.

7 Ward, Show of Justice, is a ground-breaking work in its detailing, inter alia, of Maori agency and aspiration; for other aspects of this and the Crown reaction, see Hill, Iron Hand, Introduction and ch 1; O'Malley, Vincent, Agents of Autonomy: Maori Committees in the Nineteenth Century, Wellington, 1997 (rev ed, 1998); Belich, New Zealand Wars; McHugh, Paul, The Maori Magna Carta: New Zealand Law and the Treaty of Waitangi, Auckland, 1991, p 64; a number of reports within the Waitangi Tribunal/Treaty claims resolution processes stress such themes.

8 McHugh, Magna Carta, pp 46, 95; Metge, Joan, New Growth from Old: The Whanau in the Modern World, Wellington, 1995, pp 310-11; Dawson, Richard, The Treaty of Waitangi and the Control of Language, Wellington, 2001, p 59; Morris, Paul, 'Community Beyond Tradition', in Heelas, Paul, Lash, Scott and Morris, Paul (eds), Detraditionalization: Critical Reflections on Authority and Identity, Oxford, 1996, pp 238-46; Durie, E T J, 'The Treaty in Maori History', in Renwick, W L (ed), Indigenous Rights, 1991; Andrews, C Lesley, 'Aspects of Development, 1870-1890', in Kawharu, I Hugh (ed), Conflict and Compromise: Essays on the Maori Since Colonisation, Wellington, 1975, p 93; Love, R Ngatata, 'Policies of Frustration: The Growth of Maori Politics: The Ratana/Labour Era', PhD thesis, Wellington, 1977, pp 8-9, 23, 26, 31; Sinclair, Keith, A Destiny Apart: New Zealand's Search for National Identity, Wellington, 1986, p 208; Yeatman, Anna, 'Justice and the Sovereign Self', in Wilson, Margaret and Yeatman, Anna (eds), Justice and Identity: Antipodean Practices, Wellington, 1995, p 209; Awatere, Donna, Maori Sovereignty, Auckland, 1984, pp 16, 20 (including 'no justice' quote); Armstrong, David, and Stirling, Bruce, 'A Summary History of the Wellington Tenths: 1839-88', Wellington, 1992; Rigby, Barry, 'Historians and Lawyers in the Public Arena', paper presented to the New Zealand Historical Association Conference, Hamilton, 1999, p 2; Biggs, Bruce, 'Humpty Dumpty and the Treaty of Waitangi', in Kawharu (ed), Waitangi, argues that the two Treaty versions are in effect different documents altogether.

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9 Durie, in Renwick (ed), p 157 (for 'integrity' quote); Biggs; Belich, New Zealand Wars; Ward, Alan, 'Commentary: The Treaty and the Purchase of Maori Land', New Zealand Journal of History (NZJH), 22(2), Oct 1988, p 173 (for 'laws and processes' quote); Binney, Judith, 'The Maori and the Signing of the Treaty of Waitangi', in Green, David (ed), Towards 1990: Seven Leading Historians Examine Significant Aspects of New Zealand History, Wellington, 1989, esp p 29 (for 'mutual benefit' quote); Parsonson, in Rice (ed), p 197 (for 'loss of autonomy' quote).

10 Belich, Making Peoples, passim and p 306; Orange, Treaty; Walker, Ranginui, Ka Whawhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End, Auckland, 1990; Waitangi Tribunal, The Taranaki Report: Kaupapa Tuatahi, Wellington, 1996, p 6. Pockets of 'Maori autonomy' persisted for a long time, some of them having some means of coercion. Rua Kenana's establishment of a new Zion in the Urewera, and its bloody invasion and dismantling by the state in 1916, may be seen as the last manifestation of overt separationist autonomy and its crushing: see Binney, Judith, Chaplin, Gillian and Wallace, Craig, Mihaia: The Prophet Rua Kenana and His Community at Maungapohatu, Wellington, 1979; Hill, Iron Hand, pp 382-90; Webster, Peter, Rua and the Maori Millennium, Wellington, 1979.

11 It is instructive to compare the first edition of The Oxford History of New Zealand, Wellington, 1981, edited by W H Oliver and B S Williams, and the second, revised version, edited by Geoffrey Rice, Auckland, 1992; see especially Rice's preface to the second edition, p ix. (Refer also to Veracini, Bicultural Past and Smith; and to Sissons, Jeffrey, Te Waimana/The Spring of Mana: Tuhoe History and the Colonial Encounter, Dunedin, 1991, p 289 for the 'seeking to decolonise' quote.) I do not argue that modern historiography, including the various types of Treaty claims resolution reports, necessarily or always constitutes (or is intended to constitute) 'sound history'; on the contrary, I find much of it wanting in certain key aspects. There is the beginning of a debate on such issues. The Waitangi Tribunal, for example, has been seen as depicting a 'retrospective utopia' whereby settlement 'should and could have led to a regime characterised by partnership, power-sharing and economic well-being for Maori as well as for Pakeha', a 'counterfactual history' of 'policies and institutions' which were not put in place and of 'presentist' judging of the Crown's past actions. This is seen as a political divergence from 'academic' ways of examining the past: Oliver, W H, 'The Future Behind Us: The Waitangi Tribunal's Retrospective Utopia', in Sharp, Andrew and McHugh, Paul (eds), Histories, Power and Loss: Uses of the Past — A New Zealand Commentary, Wellington, 2001. Prior discussions of relevance include Rigby's 'Historians and Lawyers' and R P Boast's 'Lawyers, Historians, Ethics and the Judicial Process', Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, (28)1, March 1998. This is not the forum to engage in debate about the quality and purpose of the Tribunal's reports, though it might be noted that since these reflect evidence from 'experts', including 'academics', if there is within them a shortfall in academic standards, this might partly reflect developments within 'the academy'. I should note that as this book was going to press, Giselle Byrnes' critique The Waitangi Tribunal and New Zealand History, Melbourne, 2004, was published. (See too endnote 16.)

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12 Durie, 'Treaty in Maori History', p 160 (for 'dogged determination' quote); Durie made a number of such statements during the seminal years when he headed the Waitangi Tribunal, and autonomy is central to his privately circulated paper 'Custom Law' in January 1994, which he backgrounds in 'Ethics and Values', in Indigenous Peoples and the Law, 1999, http://www.kennett.co.nz/law/indigenous/1999/39.html; see too his 'Maori Autonomy: Preventing Power Games', Stimulus, May 1998. Orange, Claudia J, 'A Kind of Equality: Labour and the Maori People 1935-1949', MA thesis, Auckland, 1977, p 7 (for 'separatist trend' quote). For some initial guidance on state—indigenous relationships, see Winks, Robin W (ed), The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume V: Historiography, Oxford, 1999. I use the term 'post-colonial' in this section in a technical sense to mean the period after New Zealand ceased formally to be a colony; this is quite different from its increasing (and very useful) application to the period following the time when the country remained informally tied to Britain — in other words, either from soon after the Second World War onwards, or (following James Belich's formulation, in his 1996/ 2001 general history of New Zealand, of 'recolonisation' from the 1880s to the 1970s) from the time Britain joined 'Europe'. And, of course, it is a separate usage from that employed in 'post-colonial discourse studies'.

13 That the state aim was assimilation is unmistakable; the 1844 Native Trust Ordinance, for example, stood for 'assimilating as speedily as possible the habits and ways of the Native to those of the European population', as noted in the Record of Documentation for Claim WAI 145, Waitangi Tribunal, document B4, p 27. Many scholars have been misled by Crown rhetoric, and by Crown actions that were designed only as temporary expedients. Refer to Part 1 of Hill, Policing the Colonial Frontier; Ward, Show of Justice, p viii; Sorrenson, M P K, 'The Purchase of Maori Lands, 1865-1892', MA thesis, University of Auckland, 1955, p 236; Ball, D G, 'Maori Education', in Sutherland (ed), p 276; Orange, 'Equality', p 7. It is instructive to trace Keith Sinclair's views through time: eg, compare A History of New Zealand, Harmondsworth, 1959, Part 1 (such as 'The Treaty of Waitangi was intended to lay a basis for a just society in which two races … could live together in amity', p 73; see too p 67 for 'noble beginning' quote), with 'Why Are Race Relations in New Zealand Better Than in South Africa, South Australia, or South Dakota?', NZJH, 5(2), October 1971, and Destiny Apart, p 200 (which includes citation of 'experiment' quote from the New Zealand Herald, 1906). On the issue of alignment of humanitarianism with settler interests, see Sorrenson, M P K, 'How to Civilize Savages: Some "Answers" from Nineteenth-Century New Zealand', NZJH, 9(2), October 1975; Adams, Peter, Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand 1830-1847, Auckland, 1977; and especially Ward, Show of Justice (including p viii for 'simply assumed' quote). For a pioneering account of the implicit and explicit use of coercion in annexation and colonisation of New Zealand, see Wards, Ian McL, The Shadow of the Land: A Study of British Policy and Racial Conflict in New Zealand 1832-1852, Wellington, 1968; and Hill, Policing the Colonial Frontier, ch 1.

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14 Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia, 'Conclusion', in Spoonley et al (eds), Tauiwi, p 245 (for 'devaluation' quote); Mead, Sidney Moko, Landmarks, Bridges and Visions: Aspects of Maori Culture, Wellington, 1997, p 130 (for 'disease' quote). A less catastrophist view from that of those quoted can be taken, in the context of imperial practice: if Maori wanted a 'full engagement' with the benefits brought by the colonisers, as seems to have been the case, some form of assimilation might have been a preferable option to the segregated reserves of other settler colonies: Ward, Show of Justice, p viii.

15 King, Michael, 'Between Two Worlds', in Oliver and Williams (eds), p 280; Riddell, Kate, '"Improving" the Maori: Counting the Ideology of Intermarriage', NZJH, 34(1), April 2000, p 83; Turbott, H B, 'Health and Social Welfare', in Sutherland (ed), p 263 (for 'good Europeans' quote); Belich, James, 'Colonization and History in New Zealand', in Winks (ed), p 184, and Paradise Reforged, ch 6; Walker, Ranginui, He Tipua: The Life and Times of Sir Apirana Ngata, Auckland, 2001, p 289 (for 'beastly communism' quote); Pugsley, Christopher, Te Hokowhitu a Tu: The Maori Pioneer Battalion in the First World War, Auckland, 1995, p 29 (for 'dark races' quote).

16 Evison, Harry C, The Long Dispute: Maori Land Rights and European Colonisation in Southern New Zealand, Christchurch, 1997, p 338 (for 'Englishman' quotes). For major coverage of official runanga, see Ward, Show of Justice, ch 9; Pratt, John, Punishment in a Perfect Society: The New Zealand Penal System 1840-1939, Wellington, 1992, pp 46ff; and Hill, Policing the Colonial Frontier, ch 10. For war and sovereignty, see Belich, New Zealand Wars, ch 4 and passim, and Orange, Treaty, ch 8. My depiction of a 'school' of wishful thinking/lost opportunity scholars was outlined in 'Autonomy and Authority' in 2000, and is covered later in this book. Suffice it to say here, its focus is different from that of recent critiques which assert that the Waitangi Tribunal displays 'a historical mentality less concerned to recapture past reality than to embody present aspiration': Oliver, 'Future Behind Us', p 9. Rather than engaging with the Tribunal and its reports, it addresses the work of modern historians and suggests that many of them fall short of fully appreciating the essentially coercive and hegemonic nature of imperialism, colonisation and capitalism, and greatly underestimate the complexities of the state's social (including 'racial') control mechanisms. (See too endnote 11.)

17 Brooking, Tom, '"Busting up" the Greatest Estate of All; Liberal Maori Land Policy, 1891-1911', NZJH, 26(1), April 1992, p 97 (this essay is reprinted in Binney, Judith (ed), The Shaping of History: Essays from the New Zealand Journal of History, Wellington, 2001, as '"Bursting up" the Greatest Estate of All'; references in the current work are to the NZJH article); Oliver, 'Future Behind Us'; McHugh, Paul, 'Law, History and the Treaty of Waitangi', NZJH, 31(1), 1997, pp 45, 54-5, and 'Constitutional Myths and the Treaty of Waitangi', New Zealand Law Journal, September 1991; Ward, Unsettled, p 159; King, G S R, 'Assimilation or Separation? The Kotahitanga Parliament Movement 1891-94', in Reilly, Michael and Thomson, Jane (eds), When the Waves Rolled in upon Us: Essays in Nineteenth-Century Maori History, Dunedin, 1999, pp 163-4 (for 'chiefs' quote). (A milder version of 'lost opportunity' is to view the Crown's policies as ever wavering between pressure from settlers and its trusteeship duties towards Maori, and this can be seen in a number of reports in the Treaty settlement processes.)

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18 Ball, p 276 (for 'native policy' quote); Mulgan, Richard, Maori, Pakeha and Democracy, Auckland, 1989, p 23 (for 'many degrees' quote); Orange, Treaty; Curnow, Jenifer, Hopa, Ngapare and McRae, Jane (eds), Rere Atu, Taku Manu! Discovering History, Language and Politics in the Maori-language Newspapers, Auckland, 2002; Orbell, Margaret (ed), He Reta ki te Maunga: Letters to the Mountain, Auckland, 2002.

19 This is not, of course, to argue that the Crown's unwillingness to give Maori a meaningful share in government should not be charted. For an example of such works, see Orange's account in a key twentieth-century period in 'Equality', passim and pp 220-2 (eg, 'Reluctance to allow Maoris a real share in Government is a consistent theme of New Zealand history'), and O'Malley's Agents.

20 Smith, pp 2-4 (including 'spaces' quotes). For the 'struggle without end' from a Maori scholar's perspective, see Walker, Ka Whawhai. See too Hill, 'Autonomy and Authority', ch 7. Note that decontextualised history sometimes reflects the beliefs of those who, under what they perceive as postmodernist scholarship, resile from the scholarly norm of perceiving patterns in things.

21 For the question of ethnocentrism, see Keenan, Danny, 'Predicting the Past: Some Directions in Recent Maori Historiography', Te Pouhere Korero Journal, March 1999, p 26; Melbourne, Hineani (ed), Maori Sovereignty: The Maori Perspective, Auckland, 1995, p 32 (for 'sovereignty' quotes); for a full working through of the 'revolutionary' interpretation, see Brookfield, F M, Waitangi & Indigenous Rights: Revolution, Law and Legitimation, Auckland, 1999.

22 Hogan, Helen M, Hikurangi ki Homburg: Henare Kohere and Terei Ngaitai with the Maori Coronation Contingent 1902, Christchurch, 1997, p 114 (for 'English flag' quote); Ausubel, David P, 'The Maori: A Study in Resistive Acculturation', in Webb, Stephen D and Collette, John (eds), New Zealand Society: Contemporary Perspectives, Sydney, 1973, p 100 (for 'reservation-like' quote); Belich, Making Peoples, p 270 (for 'impact of Europe' quote); Pearson, David, 'Biculturalism and Multiculturalism in Comparative Perspective', in Spoonley, Paul, Pearson, David and Macpherson, Cluny (eds), Nga Take: Ethnic Relations and Racism in Aotearoa/ New Zealand, Palmerston North, 1991, p 205; Keenan, 'Predicting the Past', p 29 (for 'independence of identity' quote); O'Malley, Agents; Ballara, Iwi.

23 Head, Lyndsay, 'The Pursuit of Modernity in Maori Society: The Conceptual Bases of Citizenship in the Early Colonial Period', in Sharp and McHugh (eds), p 97. (Head believes that making autonomy the 'organising principle' of race relations in the early years of the colony has led to much ignoring or demonising of Maori who were neutral towards or assisted the state; the treatment of the word in this book does not do this); Ward, Show of Justice, p ix (for 'understood' quote); O'Malley, Agents; Durie, 'Ethics and Values'; Ballara, Iwi (includes 'political unit' quote, p 19); Sharp, Andrew, Justice and the Maori: The Philosophy and Practice of Maori Claims in New Zealand since the 1970s, Auckland, 1997 (2nd ed).

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24 Meredith; Collins, Heeni, 'Nga Tangaroa Awarua', National Oral History Association of Aotearoa New Zealand Journal, 1999; Ballara, Iwi, pp 19, 282; see Office of Treaty Settlements, Healing the Past, Building a Future: A Guide to Treaty of Waitangi Claims and Negotiations with the Crown, Wellington, 2nd ed, nd, p 44, for the 'large natural groups' concept; for discussion of 'indigenous history telling', see, eg, Binney, Judith, 'Encounters Across Time: The Makings of an Unanticipated Trilogy', and other contributions to Attwood, Bain and Magowan, Fiona (eds), Telling Stories: Indigenous History and Memory in Australia and New Zealand, Wellington, 2001.

25 Boenisch-Brednich, Brigitte and Hill, Richard S, 'Biculturalism in New Zealand/ Aotearoa', in Csukas, Gyorgyi, Kiss, Reka, Kristof, Ildiko, Nagy, Ilona and Szarvas, Zsuzsa (eds), Times, Places, Passages: Ethnological Approaches in the New Millennium, Budapest, 2004; Hill, Richard S, The Treaty of Waitangi Today, Wellington, 2000; Hill, Richard S, 'The Future of Rangatiratanga', Future Times, 8, 2003 (see http://www.futurestrust.org.nz/e-FutureTimes/e-FTVol8.html#anchorhill for a fuller version); Binney, Judith, 'Maori Oral Narratives, Pakeha Written Texts: Two Forms of Telling History', NZJH, 21(1), April 1987, p 16.

26 For the above paragraphs refer particularly to O'Malley, Agents; see too Young, David, Woven by Water: Histories from the Whanganui River, Wellington, 1998, ch 6; Belich, New Zealand Wars; Ward, Show of Justice; Hill, Policing the Colonial Frontier and Colonial Frontier Tamed; Andrews; Gilling, Bryan, 'Engine of Destruction? An Introduction to the History of the Maori Land Court', Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 24(2), July 1994; Love, p 35; Edwards, Mihi, Mihipeka: Early Years, Auckland, 1990, p 7.

27 King, Michael, Te Puea: A Biography, Auckland, 1977, pp 263-4; Marr, Cathy, 'The Alienation of Maori Land in the Rohe Potae (Aotea Block), Part 2, 1900-1960', a report for the Waitangi Tribunal, Wellington, 1999, passim and ch 1.

28 King, Te Puea, pp 29, 67; Doig, Suzanne, 'The Battle for the Whanganui River 1840-1998', History Now, 4(2), October 1998; Belich, New Zealand Wars and I Shall Not Die; Hill, Frontier Tamed and Iron Hand; Love, pp 99, 102; McRae, Jane, 'Participation: Native Committees (1883) and Papatupu Block Committees (1900) in Tai Tokerau', MA thesis, University of Auckland, 1981, pp 33-4 (for Maori MPs' statement); Williams, John A, Politics of the New Zealand Maori: Protest and Co-operation, 1891-1909, Auckland, 1969, chs 3-4 (includes 'rights' quote, p 43); Jones, Pei Te Hurinui, 'Maori Kings', in Schwimmer, Erik (ed), The Maori People in the Nineteen-Sixties: A Symposium, Auckland, 1968, pp 137ff (includes 'called a king' quote, pp 138-9); personal communication from Tamihana Te Winitana.

29 Belich, James, 'Myth, Race and Identity in New Zealand', NZJH, 31(1), April 1997, p 16; Cox, Lindsay, Kotahitanga: The Search for Maori Political Unity, Auckland, 1993; McRae, pp 31-2; Walker, Ka Whawhai, pp 165-6; Parsonson, p 197; Cox, p 67; Kernot, B, People of the Four Winds, Wellington, 1972, p 64 (for 'four winds' concept); O'Malley, p 213 (for 'murmuring' quote); Orange, Treaty, pp 217, 224-5; personal communication from Tamihana Te Winitana. For a summary of the argument that by the mid-1880s both pakeha and Maori were deemed by the state to be generally 'tranquil' and orderly, see Hill, Colonial Frontier Tamed, pp x-xiii, and for an influential and relevant interpretation of pakeha society in the nineteenth century, see Fairburn, Miles, The Ideal Society and Its Enemies, Auckland, 1989.

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30 Belich, Paradise Reforged; Ward, Show of Justice, p 303; Williams, David V, Te Kooti Tango Whenua: The Native Land Court 1864-1909, Wellington, 1999, p 7; Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', p 5; Report of the Commission on 'Native Lands and Native-Land Tenure', AJHR, 1907, G1C, esp p 5; Orange, Treaty, pp 7-8; New Zealand Government, Report of Royal Commission on the Courts, Wellington, 1978, p 2 (for 'English derived law' quote).

31 Sinclair, Destiny Apart, p 204 (for 'one people' quote); New Zealand Government, The New Zealand Official Handbook 1892, Wellington, 1892, p 275; Greenland, Hauraki, 'Ethnicity as Ideology: The Critique of Pakeha Society', in Spoonley et al (eds), Tauiwi, pp 96-7; Cox.

32 Cox, pp 67-8; Walker, Ka Whawhai, pp 165ff; Else, Anne (ed), Women Together: A History of Women's Organisations in New Zealand: Nga Ropu Wahine o te Motu, Wellington, 1993, pp 4-5; O'Malley, Agents, p 212; McRae, pp 31-2; Orange, Treaty, pp 217, 222-5; Parsonson, p 197 (for 'parallel institutions' quote); Butterworth, G V and Young, H R, Maori Affairs/Nga Take Maori, Wellington, 1990, p 57. The 'good Native policy' statement by a Bay of Islands MP is cited in: Hutton, John, '"A Ready and Quick Method": The Alienation of Maori Land by Sales to the Crown and Private Individuals, 1905-30', in Loveridge, Donald M (ed), 'Twentieth Century Maori Land Administration Research Programme', a report for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Wellington, 1996 (rev ed, 1998), p 32.

33 Stokes, Evelyn, Milroy, J Wharehuia and Melbourne, Hirini, Te Urewera: Nga Iwi Te Whenua Te Ngahere: People, Land and Forests of Te Urewera, Hamilton, 1986, p xiv; Webster, p 125; Butterworth, G V, 'Aotearoa 1769-1988: Towards a Tribal Perspective: Report for Department of Maori Affairs', Wellington, 1988, ch 6, p 12; Ballara, Iwi, pp 300-1; Walker, Ka Whawhai, p 157; Binney, Judith, 'Te Mana Tuatoru: the Rohe Potae of Tuhoe', NZJH, 31(1), April 1997.

34 Pearson, David, A Dream Deferred: The Origins of Ethnic Conflict in New Zealand, Wellington, 1990, pp 219-20 and passim (and for an internationalised discussion see his The Politics of Ethnicity in Settler Societies: States of Unease, Basingstoke, 2001); Spiller, Peter, Finn, Jeremy and Boast, Richard, A New Zealand Legal History, Wellington, 1995, pp 155-6; Love, pp 103-4, 117, 121; Williams, Politics, pp 158-9; Hill, Iron Hand, p 246; O'Malley, Agents, pp 193ff; Orange, Treaty, p 55 (for Hobson quote).

35 Belich, Paradise Reforged, pp 200ff; Ballara, Iwi, p 332 (for 'Maori people' quote); Walker, He Tipua, p 107; Pocock, J G A, 'Introduction', in Pocock, J G A (ed), The Maori and New Zealand Politics, Wellington, 1965, p 5. For demographics, see Pool, Ian, The Maori Population of New Zealand 1769-1971, Auckland, 1977; see too Butterworth, G V, 'The Health of the Body, the Health of the Land: A Comparative Study of the Political Objectives and Careers of Wiremu Ratana and the Ratana Movement, and Sir Apirana Ngata', a report for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Wellington, 2000, p 110 (this report should be consulted for material of relevance to several themes of this book).

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36 Butterworth, G V, 'Apirana Ngata: The Politics of Adaptation', typescript, nd, passim and ch 2, p 9 for 'material welfare' quote (this work is a fuller and revised version of G V Butterworth's 'The Politics of Adaptation: The Political Career of Sir Apirana Ngata 1874-1928', MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 1968, and is the version mostly used for this book; see also Butterworth, G V, Sir Apirana Ngata, Wellington, 1968); Walker, He Tipua, p 81 and passim; Kaa, Wiremu and Te Ohorere (eds), Apirana Turupu Ngata, Wellington, 1996, np (for the Ngata proverb; this standard translation was passed onto the present author by Taingunguru Walker); Sissons, Jeffrey, 'The Post-Assimilationist Thought of Sir Apirana Ngata: Towards a Genealogy of New Zealand Biculturalism', NZJH, 34(1), April 2000, pp 54ff.

37 Walker, He Tipua, p 176; Keesing, Felix M, The Changing Maori, New Plymouth, 1928, pp vii, 157, 166; Lange, Raeburn T, May the People Live: A History of Maori Health Development 1900-1920, Auckland, 1999, pp 77-8, 92, 95, 119-20; Orange, 'Equality', p 8; King, 'Between Two Worlds', pp 288-9; see Veracini, Lorenzo, 'Negotiating Indigenous Resistance in the South Pacific: Australia, Aotearoa/New Zealand and Kanaky-New Caledonia, Three Cases in Historical Redescription', PhD dissertation, Brisbane, 2001, for comparative discussion.

38 Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 4, p 10 and ch 5, p 5; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 289 (for 'no alternative' quote); Sutherland (ed), pp 37ff; Love, pp 53-4, 138 (for 'death trap' quote); Walker, He Tipua, pp 118; Butterworth, 'Health of the Body', pp 63, 115; Keesing, pp vii, 157, 165-8 (including 'accumulation', 'decadence' and 'race-pride' quotes); Butterworth, Apirana Ngata and thesis, pp 16ff; Condliffe, John B, Te Rangi Hiroa: The Life of Sir Peter Buck, Christchurch, 1971, pp 8, 105, 220 (for 'partnership' quote); Cody, Joseph F, Man of Two Worlds: Sir Maui Pomare, Wellington, 1953, pp 21, 37, 44 (includes 'wisdom' quote). For later developments of Young Maori Party views in detailed ways, see Sorrenson, M P K (ed), Na To Hoa Aroha: From Your Dear Friend. The Correspondence between Sir Apirana Ngata and Sir Peter Buck 1925-50, 3 vols, Auckland, 1986-8.

39 Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 2, p 16 (for 'keep the peace' quote); Love, pp 114ff, 133; Walker, He Tipua, pp 86ff; for context, see Martin, R J, 'The Liberal Experiment', in Pocock (ed).

40 Williams, Politics, pp 107-8, 111-12, 123-4 (including 'detestation' quote); Walker, He Tipua, pp 83ff, 98; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 2, ch 5, p 11, ch 7, p 2; King, Maori: A Photographic and Social History, Auckland, 1983, p 162; Butterworth and Young, p 8; Cox, p 96; Walker, Ka Whawhai, p 175; Ormsby, M J, 'Maori Tikanga and Criminal Justice', a report for the Ministry of Justice, Wellington, nd, p 11.

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41 Maori Councils Act 1900 (No 48); Else (ed), p 5; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 9, pp 28-9; Ormsby, p 12; Walker, He Tipua, ch 4; Fleras, Augie, From Village Runanga to the New Zealand Maori Wardens' Association: A Historical Development of Maori Wardens, Wellington, 1980, ch 2; Hill, Richard S, Introducing Policing into the Rangatiratanga Discourse: An Historical Overview of the Role of Maori Police Personnel, Wellington, 2003.

42 O'Malley, Agents, ch 10; Cox, p 96; Hill, Iron Hand, pp 129, 134-7; Love, pp 104, 122, 129-31, 368; Lange, May the People Live, ch 7; Butterworth and Young, p 60; Walker, He Tipua, pp 91-2; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 6, p 11.

43 Walker, He Tipua, pp 93-4; Cody, pp 45, 70; Ward, Show of Justice, ch 9; Brooking, Tom, 'Review', in People's History, March 2000, p 5; Brooking, 'Busting', pp 92, 97-8 (for 'lost an opportunity' quote); Pearson, Dream; Boast, Richard P, 'The Mohaka—Waikare Confiscation Consolidated Report: Vol 1: The Mohaka—Waikare Confiscation and Its Aftermath', a report for the Waitangi Tribunal, Wellington, 1995, p 1398; Ward, Alan, 'Carroll, James', in Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol 2, Wellington, 1993, pp 78-81; Awatere, p 89 (for 'destiny' quote); Love, pp 54, 59 (for 'doomed' quote); re assimilation, see Williams, Politics, p 111; Belich, New Zealand Wars, esp p 302; King, Michael, The Penguin History of New Zealand, Auckland, 2003, p 468 (for 'best race relations' quote); Consedine, Robert and Consedine, Joanna, Healing our History: The Challenge of the Treaty of Waitangi, Auckland, 2001, p 101. For state and unions, see Hill, Iron Hand, pp 76-7; Holt, James, 'Compulsory Arbitration in New Zealand, 1894-1916', in Binney (ed); Walsh, Pat (ed), Trade Unions, Work and Society, Palmerston North, 1994; and Roth, Bert, Trade Unions in New Zealand Past and Present, Wellington, 1973.

44 Butterworth and Young, p 61; Walker, He Tipua, pp 96-9 and Ka Whawhai, p 175; Butterworth thesis, ch 3; Cox, p 96; Hill, Iron Hand, pp 127-8; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 290; Cody, pp 57 (for 'every step' quote), 72; Dow, Derek A, Maori Health and Government Policy 1840-1940, Wellington, 1999, p 101; Williams, Politics, pp 114-15.

45 Walker, He Tipua, p 97; Cody, pp 37, 57, 72-3; Love, p 144; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 289; Butterworth and Young, p 61; Condliffe, p 80 (for 'communism' quote); Lange, May the People Live; King, Michael, Moriori: A People Rediscovered, Auckland, 1989; Dow, pp 128-30; Durie, Mason, Whaiora: Maori Health Development, Melbourne, 1994 (2nd ed, 1998), pp 42-3; King, Te Puea, p 32.

46 Cody, p 71; Ballara, Iwi, p 312; Butterworth thesis, ch 2; Cox, pp 75, 96; Hill, Iron Hand, pp 247-8 (for 'suppress' and 'gaol' quotes); Sissons, Te Waimana; Walker, He Tipua, pp 95ff, 162-3 (for 'cultural adaptation' quote); Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 6, pp 6, 9-12 and ch 9, p 4; Love, pp 104, 122; Lange, May the People Live, pp 204-5, 258; Hunn, J K, Report on Department of Maori Affairs: with Statistical Supplement, Wellington, 1961, p 84. As this book was going to press, the Treaty of Waitangi Research Unit published Raeburn Lange's A Limited Measure of Local Self-Government: Maori Councils, 1900-1920, Wellington, 2004, and this should be referred to for detailed information about the Maori Councils.

47 Keenan, Danny, 'Bound to the Land: Maori Retention and Assertion of Land and Identity', in Pawson, Eric and Brooking, Tom (eds), Environmental Histories of New Zealand, Melbourne, 2002, p 250 (for 'paramount' quote); Walker, Ka Whawhai, passim; Love, pp 47, 150 (for 'problem' and 'cornerstone' quotes); Ward, Unsettled and National Overview: Waitangi Tribunal Rangahaua Whanui Series, 3 vols, Wellington, 1997; Kaati, John Reihana, Rohe Potae and Wahanui Paramount Chief, Te Kuiti, nd, p 58 (for 'People have come and gone …'); Melbourne (ed), pp 28-9 (includes 'disempowered' quote); Greenland, p 88 (for 'key symbol' quote); Kawharu, I Hugh, Maori Land Tenure: Studies of a Changing Institution, Oxford, 1977, pp 251, 274; King, 'Assimilation or Separation?', p 162 (includes 'chaos' quote); O'Brien, Anne-Marie, 'Taihoa: The Stout—Ngata Native Land Commission, 1907-1909', in Reilly and Thomson (eds), pp 178-9.

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48 Loveridge, Donald M, 'Maori Land Councils and Maori Land Boards: A Historical Overview, 1900 to 1952', Waitangi Tribunal Rangahaua Whanui Series, Wellington, 1996, ch 1; Butterworth and Young, pp 52, 56-7; Walker, He Tipua, p 109; Brooking, 'Busting'; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', p 16; O'Malley, Agents, pp 243-4; Cody, p 37 (for 'rehabilitation' and 'communistic' quotes); Hippolite, Joy, 'Rangahaua Whanui District 11C: Wairoa', a report for the Waitangi Tribunal, Wellington, 1996, p vii. For 'new' leaders, see Binney, Judith, Redemption Songs: A Life of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, Auckland, 1995, and Walker, He Tipua.

49 Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 7-8, 12ff, 70, 153; Walker, He Tipua, pp 89, 122; Williams, Politics, p 108; Butterworth and Young, p 59.

50 Maori Lands Administration Act 1900 (No 55); Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 5, p 16; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 12ff; Brooking, Tom, Lands for the People? The Highland Clearances and the Colonisation of New Zealand: A Biography of John McKenzie, Dunedin, 1996, p 134; Walker, Ka Whawhai, p 90 (for 'small degree' quote).

51 Maori Lands Administration Act 1900 (No 55); Butterworth, Sir Apirana Ngata, p 30 (for 'retention' quote); Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', ch 2; Butterworth and Young, p 59; Walker, He Tipua, p 90; Lange, May the People Live, ch 4; Willan, Rachael, 'Maori Land Sales, 1900-1930', in Loveridge (ed), 'Twentieth Century Programme', p 7; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 5, p 16; Ward, Unsettled, p 159.

52 Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 8-12; McRae, pp 65ff (including 'mana' quotes, pp 78-80); Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', pp 2-7, 15; Williams, Politics, pp 108-9 (for 'real autonomy' and 'legal control' quotes); Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp vii, ch 2, 21-2, 29-30; Walker, He Tipua, p 90; Cox, p 96; Boast, 'Mohaka—Waikare', p 1400; Spiller et al, p 158 (for 'creative', 'alienation' and 'restrain' quotes); Ward, Unsettled, p 161 (for 'long way' quote); Maori Lands Administration Act 1900 (No 55); O'Malley, Agents, pp 244-5.

53 Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', chs 2-4 (includes 'deprived' quote, p 36); Reports of the Commission on 'Native Lands and Native-Land Tenure', AJHR, 1907, G1—G1E and 1908, Gi—iii, and G1A—1T ['Stout—Ngata Commission'] (see G1C, p 6 for 'deprived' quote); Willan, p 7; O'Malley, Agents, pp 244-7; Williams, Politics, p 118; Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', pp 6-7; Marr, Cathy, 'The Alienation of Maori Land in the Rohe Potae (Aotea Block), 1840-1920', a report for the Waitangi Tribunal, Wellington, 1996, p 147; McRae, pp 67, 78-9 (for other Stout—Ngata Commission material), 94 (for 'reap the benefit' quotes) and passim; Butterworth and Young, p 62; Gilling, Bryan D, '"The Mana of Their Own Land": Rangatiratanga and the Maori Land Council Regime, 1900-1905', draft paper, Treaty of Waitangi Research Unit, 2004.

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54 Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 6, pp 16ff; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 153-4; McRae, pp 79, 93-4, 97; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 12-13; Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2'; Butterworth and Young, p 62; Boast, 'Mohaka—Waikare', pp 1398-9; Brooking, 'Busting'; Ward, Unsettled, p 160; Gilling, 'Mana of Their Own Land'.

55 Ward, Unsettled, pp 155, 161; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 6, p 18; Love, p 139 (for 'Maori ideal' quote); Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 43-8, 70; Walker, He Tipua, pp 132-3; Gilling, 'Mana of Their Own Land'; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', p 17 (for 'idleness' quote); Spiller et alç p 158; Boast, 'Mohaka—Waikare', p 1400 (for 'transforming' quote); 'A Native Prince', Mana, June—July 1999, p 48 (for 'communism' quote).

56 Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 12-13, 17; Gilling, Bryan D, Government Valuers, Wellington, 1996, p 53; Boast, 'Mohaka—Waikare', pp 1400ff; 'A Native Prince', Mana, June—July 1999; Love, p 139; Brooking, 'Busting'; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp vii, 43-8, 62-3, 67; Butterworth and Young, p 63; Ward, Unsettled, p 155; Walker, He Tipua, p 133; Maori Land Settlement Act 1905 (No 44); Walker, He Tipua, p 108; Williams, Politics, p 128.

57 Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 63-4; Boast, 'Mohaka—Waikare', pp 1041-3; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 22-5; O'Malley, Agents, pp 245-6; Hutton, John, 'Archival Material Relating to the Maori Land Boards 1900-1952', a report for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Wellington, 1996, p 8; Hutton, John, 'The Operation of the Waikato—Maniapoto District Maori Land Board', in Loveridge (ed), 'Twentieth Century Programme', p 8; Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', p 23; Gilling, Valuers, pp 53-4 (for 'laudable provision' quotes); Williams, Politics, p 134.

58 Reports of the Commission on 'Native Lands and Native-Land Tenure', AJHR, 1907, G1—G1E and 1908, Gi—iii, and G1A—1T; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', ch 6 (includes 'own land' quote, p 50) and pp 71-2; Butterworth and Young, p 66; Walker, He Tipua, pp 131ff; O'Brien; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, p 25 (for 'mediating' quote); Love, p 139 (for 'Maori ideal' quote); Hunn, p 60 (for 'hierarchy of chiefs' quote).

59 Walker, He Tipua, pp 134ff; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', ch 6 and p 67; O'Malley, Agents, pp 244ff; Reports of the Commission on 'Native Lands and Native-Land Tenure', AJHR, 1907, G1—G1E and 1908, Gi—iii, and G1A—1T; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 289 (for 'European interests' quote); Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, pp 25ff; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 27-8 (for 'mana' quote).

60 King, Maori, pp 159-60; Boast, 'Mohaka—Waikare', p 1404; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, pp 21-2; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 26-30; Love, pp 137-9; O'Brien; Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', pp 21-2, 24, 27; Waitangi Tribunal, Ngai Tahu Report 1991, 3 vols, Wellington, 1991, pp 993-9; Evison, p 389; Armstrong, David, 'Land for Landless Natives', Waitangi Tribunal Document WAI 27, M16, Wellington, nd, p 55 (for 'unsatisfactory resolution' quote); Williams, Politics, p 117.

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61 For the whakatauki, see Williams, Charlotte, The Too-Hard Basket: Maori and Criminal Justice Since 1980, Wellington, 2001, p vi. Conflation of land and collective identity fuels 'anti-Treatyist' writers and publicists, who claim, for example, that it is 'impossible to see how … tribal self-management could outlast the sale of land': Round, David, Truth or Treaty? Commonsense Questions about the Treaty of Waitangi, Christchurch, 1998, p 101. For the anti-Treaty writers, see Hill, Richard S, Anti-Treatyism and Anti-Scholarship: An Analysis of Anti-Treatyist Writings, Wellington, 2002.

62 Campbell, S K L, 'Land Alienation, Consolidation and Development in the Urewera 1912-1950', a report for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Wellington, 1997 (Waitangi Tribunal Document Wai 36, A9), pp 8-9, 25 (for 'hindrance' quote), 62 (for 'tribal holdings' quote), 106 (for 'tribal administration' quote), 147; Spiller et al, p 156; Stokes et al, pp xiv (includes 'breach' quote), 55ff, 160 (for 'foreign territory' quote); Ward, Unsettled, p 157; Walker, He Tipua, pp 195-8; Ballara, Iwi, p 301; O'Malley, Agents, pp 236ff.

63 Campbell, 'Urewera', pp 20ff and passim; King, Michael, Nga Iwi o te Motu: One Thousand Years of Maori History, Auckland, 1997, pp 49-50 (for 'potentially' quote); O'Malley, Agents, ch 9; Stokes et al, pp 86, 95 (including 'Kick the Maoris out' quote).

64 Williams, Politics, pp 120-2, 140-3; Murray, Tom, Taylor, Kerry, Tepanaia, Joe and Rameka, Nora, 'Towards a History of Maori and Trade Unions', in Martin, John F and Taylor, Kerry (eds), Culture and the Labour Movement: Essays in New Zealand Labour History, Palmerston North, 1991, pp 55-6. For the background and significance of the 'great strike', see Olssen, Erik, The Red Feds, Auckland, 1988 and Hill, Iron Hand, chs 18, 20.

65 Scott, Dick, Ask That Mountain: The Story of Parihaka, Auckland, 1975; Hill, Colonial Frontier Tamed, pp 327-31; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 288; Dictionary of New Zealand Biography (DNZB), Te Kingitanga: The People of the Maori King Movement, Wellington/Auckland, 1996, pp 92ff; Williams, Politics, pp 118-19, 137-9, 144; King, Te Puea, pp 67-8, 102-3; Orange, Treaty, p 227; Hill, Richard S, 'The Policing of Colonial New Zealand', in Anderson, David M and Killingray, David (eds), Policing the Empire: Government, Authority and Control, 1839-1940, Manchester, 1991, p 67 (for 'absorption' quote); Love, pp 104-5, 144-5; Gould, Ashley, 'Maori Land Development 1929-1954: An Introductory Overview with Representative Case Studies', a report for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Wellington, 1996, p 59 (for 'averse' quote); McCan, David, Whatiwhatihoe: The Waikato Raupatu Claim, Wellington, 2001, pp 173-4.

66 Belich, Making Peoples, pp 263-4; Hutt, Marten, Te Iwi Maori me te Inu Waipiro: He Tuhituhinga Hitori/Maori and Alcohol: A History, Wellington, 1999, pp 61, 67, 83-4 (p 67 includes 'the man' quote; for a slightly different version, see Walker, He Tipua, p 218); Marr, 'Alienation', chs 3-4 and 'Rohe Potae, Part 2'.

67 Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 69, 76-8; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, pp 26ff; Walker, He Tipua, pp 149-50; Frame, Alex, Salmond: Southern Jurist, Wellington, 1995, pp 112-14; Boast, Richard, 'Maori Land and the Treaty of Waitangi', in Boast, Richard, Erueti, Andrew, McPhail, Doug and Smith, Norman, Maori Land Law, Wellington, 1999, esp pp 282ff; Native Land Act 1909 (No 15); Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', p 31 (for 'Native lands' quote).

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68 Hamer, David, The New Zealand Liberals, Auckland, 1988, pp 306-7; Willan, p 12; Walker, He Tipua, p 137-8; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards' (includes 'integrated system' quote, p vii); Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, pp 27-8 (for 'safeguards' and 'significant recognition' quotes); Butterworth, 'Politics of Adaptation', ch 9, pp 10ff; Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', pp 5, 14, 16 (for 'due consideration' quote), 30-1, 41; Campbell, S K L, 'National Overview on Land Consolidation Schemes 1909-1931', a report for the Crown Forestry Rental Trust, Wellington, 1998, ch 3; Love, pp 54, 139 (for 'reversal' and 'trading' quotes); Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', pp 8-9; Butterworth and Young, pp 66-7 (includes 'legal recognition' quote).

69 Ward, Unsettled, pp 159, 169; Butterworth and Young, pp 66-7; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 75, 84ff, 115, 118; Walker, He Tipua, pp 172, 184; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 10, pp 4, 23 and 'Aotearoa', ch 6, p 31 (for 'proprietorship' quote); Hutton, 'Waikato—Maniapoto', p 30 (for 'agent' quote); Bennion, Tom, 'The Maori Land Court and Maori Land Boards 1909-1952', Waitangi Tribunal Rangahaua Whanui Series Working Paper, Wellington, 1997, p 40 (for 'facilitators' quote); Hutton, 'Ready and Quick', p 44 (for 'juggernaut' quotes).

70 Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 108 (for 'marginally' quote), 126-7 (includes 'check', 'the Judge' and 'vestige' quotes), 132; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, pp 32-9; Walker, He Tipua, p 184; Butterworth and Young, pp 68-9; Willan, p 13; Hutton, 'Waikato—Maniapoto', pp 17, 23, 25, 30 and 'Ready and Quick', pp 18, 44, 46; Bennion; Campbell, 'National Overview', pp 55ff; Marr, 'Rohe Potae, Part 2', pp 9-13, 28-9; Native Land Amendment Act 1913 (No 58); Love, p 148 (for 'steeped' quote).

71 Gardiner, Wira, Te Mura o Te Ahi: The Story of the Maori Battalion, Auckland, 1992, pp 13-22; Else (ed), pp 5-6, 23-4; Walker, He Tipua, pp 186-7; Gould, Ashley, 'Maori and the First World War', in McGibbon, Ian (ed), The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History, Auckland, 2000; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 7, pp 43-4, 50; O'Connor, P S, 'The Recruitment of Maori Soldiers, 1914-1918', Political Science, 19(2), 1967; Committee of the Maori Members of Parliament, 'A Description Concerning the Maori Contingent of Aotearoa and Te Waipounamu Who Took Part in the Great War', in Pugsley, Christopher, Te Hokowhitu a Tu: The Maori Pioneer Battalion in the First World War, Auckland, 1995, ch 1 [English translation] and chs 2-3 (includes 'good enough' quote, p 35).

72 Gould, 'First World War'; Walker, He Tipua, p 188; Gardiner, pp 16-22; King, Te Puea, p 81; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 11, pp 5-7; Pugsley, pp 45ff.

73 King, Te Puea, pp 77, 84-7; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 7, p 48; Walker, He Tipua, p 189; DNZB, Kingitanga, esp pp 95, 105, 114, 120; Baker, Paul, King and Country Call: New Zealanders, Conscription and the Great War, Auckland, 1988; King, 'Between Two Worlds', pp 285, 288; Hill, Iron Hand, pp 382-90; Pugsley, pp 66-81.

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74 Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 130-1; O'Malley, Vincent, 'Progressive Paternalism: Maori and the First Labour Government', in Race Gender Class, 14, 1992; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 7, p 55; Butterworth and Young, p 72; Walker, He Tipua, p 190; Thomson, Jane, 'The Rehabilitation of Servicemen of World War II in New Zealand 1940 to 1954', PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 1983; Native Department Report on the Working of the Native Land Courts, Native Land Boards, and Native Land Purchase Board for Year Ended 31 March 1920, AJHR, 1920, G9, pp 2-3 (for 'small area', 'suitable' and 'occupation' quotes).

75 Hunn, p 46 (for 'allowed to remain' quote); Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, pp 20-1, ch 7, pp 59, 64; Walker, He Tipua, pp 112-13, 230; Harris, Aroha, 'Maori Land Title Improvement since 1945', NZJH, 31(1), April 1997, pp 135-6 (includes 'full production' quotes); Bassett, Michael, Coates of Kaipara, Auckland, 1995, p 75; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 12, pp 18-19; Ward, Unsettled, pp 150-2; Prichard, Ivor and Waetford, Hemi, Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Laws Affecting Maori Land and Powers of the Maori Land Court, Wellington, 1965, p 119 (for 'fractions of ownership' and 'farming' quotes); Wood, F L W, This New Zealand, Hamilton, 1946, p 173 (for 'authority' quote); Love, p 60 (for 'traditional' quote).

76 Butterworth, G V and S M, The Maori Trustee, Wellington, 1991, p 57 and Appendix 1; Hunn, pp 50, 54; Campbell, 'Urewera', ch 2 and 'National Overview', ch 3; Gould, 'Land Development', pp 14, 21, 34; Butterworth, G V, 'Trustee Law and the Trust Deed: Their Implications for Governance', unpublished manuscript, Wellington, 1998 (includes 'requirements' quote); Wood, p 172 (for 'reconciling' quote); King, Maori, p 200; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 137-40; Department of Maori Affairs, The Maori Today, Wellington, 1949, p 8.

77 Butterworth and Young, pp 73-4; Butterworth and Butterworth, pp 57-8; Walker, He Tipua, p 233; Gould, 'Land Development', pp 13, 23, 72-3, 83; King, Te Puea, pp 149-50, 156; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 12; Ngata, Apirana T, 'Maori Land Settlement', in Sutherland (ed), p 96; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 7, pp 65-6; A Maori View of the 'Hunn Report', Christchurch, 1961, p 23 (for 'replacement' and 'genius' quotes).

78 Walker, He Tipua, pp 241, 253; Loveridge, 'Land Councils and Land Boards', pp 141-2; Department of Maori Affairs, The Maori Today, p 8; Wood, p 174; Durie, Te Mana, p 141; Campbell, 'Urewera', pp 117-18; Gould, 'Land Development', pp 7, 21, 23, 34, 37, 49, 52-3, 72-3, 83-4; Owen, Graham, 'Case Study 1: Tikitere Development Scheme', in Gould, 'Land Development', pp 93ff; Orange, 'Equality', p 81 (for 'mother and father' quote); Butterworth and Butterworth, ch 2ff; McClure, p 26 (for 'communistic' quote).

79 Burdon, R M, The New Dominion: A Social and Political History of New Zealand 1918-1939, Wellington, 1965, p 283 (for 'fuss' and 'allay' quotes); Walker, He Tipua, pp 274ff (pp 287-8 for 'hurry' and 'communal bias' quotes); Gould, 'Land Development', p 84 (for 'important part' and 'transformed' quotes); Love, pp 156ff; Butterworth and Butterworth, p 58; King, 'Between Two Worlds', pp 286-7, Butterworth and Young, pp 77-8; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 7, p 67; Walker, King, Te Puea, p 156-8; Sissons, 'Post-Assimilationist Thought', pp 54ff.

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80 Butterworth and Young, pp 78-9; Burdon, pp 283-4 (for 'ethics' quote); Walker, He Tipua, pp 299ff, 315; Gould, 'Land Development', pp 32, 35, 40, 43-6, 49 (for 'committees' and 'communicate' quotes), 51 (for 'suspicion' quote), 69 (for 'dispossession' quote), 84; Love, pp 158-60; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 293; Orange, Claudia, 'Fraser and the Maori', in Clark, Margaret (ed), Peter Fraser: Master Politician, Palmerston North, 1998; Orange, 'Equality', pp 17-18, 70-1 (for 'power' quote), 74-5; Hohepa, P W, A Maori Community in Northland, Wellington, 1964 (1970 ed), p 51; Sissons, 'Post-Assimilationist Thought'; Keesing, p 169 (for 'mana' quotes); Simpson, Tony, Shame and Disgrace: A History of Lost Scandals in New Zealand, Auckland, 1992, ch 8.

81 This discussion owes much to James Belich, esp 'Myth, Race and Identity', pp 18ff, and Paradise Reforged, pp 206ff. See also Else (ed), p 7; King, Te Puea, pp 98-9; Ngata, Apirana, Te Tiriti o Waitangi, Hastings, 1922 (1950 ed, Christchurch), pp 2, 8 (for 1922 and 'wishful thinking' quotes); Orange, Treaty, p 229; Rice, Geoffrey, Black November: The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in New Zealand, Wellington, 1988, ch 6; Armstrong; Condliffe, John B and Airey, Willis T G, Short History of New Zealand, Auckland, 1938 (rev ed), p 138 (for 'curious steps' quote); Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 6, p 39 (for 'absurd' quote).

82 Walker, Ka Whawhai, p 191; Ballara, Iwi, p 312 (for 'institutionalisation' quote); King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 281; Marr, Cathy, 'Crown Policy Towards Major Crown/Iwi Claim Agreements of the 1940s and 1950s', a preliminary report for the Treaty of Waitangi', Wellington, 1990, pp 8, 43; Butterworth and Young, p 71; Burdon, p 279 (for 'hasten' quote); Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 12, p 1; Evison, p 344; Armstrong; Hill, Richard S, Settlements of Major Maori Claims in the 1940s: A Preliminary Historical Investigation, Wellington, 1989, pp 2-3; Frame; Ngata, Te Tiriti; Waitangi Tribunal, Ngai Tahu Report, pp 1016-19.

83 Frame, ch 9; Walker, He Tipua, pp 200, 212 and Ka Whawhai, p 191; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 12, pp 26-7; Ballara, Iwi, pp 313, 325 (for 'powerhouse' quote).

84 Hill, Settlements, p 3; Walker, He Tipua, pp 221, 228; Ballara, Iwi, pp 313-15 (includes 'parliament', 'primary', and 'alternative' quotes), 320-1, 324.

85 Report of Royal Commission on 'Confiscated Native Lands and Other Grievances', AJHR, 1928, G7 ['Sim Commission']; Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp iv, 3, 7-8, 27-8, 43, 82-3; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 291; Hill, Settlements, passim and pp 3, 6 and Enthroning 'Justice Above Might'? The Sim Commission, Tainui and the Crown, Wellington, 1989; Hunn, p 62; Cody, pp 154, 157 (for 'Maoris were vindicated' quote); Bassett, Heather, Steel, Rachel and Williams, David, The Maori Land Legislation Manual, vol 2, Wellington, 1994; Walker, He Tipua, p 228; Burdon, p 279; Keenan, Danny, 'Ma Pango Ma Whero Ka Oti: Unities and Fragments in Maori History', in Dalley, Bronwyn and Labrum, Bronwyn (eds), Fragments: New Zealand Social and Cultural History, Auckland, 2000, p 46; McCan, pp 181-3, 189; Sorrenson (ed), Na To Hoa Aroha, vol 1, pp 202-3 and vol 2, p 52; Marr, Cathy, 'An Overview History of the Taranaki Confiscation Claim: From the Sim Commission to the Submission of Taranaki Claims to the Waitangi Tribunal', a report for the Waitangi Tribunal, Wellington, 1991, ch 3.

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86 Cox, pp 116, 127; Elsmore, Bronwyn, Mana from Heaven: A Century of Maori Prophets in New Zealand, Tauranga, 1989, pp 270-1; Henderson, J McLeod, Ratana: The Man, the Church, the Political Movement, Wellington, 1972 (2nd ed), pp 26, 57 (for 'shoemaker' quote); King, Maori, p 166; Belich, 'Myth, Race and Identity', p 15; Ballara, Angela, 'Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu', in DNZB, vol 3, pp 414-18; Raureti, Moana, 'The Origins of the Ratana Movement', in King, Michael (ed), Tihe Mauri Ora: Aspects of Maoritanga, Auckland, 1978, p 46; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 292 (for 'unite' quote).

87 Henderson, passim, esp pp 26, 29, 33, 57ff (includes 'Pakeha friends' quote); King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 292; Love, pp 63, 113-14, 170, 214, 220, 223; Hill, Richard S, 'Worthington, Arthur Bently', in DNZB, vol 2, pp 588-9; Raureti, p 51.

88 Cox, pp 127, 157; Henderson, pp 10, 40, 55, 57 (includes Baucke and 'hands' quotes); Jones, 'Maori Kings', p 155; Love, pp 170, 179, 220, 230-44, 258; Butterworth, 'Apirana Ngata: Politics of Adaptation', ch 12, p 24; Raureti, p 46; Butterworth, G V, 'A Rural Maori Renaissance? Maori Society and Politics 1920 to 1951', Journal of the Polynesian Society (JPS), 81(2), June 1972, p 166.

89 King, Nga Iwi, pp 59, 67; Love, pp i—ii (includes 'system of government' quote), 10-11, 64-5 (includes 'grass roots' quote), 244, 252-4 (for 'Secondly' quote); Butterworth, 'Health of the Body'; Ballara, 'Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu'.

90 Ngata, 'Maori Land Settlement', p 138 (for 'adjustment' quote); Belich, 'Myth, Race and Identity', p 22; Sissons, 'Post-Assimilationist Thought', esp p 50; Pere, Rangimarie Rose, 'Te Wheke: Whaia te Maramatanga me te Aroha', in Middleton, Sue (ed), Women and Education in Aotearoa, Wellington, 1998, p 205 (for 'divide and rule' quote); Webster, Steven, Patrons of Maori Culture: Power, Theory and Ideology in the Maori Renaissance, Dunedin, 1998, ch 3 (esp pp 74, 83, 90, 95) and p 254; Butterworth, 'Maori Renaissance', pp 166, 176; Walker, He Tipua, p 237; Belich, Paradise Reforged, p 201 (for 'Maoritanga' quote).

91 Farland, Bruce, Coates' Tale: War Hero, Politician, Statesman, Joseph Gordon Coates, Prime Minister of New Zealand, 1925-1928, Wellington, 1995, pp 34-5; Butterworth, 'Health of the Body', pp 11-12; King, Te Puea, pp 130-1; Bassett, Coates; Walker, Ka Whawhai, pp 189, 194 and He Tipua, pp 204ff, 216; Keesing, pp 180 (for 'spirit', 'hope' and 'aims' quotes), 189 (for 'superimposition' and 'basis' quotes); Love, p 61 (for 'corporate' quotes); Belich, Paradise Reforged, p 466 (for 'brilliant strategy' quote).

92 Dow, p 117, 132, 148-51, 158ff; Else (ed), pp 8, 31-3; Ritchie, James E, The Making of a Maori: A Case Study of a Changing Community, Wellington, 1963, p 25 (for 'proto-national' quote); Orange, 'Equality', p 148; Hunn, pp 84-5; Fleras, 'A Descriptive Analysis of Maori Wardens in the Historical and Contemporary Context of New Zealand Society', PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 1980, pp 190, 268-9, and Village Runanga, p 16; Lange, May the People Live, p 258; Bryder, Linda, A Voice for Mothers: The Plunket Society and Infant Welfare 1907-2000, Auckland, 2003, pp xv, 35; Butterworth, 'Maori Renaissance', p 169; Hill, Iron Hand, pp 128-9; Maclean, F S, Challenge for Health: A History of Public Health in New Zealand, Wellington, 1964, pp 202-3; Durie, Whaiora, p 44 (for 'likelihood' quote).

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93 Walker, He Tipua, pp 236-7; King, Te Puea, pp 132, 140, 152-4; King, 'Between Two Worlds', pp 291-2; Keesing, pp vii, xv, 179-80, 189, 193, 196 (for 'steady' quote); Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 24 (includes 'resentment' quote), 28, 32-61 (includes 'back seat' quote, p 35); Love, pp 61-3; Orange, 'Fraser', pp 91-2; Report of Royal Commission on 'Confiscated Native Lands and Other Grievances', AJHR, 1928, G7.

94 Bassett, Michael and King, Michael, Tomorrow Comes the Song: A Life of Peter Fraser, Auckland, 2000, p 107; Orange, 'Equality', pp 27-40 (for 'gathering' and Pomare quotes), 50-1, 211, Appendix 1; Love, p 285 (for 'Tohungaism' quote); Orange, Treaty, p 233 and 'Fraser', pp 92-3 (for 'revolutionary' quote); Burdon, pp 291-2.

95 Love, pp 65-6, 72, 272, 276-8, 283; Orange, 'Equality', pp 41-6, 48-51, 211; Brown, Bruce, The Rise of New Zealand Labour, Wellington, 1962, pp 176-7; King, Nga Iwi, p 67; Orange, Treaty, p 234; Burdon, p 292; Bassett and King, p 107.

96 Burdon, pp 292-3; King, Nga Iwi, p 67; Condliffe and Airey, p 138; Walker, He Tipua, p 328; Orange, Treaty, p 239, and 'Fraser'; Waitangi Tribunal, Raupatu Document Bank, vol 137, Wellington, nd; Marr, 'Taranaki Confiscation Claim', chs 3-4, and 'Crown Policy', p 54 (for 'settled' and 'settler' quotes).

97 Burdon, p 293 (for 'equality of status' quotes); Walker, He Tipua, pp 327-8; Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 61ff; Orange, 'Fraser', pp 93-4, 105 and 'Equality', pp 50ff (includes 'administrative wing' quote, p 55), 101, 108, 117-19, 235-7; Gustafson, Barry, From the Cradle to the Grave: A Biography of Michael Joseph Savage, Auckland, 1986; Butterworth and Young, p 79; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 8, p 70 (for 'rural equivalent' quote); Metge, Joan and Kinloch, Patricia, Talking Past Each Other: Problems of Cross-cultural Communication, Wellington, 1978.

98 Gould, 'Land Development', pp 21, 34, 42, 54-7; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 294; Orange, 'Equality', pp 69, 76, 83, 119 (for 'ultimate objective' quote), 123, 211-15 and 'Fraser', pp 94-5, 105; McClure, Margaret, A Civilised Community: A History of Social Security in New Zealand, 1898-1998, Auckland, 1998, ch 2; Burdon, p 293 (for 'party committees' quote); Wood, p 167; Walker, He Tipua, p 331; Walker, Ranginui J, 'Maori People Since 1950', in Rice (ed), p 500; Grace, Patricia, Ramsden, Irihapeti and Dennis, Jonathan (eds), The Silent Migration: Ngati Poneke Young Maori Club 1937-1948, Wellington, 2001; Meek, R L, Maori Problems Today: A Short Survey, Wellington, nd; Butterworth and Young, p 93.

99 Love, pp 75, 96-7, 299-307 (includes 'wrongly advised' quote); Burdon, p 294; Orange, 'Equality', pp 59-60, 91-2, 121, 123, 129; Walker, He Tipua, pp 328, 340-1; Ballara, 'Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu'; Ballara, Angela, 'Ratana, Haami Tokouru', in DNZB, vol 4, pp 422-3.

100 McCan, pp 191ff; Hill, Enthroning 'Justice Above Might'?, p 9; Bassett and King, p 251; Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 55ff (includes 'initiative' quote, p 55, and 'water' quote, p 60); Mahuta, Robert, 'Tainui, Kingitanga and Raupatu', in Wilson and Yeatman (eds), p 25; O'Malley, 'Paternalism', p 267; Hill, Settlements; McClure, pp 111-12; Ballara, Iwi, p 316.

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101 Blythe, Martin, Naming the Other: Images of the Maori in New Zealand Film and Television, Metuchen, 1994, pp 15-16; Said, Edward W, Orientalism, New York, 1978.

102 Simon, Judith and Smith, Linda Tuhiwai (eds), A Civilising Mission? Perceptions and Representations of the Native Schools System, Auckland, 2001, pp 10, 174, 187, 191-2, 198, 255; Love, p 388; Walker, 'Maori People', p 499; Orange, 'Equality', pp 23, 113-17; King, Maori, p 201 (for 'good farmer' quote); Burdon, p 286; Orange, 'Fraser', pp 95-6 (for 'vital' quote); Walker, Ka Whawhai, p 196. For an overview of Maori education, see Barrington, J M and Beaglehole, T H, Maori Schools in a Changing Society: An Historical Review, Wellington, 1974. Chapters in Sutherland (ed) provide interesting contemporary engagements with issues of relevance to this book.

103 Orange, Claudia, 'The Price of Citizenship? The Maori War Effort', in Crawford, John (ed), Kia Kaha: New Zealand in the Second World War, Melbourne, 2000 (2002 ed), p 237; Soutar, Monty, 'Maori War Effort Overseas in the Second World War', in McGibbon (ed); Walker, He Tipua, pp 318, 344-5; Gardiner, esp pp 23-5, 30, 178; Orange, 'Equality', p 127 and 'Fraser', p 99; Belich, 'Colonization', p 190; Orange, Claudia, 'Maori War Effort Organisation', in McGibbon (ed), p 307; Milne, Jonathan, 'War Inquiry into Ratana Members', Sunday Star-Times, 26 January 2003; Orange, Claudia, 'An Exercise in Maori Autonomy: The Rise and Demise of the Maori War Effort Organisation', NZJH, 21(1), April 1987, p 161. For general discussion on 'Better Britishness' see Belich, Paradise Reforged, Part 1. Some of the text in this chapter reflects investigation of archival sources at Archives New Zealand, and work in progress on the Treaty of Waitangi' 'Rangatiratanga Project', which is being undertaken with the assistance of the Marsden Fund; it is, more generally, informed by the works of Love and Orange.

104 Walker, He Tipua, pp 339-42, 348; Orange, Treaty, pp 237-8; Soutar, p 307; Ngata, Apirana, 'The Price of Citizenship', Wellington, 1943; Edwards, p 163 (for 'you were fine' quote); Kernot, Bernard, 'Maori Buildings for the Centennial', paper presented to Celebrating the 1940 Centennial conference, Stout Research Centre for the Study of History, Society and Culture, Wellington, 1999; Phillips, Jock, 'Reading the 1940 Centennial', paper presented to Celebrating the 1940 Centennial conference, Stout Research Centre, 1999 (includes 1940 quotes); Orange, 'Price'; Butterworth and Young, p 84; Taylor, Nancy M, The New Zealand People at War: the Home Front, Wellington, 1986, pp 1241, 1294; Harrison, Noel, Graham Latimer: A Biography, Wellington, 2002, pp 67-8; Orange, 'Exercise' (including 'recognition' quote, p 160) and 'Equality', p 215 (for 'asset' quote).

105 Butterworth and Young, pp 84-5; Wood, pp 178-9; Orange, 'Exercise', pp 158ff, 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed), p 307, and 'Price', pp 238ff; Love, pp 342ff; Taylor, p 1241.

106 Baker, J V T, The New Zealand People at War: War Economy, Wellington, 1965, pp 452-3; Wood, pp 179-80; Orange, 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed), p 307 and 'Price', p 238; 'Maoris Farewell Liaison Officer', Northern Advocate, 18 July 1944; 'Aid to Maoris', New Zealand Herald, 21 June 1944.

107 Orange, 'Price', p 240 and 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed), p 307; Ballara, Iwi, pp 317-18; Baker, War Economy, p 453; Taylor, p 1241; Butterworth, 'Maori Renaissance', p 186; Gilling, Tui, 'Rangatiratanga and the Crown in the Twentieth Century: Case Study Three', draft paper, Treaty of Waitangi Research Unit, 2003, p 9 (for 'willingness' quote); 'Maori War Effort Unexcelled Anywhere: A Voluntary Organisation Achieves Grand Record', Standard, 28 September, 1944 (for 'total war effort' quote).

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108 Love, pp 333-4, 356, 363ff (for 'unprecedented' and 'responsibility' quotes, p 356, and 'greatest thing' quote, p 368); King, Te Puea, esp pp 206-9, 290 and 'Between Two Worlds', pp 298-9 (includes 'degree of acceptance' quote); Orange, 'Equality', pp 132-3 (includes 'success' quote), 142 and 'Exercise', pp 102 (for 'first time' quote), 162-4; Baker, J V T, p 453; Gilling, Tui, pp 9 (for 'agar' quote), 14-18 (includes 'plight' quotes); Cox, pp 102-3, 192; Jones, Reimana R, 'Jones, Michael Rotohiko', in DNZB, vol 4, Wellington/Auckland, 1998, pp 257-8; Butterworth and Young, pp 85-6; MA1/364, 19/1/219, Pt 1 (for quotes from official documents); McClure, p 120; Orange, 'Price', pp 240-1 and 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed), p 307; Ballara, Iwi, pp 317-18; Wood, pp 165-7 (includes 'fundamental problem' quote), 179-80 (includes 'adjustment' and 'renewed confidence' quotes); 'Maori War Effort Unexcelled Anywhere: A Voluntary Organisation Achieves Grand Record', Standard, 28 September, 1944; Meek, p 39 (for 'unity' quote).

109 Love, pp 368ff; Orange, 'Equality', p 144, 'Price', p 241, 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed), and 'Exercise', p 164-5 (includes 'took away' quote); Butterworth and Young, p 86; Bassett and King, p 251; Wood, p 165 (for 'nationality' quote). The debates can be followed in the files in Archives New Zealand, esp MA 1, 19/1/219. That some supporters of Maori self-determination saw a revival of the Maori Councils as a viable way forward complicated the discussions; this view can be seen, eg, in Meek, p 41.

110 Orange, 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed), p 308, 'Price', pp 243-4 and 'Exercise', pp 164-5 (for 'degree of autonomy' quote); Butterworth and Young, p 85; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', ch 8, p 75 (for 'radical' quote); Ballara, Iwi, pp 317-18; Love, pp 377ff (includes 'vital matter' quote, p 381); 'Maori War Effort Unexcelled Anywhere: A Voluntary Organisation Achieves Grand Record', Standard, 28 September 1944.

111 Orange, 'Exercise', pp 163-6, 'War Effort' in McGibbon (ed) and 'Equality', pp 143ff; Love, pp 368-77, 381-5, 389; Cox, pp 102-3; Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 74-5 (includes 'trappings' quote); Thomson, pp 139-40; Labrum, Bronwyn, '"Bringing families up to scratch": The Distinctive Workings of Maori State Welfare, 1944-1970', NZJH, 36(1), October 2002, pp 163-4; Else (ed), p 33; Royal, Te Ahukaramu Charles and Jamison, Tom, 'Royal, Te Rangiataahua Kiniwe', in DNZB, vol 4, pp 443-4.

112 Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act 1945 (No 43); Butterworth and Young, pp 87, 92; Orange, 'Price', p 245 and 'Exercise', pp 166-8; Love, pp 389-96 (includes 'self administration' and 'future authority' quotes); Orange, 'Equality', pp 184-5 and 'Fraser', p 100; Butterworth, 'Aotearoa', esp ch 8, p 76 (for 'policy initiative' quote) and ch 9, p 1 (for 'comprehensive' and 'perpetuating' quotes); Metge, Joan, A New Maori Migration: Rural and Urban Relations in Northern New Zealand, London, 1964, p 88 (for 'recognise' quote).

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113 Maori Social and Economic Advancement Act 1945 (No 43); Metge, Joan, The Maoris of New Zealand: Rautahi, London, 1976 (rev ed), pp 88, 207; Orange, 'Equality', pp 156 (for 'unthinkable' quote), 220-2; Ormsby, p 14 (for 'fewer powers' and 'empowered' quotes); Love, pp 395-7 (includes 'acceptability' quote); Department of Maori Affairs, The Maori Today, passim; Butterworth and Butterworth, p 57; Walker, He Tipua, p 372 (for 'advantages' quote).

114 The preceding paragraphs in this section — together with some coverage of negotiations elsewhere in this book — are partly informed by access to departmental archives by the author when working on Treaty claims negotiations in the 1990s. See also Hill, Settlements, pp 5ff (for Maori summit resolution, p 6, and 'well discussed' quote, p 8); Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 76ff (includes 'high spirited' and 'only country' quotes, pp 79-80, and 'recognition' and 'visioned' quotes, pp 85-6); Love, p 374 (for 'settlement' quote); Ballara, Iwi, pp 318-19; Bassett and King, pp 252, 304; Ngaitahu Claim Settlement Act 1944 (No 33); Ngaitahu Trust Board Act 1946 (No 33), s 14; Taranaki Maori Claims Settlement Act 1944 (No 32); Waymouth, Lyn, 'The Bureaucratisation of Genealogy', Ethnologies Comparées, 6, Printemps, 2003; Waitangi Tribunal, Ngai Tahu Report, chs 21-2.

115 Hill, Enthroning 'Justice Above Might'?; Butterworth and Young, pp 89-90; Mahuta, Robert, 'The Maori King Movement Today', in King (ed), Tihe Mauri Ora, pp 36-7; Hill, Settlements, pp 8-10; Walker, He Tipua, pp 103, 332; Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 76-87; Love, p 374; King, Te Puea, pp 223, 225 (includes 'quality of life' quote); McCan, ch 8; Waikato—Maniapoto Maori Claims Settlement Act 1946 (No 19); Koroki — My King, [Ngaruawahia], 1999, p 224.

116 Hill, Settlements, pp 9ff; Mahuta, 'Tainui', pp 26-7; Marr, 'Crown Policy', pp 89ff (including 'historians' quote, pp 93-4); Belgrave, Michael, 'Something Borrowed, Something New: History and the Waitangi Tribunal', in Dalley, Bronwyn and Phillips, Jock (eds), Going Public: The Changing Face of New Zealand History, Auckland, 2001, p 94; Walker, Ka Whawhai.

117 Taylor, pp 805ff, 1239, 1244 (including 'Maori problem' quote); Orange, 'Price', pp 245ff, 'Fraser', pp 100, 102, 'Equality', pp 158-60 and 'Exercise', p 169 (for 'self-controlling' quote); Beaglehole, Ernest and Pearl, Some Modern Maoris, Wellington, 1946; Cox, pp 105-6; Meek, esp pp 37-9; Love, pp 409, 470 (for 'self government' quote); Butterworth and Young, pp 88ff.

118 Department of Maori Affairs, The Maori Today, p 40; Gardiner, p 181 (for 'who's who' quote); Jones, 'Jones, Michael Rotohiko'; Labrum, p 165; Love, pp 400-1 (for 'heat and spirit' quote), 410, 420, 453, 470; Orange, 'Equality', pp 158-64, 187-8 and 'Fraser', pp 100-4; Butterworth and Young, p 92; Henderson, p 95; Bassett and King, p 333; King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 295 (for 'governed with his heart' and 'dispossessed' quotes).

119 Butterworth and Young, p 92 (for Maori Welfare Organisation and 'pack horses' quotes); Orange, 'Price', p 246 and 'Equality', pp 192-3 (includes Fraser quotes); Gardiner, p 181; Dalley, Bronwyn, Family Matters: Child Welfare in Twentieth-Century New Zealand, Auckland, 1998, p 154 (for 'assistance' and 'betterment' quotes).

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120 Henderson, pp 66, 107; Love, pp 411-22 (includes 'Maori world' and 'crumbs' quotes); Orange, 'Fraser'.

121 McClure, p 122-3; Bassett and King, p 334; Orange, 'Equality', pp 189-96 (includes Fraser quotes), 'Exercise', pp 168-70 (includes 'proposals and plans' quote), 'Fraser', p 104 (for 'wide' and 'botch' quotes) and 'Price'; Love, pp 401, 411-25 (includes 'prime objective' quote, p 423); Cox, pp 103-6 (includes 'philosophical' quote); Butterworth and Young, pp 88ff; Durie, Whaiora, pp 47-8; Department of Maori Affairs Report for Year Ended 31 March 1950, AJHR, 1950, G9, p 10.

122 Belich, Paradise Reforged, pp 467-8 (includes 'mortality' quote); Department of Maori Affairs, The Maori Today, pp 8 (for 'widely promoted' quotes), 38ff; Orange, 'Equality', pp 193-6 and 'Exercise', p 169; Love, pp 401 (for 'shell' quote), 412ff (includes 'fusion' quote); Cox, pp 102ff; Orange, 'Fraser', pp 102-6; Butterworth and Young, pp 88ff (includes 'floundering' quote, p 92); Te Puni Kokiri, Discussion Paper on the Review of the Maori Community Development Act 1962, Wellington, 1998; Else (ed), pp 9-10 (includes 'prerogative' quote); McClure, p 124; Rogers, Anna and Simpson, Miria (eds), Te Timatanga Tatau Tatau: Early Stories from Founding Members of the Maori Women's Welfare League as Told to Dame Mira Szaszy, Wellington, 1993, p xvi; Wood, p 176 (for 'puzzlement' quote); Department of Maori Affairs Report for Year Ended 31 March 1950, AJHR, 1950, G9, p 11.

123 Dunstall, Policeman's Paradise?, pp 120, 203ff; Department of Maori Affairs, The Maori Today, p 39; King, Te Puea, pp 252-6 (includes 'sacred pact' and 'rangatiratanga' quotes); Mahuta, 'Maori King', p 37; Hutt, pp 72ff (including 'aroha' and 'treated the same' quotes); Bollinger, Conrad, Grog's Own Country: The Story of Liquor Licensing in New Zealand, Wellington, 1959 (1967 ed), pp 104-7; Fleras, Augie, 'Maori Wardens and the Control of Liquor Among the Maori of New Zealand', JPS, (90)4, December 1981 (including 'treated differently' quotes, p 499), and Village Runanga, pp 21, 24 (for 'social conscience' quote); Hill, Iron Hand, p 245 and Introducing Policing; Belich, Paradise Reforged, p 472; Taylor, p 1294 (for 'good enough' quote); Henderson, p 66 (for 'Chief of Police' quote).

124 Hutt, pp 72-6; Henderson, p 66; Fleras, 'Maori Wardens'; Walker, Ranginui J, 'The Politics of Voluntary Association: The Structure and Functioning of a Maori Welfare Committee in a City Suburb', in Kawharu, I Hugh (ed), Conflict and Compromise; Sissons, 'Post-Assimilationist Thought', pp 57-9 (includes 'Maoritanga' concept); Butterworth and Young, p 93; Bollinger, p 111 (for 'feet' quote); Belich, Paradise Reforged, p 467 (for 'explosion' quote).

125 New Zealand Government, The New Zealand Official Yearbook, 1951-52, Wellington, 1952, pp 23, 42; Poulsen, M F and Johnston, R J, 'Patterns of Maori Migration', in Johnston, R J (ed), Urbanisation in New Zealand: Geographical Essays, Wellington, 1973, p 150; Pool; Belich, Paradise Reforged, pp 471-2 (includes 'predominantly urban' quote); Butterworth and Young, p 95; Dunstall, Graeme, 'The Social Pattern', in Oliver and Williams (eds), pp 400, 403; Ausubel, David P, Maori Youth: A Psychoethnological Study of Cultural Deprivation, New York, 1961, p 110.

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126 King, 'Between Two Worlds', p 299; Ausubel, Maori Youth, pp 114-15; Butterworth and Young, pp 92-3; Bollinger, p 111 (for 'Natives' quote); Pearson, Dream, p 193; Butterworth, 'Maori Renaissance', p 188 and 'Aotearoa', ch 8, p 70 (for 'well-being', 'understanding' and 'empowering' quotes); Tirikatene, E, 'Maori Purposes Bill', memo of 30 Nov 1945, AAMK 869, 692e, Archives New Zealand, Wellington (for 'heart and soul' quotes); Department of Maori Affairs Report for Year Ended 31 March 1950, AJHR, 1950, G9, p 10. Meek, writing during the Second World War, has some perceptive analyses of the socio-political situation of Maori, as well as interesting prescriptions that both take into account Maori self-determination and give primacy to class.

127 Belich, Paradise Reforged, p 191; Wharemaru, Heeni and Duffie, Mary Katharine, Heeni: A Tainui Elder Remembers, Auckland, 1997, p 130 (for Te Puea quotes).

128 Dunstall, Policeman's Paradise?, p 121 (for 'average European' quote). For an overview of state—Maori relations covering the period from 1950 onwards, see Hill, 'Autonomy and Authority', pp 164ff; see too Walker, Ka Whawhai, and Michael King's summary of, in effect, historiography on the issue in the 'Unsettlement' section of his Penguin History of New Zealand.