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The Atoll of Funafuti, Ellice group : its zoology, botany, ethnology and general structure based on collections made by Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney, N.S.W.

Summary of the Fauna of Funafuti

page 511

Summary of the Fauna of Funafuti.

page 513

XIX. Summary of the Fauna of Funafuti. [introduction]

The fauna of the Atoll of Funafuti, as presented by different writers in the preceding pages, will now be briefly enumerated in systematic order. With that information will also be incorporated various records, either overlooked in the preparation of the articles referred to, or produced since their publication, and embracing the Archipelago as a whole.

Prior to the advent of the Expedition, not more than eight species of animals were recorded in literature from Funafuti; the following lists embrace about eight hundred and fifty entries.

Though the student of Zoogeography will herein find a more complete account of the life of a Central Pacific Atoll than has previously appeared, he is cautioned not to use it as an exhaustive catalogue. The results of brief sojourn by a few poorly equipped visitors, may indeed present a picture in which the salient features loom obscurely, as in a partly-developed photograph, but nothing more.

Class Mammalia.

Mus exulans, Peale. Delphinus, sp.

Class Aves.

The account of the Avifauna of the atoll by Mr, A. J. North (pp. 79-88) can be supplemented by a few additions. Dr. H. Gadow has briefly enumerated the birds shot on Funafuti by Mr. J. S. Gardiner.* To these he adds Carpophaga pistrinaria, a species identified on the wing by his informant. As Mr. Gardiner was not previously acquainted with this species, such an identification cannot be considered of value, and I accordingly exclude it. In 1897 Mr. W. G. Woolnough, B.Sc, succeeded in shooting an example of the much debated Ellice Island Pigeon, which was subsequently determined by Mr. A. J. North as Globicerapacifica.

The avifauna of the Archipelago will doubtless be found on examination to contain most, if not all, of the twenty-six birds observed in the neighbouring Phoenix Group. At present the revised list drawn up by Mr. A. J. North, consists of the following fifteen species:—

page 514

Urodynamis taitensis, Sparrmann.
Fregata aquila, Linne.
Demiegrefcta sacra, Gmelin.
G-lobicera pacifiea, Gmelin.
Charadrius fulvus, Gmelin.
Totanus ineanus, Gmelin.
Numenius taheiteneis, Gmelin.
Strepsilas interpres, Linne.
Limosa novaezealandise, Gray.
Anous stolidus, Linne.
Micranous leucocapillus, Gould.
Procelsterna caerulea, Bennett.
Sterna anaestheta, Scopulinus.
Sterna melanauchen, Temminck.
Gygis Candida, Gmelin.

* Gadow—Ibis (7), iv., Jan. 1898, p. 45.

North—Rec. Aust. Mus., iii., June, 1898, p. 86.

Lister—Proc. Zool. Soc., 1891i p. 300.

Class Reptilia.

Chelone mydas, Linne.
Grynmodactylus pelagicus, Girard.
Grehyra oceanica, Lesson.
Lygosoma cyanurum, Lesson.
Lygosoma adspersum, Steindachner.

Class Pisces.

The following list includes the fishes of Funafuti as reported by Mr. E. R. Waite (ante pp. 181 - 201, and Supplement, vide Appendix). About a fifth of them appears in a list of fishes obtained at Rotuma by Mr. J. S. Gardiner.*

Epinephelus urodelus, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Epinephelus leopardus, Lacepede.
Epinephelus tauvina, Forskal.
Epinephelus merra, Bloeh.
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Forskal.
Grammistes sexlineatus, Thunlerg.
Lutianus bengalensis, Bloch.
Lutianus gib bus, Forslcal.
Lutianus fulviflamma, Forskal.
Zanclus cornutus, Linne.
Ohsotodon auriga, Forskal.
Mulloides flavolineatus. Lacepede.
Mulloides samoensis, Gilnther.
Upeneus trifasciatus, Lacepede.
Lethrinus rostratus, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Lethrinus ramak, Forskal.
Sphserodon grandoculis, Forskal.
Cirrhites maculatus, Lacepede.

page 515

Holocentrum erythraauni, Giluther.
Holocentrum diploxiphus, Gunther.
Teuthis rostrata, Cuvier and Valenciennes,
Histiophorus sp.
Acanthurus triostegus, Linne.
Acanthurus guttatus, Forshal.
Acanthurus blochii, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Acanthurus achilles, Shaw.
Naseus lituratus, Forshal.
Caranx sanctee helenEe, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Caranx crumenopthalmus, Block.
Chorinemus sancti-petri, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Trachynotus baillonii, Lacepcde.
Thynnus pelamys, Linne. Buvettus pretiosus,
Cocco. Echeneis naucrates, Linne.
Gobius biocellatus, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Salarias marmoratus, Bennett.
Salarias periopthalmus, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Salarias quadrieornis, Cuvier and Valenciennes.
Sphyrsena sp. Myxus leuciscus, Gunther.
Tetrad raehmum aruanum, Block.
Grlyphidodon brownriggii, Bennett.
Grlyphidodon sordidus, Forshal.
Grlyphidodon septum-fasciatus, Cuvier and Valeciennesn.
Chilinus trilobatus, Lacepede.
Chilinus fasciatus, Block.
Epibulus insidiator, Pallas.
Julis lunaris, Linne.
Pseudoscarus pulchellus, Ruppell.
Pseudoscarus bataviensis, Bleeher.
Pseudoscarus singapurensis, Bleeher.
Pseudoscarus troschelli, Bleeher.
Fierasfer homii, Richardson.
Platophrys pantherinus, Ruppell.
Belone platura, Bennett.
Hemirhamphus balinensis, Bleeher.
Exoceetus sp.
0phichthys colubrinus,Boddaert.
Mursena formosa,Bleeher.
Mursena buroe'nsis, Bleeher.
Balistes fuscus, Block.
Balistes flavomarginatus, Ruppell.
Balistes aculeatus, Linne.
Tetrodon nigropunctatus, Block.
Tetrodon margaritatus, Ruppell.
Tetrodon imruaculatus, Block.
Dieotylichthys punctulatus, Kaup.

page 516

Carcharias lamia, Risso.
Galeocerdo rayneri, M'Donald and Barron.
Alopias vulpes, Gmelin.
Urogymnus asperrimus, Bloch.
Trygon sp.
Ceratoptera sp.

* Boulenger—-Ann. Mag, Nat. Hist. (6), xx., 1897, pp. S^l - 4.

Class Hemichorda.

Ptychodera flava, Eschscholtz.
Ptychod hedleyi, Hill.

Class Crustacea.

Since the issue of the foregoing part of this Memoir dealing with the Crustacea, there has appeared a valuable series of articles by Mr. L. A. Borradaile* on Crustacea from the South Pacific, including those taken on Funafuti by Mr. J. S. Gardiner.

Mr. Borradaile conjectures that as Pagurus setifer is so closely allied to P. guttatus, the record of the latter from Funafuti may be a case of mistaken identity. Mr. Whitelegge, on re-examination of the example in question, maintains that it cannot be P. setifer, inasmuch as, among other characters, the left leg of the third pair in the Funafuti crab is setiferous all round and without sculpture; whereas both the description of Milne Edwards and the figure of Hilgendorf, confine the bristles to the margin of the leg of P. setifer. The identification was arrived at after comparison with examples of P. setifer from Mauritius and Fiji.

A Lambrus allied to L. intermedius, Miers, and possibly new, was dredged by Mr. G. Halligan at a depth of two hundred fathoms off Tutaga Islet, Funafuti.

A Cirriped, noted by Schmeltz from the Ellice, Lithothyra rhodiopus, has also been included.

Lambrus sp.
Atergatis floridus, Rumphius.
Actgæ rugata, Adams and White.
Xahthodes lamarckii, Milne Edwards.
Xahthodes nitidulus, Dana.
Zozymus æneus, Dana.
Daira perlata, Herbst.
Etisus laevimanus, Randall.
Etisodes caelatus, Dana.
Carpilodes margaritatus, Milne Edwards.
Pilumnus vestitus, Haswell.
Pilumnus prunosus, Whitehgge.
page 517 Actaeodes speeiosa, Dana.
Phymodius montieulosus, Dana.
Pseudozius caystrus, Adams and White.
Leptodius esaratus, Milne Edwards.
Leptodius sanguineus, Milne Edioards.
Ruppellia annulipes, Milne Edwards.
Eriphia seabricula, Dana
Eriphia laevimana, Latreille.
Trapezia eymodoce, Herbst.
Trapezia ferruginea, Latreille.
Thalamita integra, Dana.
Thalamita admete, Herbst.
Cardisoma hirtipes, Dana.
Oeypoda ceratophthalma, Pallas.
Gelasimus tetragonon, Herbst.
Metopograpsus messor, Forskal.
Grapsus maculatus, Catesby.
Geograpsus crinipes, Dana.
Leiolophus planissimus, Herbst.
Galappa hepatica, Linne.
Cryptodromia japoniea, Henderson.
Remipes pacificus, Dana.
Birgus latro, Linne.
Oenobita olivieri, Owen.
Oenobita clypeata, Milne Edwards.
Oenobita perlata, Milne Edwards.
Oenobita rugosa, Milne Edwards.
Oenobita rugosa, var.
pulchra, Dana.
Diogenes pallescens, Whitelegge.
Pagurus fabimanus, Dana.
Pagurus setifer, Milne Edwards.
Pagurus guttatus, Olivier.
Pagurus euopsis, Dana.
Clibanarius virescens, Dana.
Pagurus corallinus, Milne Edwards.
Clibanarius æquabilis, Dana
Pagurus zebra, Dana.
Pagurus cruentatus, Milne Edwards.
Calcinus elegans, Milne Edwards.
Calcinus gaimardi, Milne Edwards.
Calcinus latens, Randall.
Calcinus herbsti, de Man.
Calcinus berbsti, var.0
lividus, Milne Edwards.
Aniculus typicus, Fabricius.
Galathea affinis, Ortmann.
Petrolisthes lamarckii, Leach.
Petrolisthes lanaarckii, var.
asiaticus, Leach.
asiaticus var.
rufescens, Heller.
rufescens, var.
fiimbriatus, Borradaile.
page 518 Porcellana sollasi, Whtelegge.
Ibaeus antarcticus, Rumphius.
Palinurus gutfcatus, Latreille.
Palæmonella tridentata, Borradaile.
Hippolyte gibberosus, Milne Edwards.
Saron marmoratus, Olivier.
Athanas sulcatipes, Borradaile.
Alphæus edwardsii, Audouin.
Alphteus laevis, Randall.
Alphteus strenuiis, Dana.
Alphteus parvirostris, Dana.
Alphteus collumianus, Stimpson.
Alphteus frontalis, Say.
Alphteus prolificus, Bate.
Alphteus funafutensis, Borradaile.
Betaeus minutus, Whitelegge.
Periclimenes danae, Stimpson.
Corallioearis brevirostris, Borradaile.
Anchistus miersi, de Man.
Callianidea typa, Milne Edwards.
Gondactylus chiragra, Faricius.
Pseudosquilla ciliata, Fahricius.
Cirolana latystylis, Dana.
Athelgue aniculi, Whitelegge.
Lithotrya nicobarica, Reinhardt.
Lithotrya rhodiopus, Gray.

* Borradaile—Proc. Zool. Soc, 1898, pp. 32-38, 457-468, 1000 -1015; and Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), ii., 1898, pp. 876-391.

Schmeltz—Cat. Mus. Godeff., v., 1874, p. 88.

Class Rachnida.

Since the publication of the preceding account (pp. 89 -124) of the Spiders and Insects of Funafuti, Mr. R. I. Pocock has dealt with the series simultaneously collected by Messrs. Sollas and Gardiner, which embraced forms not procured by Mr. Hedley.* Mr. Pocock differs from Mr. Rainbow in sundry matters of species and genera. In the determination of the Scorpion, the latter accepts his correction; but he maintains the specific status of the various Spiders disputed by Mr. R. I. Pocock. Though the two names, Obisium antipodum, Simon, and Olpium longiventer, Key-serling, probably refer to one species, both provisionally appear in the following list. This under Mr. Rainbow's guidance, has been compiled from the two articles mentioned. It therefore represents his latest opinion on the subject. Included are also the Lepidop-tera previously recorded from the Archipelago by Butler; two beetles, Ceresium simplex and Sphenophorus obscurus, taken by Mr. A. E. Finckh on Funafuti, in 1898; and a series of ants, noted from the Ellice by Mayr. One of the new beetles discovered at

* R. I. Pocock—Ann. las;. Nat. Hist. (7), i., 1898, pp. 321-326.

Mayr—Journ. Mus. Godeff., xiiv 1876, p. 56-115.

page 519Funafuti, has lately been re-taken at Fife Bay, British New Guinea.* The Ceresium occurs at Norfolk Island.

Hormurus australasiæ, Fabricius.
Garypus longidigitatus, Rainbow.
Obisium antipodum, Simon.
Olpium longiventer, Keyserling.
Araneus theis, var.
mangareva, Walckenaer.
mangareva, plebeja, L. Koch.
mangareva, ventricosa, Rainbow.
mangareva, longispina, Rainbow.
mangareva, etheridgei, Rainbow.
mangareva, festiva, Rainbow.
mangareva, obscura, Rainbow.
mangareva, annulipes, Rainbow.
mangareva, distineta, Rainbow.
mangareva, hoggi, Rainbow.
mangareva, speciosa, Rainbow.
Tetragnatha laqueata, L. Koch.
Tetragnatha panopea, L. Koch.
Uloborus geniculatus, Olivieri.
Dictis striatipes, L. Koch.
Clubiona alveolata, L. Koch.
Heteropoda venatoria, Linnc.
Sarotes debilis, L. Koch.
Acompse suavis, L. Koch.
Ascyltus pterygodes, L. Koch.
Hyllus ferox, Rainbow.
Hyllus audax, Rainbow.
Oribata lamellata, Rainbow.

* Rainbow—Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xxiii., 1898, p. 365.

Class Myriopoda.

Scolopendra morsicans, Linne.
Otostigmus astenon, Kohlrausch.
Mecistocephalus punctifrons, Newport.
Orphmaeus phosphoreus, Linne.
Trichocambala sollasi, Pocock.

Class Inseota.

Monocrepidius ferrugineus, Montrouzier.
Monocrepidius umbraculatus, Candféze.
Uloma cavicollis, Fairm,
Uloma insularis, Guerin.
Sphenophorus sulcipes, Karsch.
Sphenophorus obscurus, Boisduval.
Elytrurus squamatus, Rainbow.
Nacerdes transmarina, Rainbow.
page 520 Ceresium simplex, Gyllenhal.
Concephalus ensiger, Harold.
Panesthia aethops, Stoll.
Loboptera decipiens, Germain.
Arach nocephaplus vestitus, Costa.
Calotermes marginipennis, Latreille.
Megaohile hedleyi, Rainbow.
Camponotus novæhollandiæ, Mayr.
Prenolepis vividula, Nylander.
Plagiolepis gracilis, Smith.
Meranoplus oceanicus, Smith.
Meranoplus pubescens, Smith.
Pheidole sexspinosa, Mayr.
Pheidole oceanica, Mayr.
Euphloea eleutho, Quoy and Gaimard.
Euphloea distincta, Butler.
Junonia vellida, Fabricius.
Diadema nerina, Fabricius.
Diadema otaheitæ, Felder.
Deiopea pulchella, Linne.
Achæa melicerte, Drury.
Remigia translata, Walker.
Chloanges suralis, Zeller.
Amyna octo, Guénée.
Erilita modestalis, Lederer.
Rinecera mirabilis, Butler.
Harpagoneura coraplexa, Butler.
Halobates sp.
Culex hispiodosus, Skuse.
Megarrhina inornata, Walker.
Lispe vittata, Rainbow.
Degeeria dawsoni, Rainbow.
Ebenia nigricruris Rainbow.
Ebenia fieldi, Rainbow.
Class Mollusc a.
Loligo brevipinnis, Pfeffer.
Octopus tonganus, Hoyle.
Scissurella æquatoria, Hedley.
Schisomope plicata, Hedley.
Haliotis stomatiæformis, Reeve.
Haliotis ovina, Chemnitz.
Emarginula clatbrata, Pease.
Emarginula rnariei, Crosse.
Aemæa saccharina, Linne.
Phenacolepas senta, Hedley.
Trochus obeliscus, Gmelin.
Trochus tubiferus, Kiener.
Trochus atropurpureus, Gould.
page 521 Trochus fastigatus, A. Adams.
Gibbula concinna, Dunker.
Trochus phasianella, Deshayes.
Monilea lifuana, Fischer.
Trochus tragema, Melvill and Standen.
Euchelus instrictus, Gould.
Teinostoma qualum, Hedley.
Teinostoma parvulum, Hedley. •
Trochus rotatum, Hedley.
Trochus tricarinatum, Melvill and Standen.
Cirsonella ovata, Hedley.
Liotia crenata, Kiener.
Liotia sp.
Liotia parvissllna, Hedley.
Mecoliotia halligani, Hedley.
Phasianella wisernanni, Baird.
Phasianella minima, Melvill.
Stomatella sanguinea, A. Adams.
Stomatia phymotis, Helbling.
Gena rosacea, Pease.
Turbo petholatus, var.
caledonicus, Fischer.
caledonicus setosus, Gmelin.
caledonicus argyrostomus, Linne.
Astralium petrosum, Martyn.
Leptothyra laeta, Montrouzier.
Delphinula lacinata, Lamarck.
Neritopsis radula, Linne.
Nerita albicilla, Linne.
Nerita maxima, Chemnitz.
Nerita plicata, Linne.
Nerita polita, Linne.
Nerita insculpta, Recluz.
Neritina reticulata, Sowerby.
Helicina musiva, var.
rotundata, Mousson.
Eulima pyramidalis, A. Adams.
Eulima samoensis, Crosse.
Eulima diaphana, Hedley.
,, decipiens, Hedley.
Stylifer varicifer, Hedley.
Odontostomia bulimoides, Souverbie.
Odontostomia rubra, Pease.
Odontostomia rubra robusta, Hedley.
,, bipiicata, Hedley.
Pyramidella dolabrata, var.
terebelloides. A, Adams,
terebelloides turrita, A. Adams.
terebelloides mitralis, A. Adams,
page 522 Obtortio pyrrhacme, Melvill and Sianden.
Scala revoluta, Hedley.
Scala paumotensis, Pease.
Scala subauriculata, Souverbie.
Scala ovalis, Sowerby.
Scaliola lapillifera, Hedley.
lanthina sp.
Natica violacea, Sowerby.
Natica marochiensis, Gmelin.
Natica mamilla, Linne.
Natica melanostoma, Gmelin.
Natica umbilicata, Quoy and Gaimard.
Vanikoro gueriniana, Recluz.
Capulus intortus, Lamarck.
Capulus violaceus, Angas.
Hipponyx australis, Quoy.
Mitrularia equestris, var.
tortilis, Reeve.
Truncatella valida, Pfeiffer.
Omphalotropis zebriolata, Mousson.
Assiminea nitida, Pease.
Rissoa invisibilis, Hedley.
Rissoa finckhi, Hedley.
Rissoa poolei, Hedley.
Rissoina exasperata, Souverbie.
Rissoina gemmea, Hedley.
Rissoina polytropa, Hedley.
Rissoina plicata, Adams. ?
ambigua, Gould.
affinis, Garrett.
Diala virgata, Hedley.
Diala hardyi, Melvill and Standen.
Diala profunda, Hedley.
Solarium hybridurn, Linne.
Heliacus discoideus, Pease.
Littorina obesa, Sowerby.
Modulus tectum, Gmelin.
Risella conoidalis, Pease.
Plesiotrochus souverbianus, Fischer.
Fossarus lamellosus, Montrouzier.
Planaxis sulcatus, Born.
Planaxis lineatus, Da Costa.
Melania mageni, Gassies.
Caecum vertebrale, Hedley.
Caecum exile, De Folin.
Caecum gulosum, Hedley.
Caecum amaltheanum, Hedley.
Caecum legumen, Hedley.
page 523 Vermetus maximus, Sowerby.
Vermetus • sp.
Turritella concava, Martens.
Strornbus lentiginosus, Linne.
Strornbus floridus, Lamarck.
Strornbus dentatus, var.
rugosus, Sowerby.
rugosus hsemastoma, Sowerby.
rugosus terebellatus, Sowerby.
rugosus gibberulus, Linne.
rugosus saraar, Dillwyn.
rugosus luhuanus, Linne.
Pterocera aurantia, Lamarck.
Pterocera byronia, Gmelin.
Pterocera rugosa, Sowerby.
Terebellum subulatum, Lamarck.
Cerithium nodulosum, Bruguiére.
Cerithium columna, Sowerby.
Cerithium citrinum, Sowerby.
Cerithium echinatum, Lamarck.
Cerithium maculosum, Mighels.
Cerithium rostratum, Sowerby.
Cerithium oceanicum, Hedley.
Cerithium breve, var.
ellicense, Hedley.
ellicense spiculum, Hedley.
ellicense strictum, Hedley.
ellicense variegatum, Quoy and Gaimard.
ellicense zebrum, Kiener.
ellicense impendens, Hedley.
ellicense piperitum, Sowerby.
ellicense obeliscus, Bruguiére.
ellicense obeliscus var.
cedo-nulli, Soiwerby.
cedo asperum, Linne.
cedo pharos, Hinds.
cedo elegantissimum, Hedley.
Conturuax decollatus, Hedley.
Oerithiopsis eutrapela, Melvill and Standen.
Oerithiopsis electrina, Hedley.
Triforis dolicha, Watson.
Triforis aegle, Jousseaume.
Triforis fcorquatus, Hedley.
Triforis ruber, Hinds.
Triforis clio, Hedley.
Triforis obesula, Jousseaume.
Triforis thetis, Hedley.
Triforis incisus, Pease.
Triforis corrugatus, Hinds.
Triforis asperrimus, Hinds., spp.
page 524 Ovula hervieri, Hedley.
Cypræa argus, Linne.
Cyprsea scurra, Chemnitz.
Cyprsea testudinaria, Linne.
Cyprsea isabella, Linne.
Cyprsea carneola, Linne.
Cyprsea carneola var.
propinqua, Garrett.
propinqua talpa, Linne.
propinqua goodalli, Gray.
propinqua fimbriata, Gmelin.
propinqua macula, Adams.
propinqua mauritiana, Linne.
propinqua caput-serpentis, Linne.
propinqua mappa, Linne.
propinqua arabica, Linne.
propinqua reticulata, Martyn.
propinqua moneta, Linne,
propinqua moneta var.
annulus, Linne.
annulus tigris, Linne.
annulus vitellus, Linne.
annulus lynx, Linne.
annulus clandestina, var.
artuffeli, Jousseanme.
artuffeli cribraria, Linne.
artuffeli becki, Gaskoin.
artuffeli erosa, Linne.
artuffeli poraria, Linne.
artuffeli helvola, Linne.
artuffeli cicercula, Linne.
artuffeli nucleus, Linne.
artuffeli childreni, Gray.
Trivia oryza, Lamarck.
Doliurn perdix, Linne.
Doliurn pomum, Linne.
Cassis cornuta, Linne.
Cassis vibex, var.
erinacea, Linne.
Tritonium tritonis, Linne.
Tritonium pileare, Linne.
Tritonium ehlorostomum, Lamarck.
Tritonium gemmatum, Heeve.
Tritonium digitale, Reeve.
Tritonium tuberosum, Lamarck.
Tritonium maculosum, Gmelin.
Distortrix anus, Linne.
G-yrineum bufonium, Gmelin.
G affine, Broderip.
Peristernia nassatula, Lamarck.
Latirus polygonus, var.
barclayi, Reeve,
barclayi craticulatus, Linne,
page 525 Pisania fasciculata, Reeve.
Cantharus undosus, Linne.
Murex ramosus, Linne.
Murex adustus, Lamarck.
Murex funafutiensis, Hedley.
Murex radula, Hedley.
Purpura hippocastaneum, Lamarck.
Purpura armigera, Chemnitz.
Jopas sertum, Bruguiére.
Sistrum hystrix, Linne.
Sistrum horridum, Lamarck.
Sistrum ricinus, Linne.
Sistrum morus, Lamarck.
Sistrum digitatum, Lamarck.
Sistrum tuberculatum, Blainville.
Sistrum cancellatum, Quoy.
Sistrum fiscellum, Chemnitz.
Coralliophila coronata, Barclay.
Galeropsis madreporarum, Sowerhy.
Magilus antiquus, Lamarck.
Nassa semitexta. Hedley.
Nassa granifera, Kiener.
Golumbella varians, Sowerhy.
Golumbella galaxias, Reeve.
Golumbella melvilli, Hedley.
Golumbella alofa, Hedley.
Golumbella obtusa, Sowerby.
Golumbella tringa, Lamarck.
Golumbella rubicunda, Quoy and Gaimard.
Engina parva, Pease.
Engina nodicostata, Pease.
Engina mendicaria, Linne.
Mitra episcopalis, Linne.
Mitra pontificalis, Lamarck.
Mitra flammea var.
hystrix, Montrouzier.
hystrix cucumerina, Lamarck.
hystrix chrysalis, Reeve.
hystrix tabanula var.
caledonica, Recluz.
caledonica ferruginea, Lamarck.
caledonica acuminata. Swainson.
caledonica brunnea, Pease.
caledonica astricta, Reeve.
caledonica limbifera, Lamarck.
caledonica litterata, Lamarck.
caledonica paupercula, Linne.
caledonica virgata, Reeve.
Turricula gruneri, Reeve.
Turricula exasperata, Chemnitz.
page 526 Turricula angulosa, Kuster.
Turricula variata, Reeve.
Turricula nodosa, Swainson.
Turricula pilsbryi, Medley.
Cylindra dactylus, Linne.
Erato schmeltziana, Crosse.
Marginella sandwicensis, Pease.
Marginella iota, Medley.
Marginella peasii, Reeve.
Marginella isseli, var.
ellicensis. Hedley.
Olivella simplex, Pease.
Oliva guttata, Lamarck.
Oliva irisans, var.
erythrostcma, Lamarck.
Harpa minor, Lamarck.
Harpa gracilis, Broderip and Sowerby.
Drillia unizonalis, Lamarck.
Glyphostoma purpurascens, Dunker.
Glyphostoma aliceæ, Melvill and Standen.
Glyphostoma alicese var.
tenera, Medley.
tenera malleti, Recluz.
Thetidos morsura, Medley.
Mangilia liimerta, Melvill and Standen.
ClathurelJa lactea, Reeve.
ClathurelJa clandestina, Deshayes.
ClathurelJa apicalis, Montrouzier.
ClathurelJa irretita, Hedley.
Daphnella delicata, Reeve.
Daphnella lymneiformis, Kiener.
Daphnella pupoidea, H. Adams.
Daphnella thiasotes, Melvill and Standen.
Oonus literatus, Linne.
Oonus tessellatus, Born.
Oonus pulicarius, Hwass.
Oonus hebraeus, Linne
Oonus hebraeus var.
vermiculatup, Hwass.
vermiculatup ceylonensis, Hwass.
vexillum, Gmelin.
rattus, Hwass.
capitaneus, Linne.
capitaneus lividus, Hwass.
capitaneus lividus var.
flavidus, Lamarck.
flavidus vitulinus, Hwass.
flavidus catus, Hwass.
flavidus nussatella, Linne.
flavidus striatus, Linne.
flavidus geographus, Linne.
flavidus tulipa, Linne.
flavidus auratus, Linne,
page 527 Terebra crenulata, Linne.
Terebra dimidiata, Linne.
Terebra maculata, Linne.
Terebra subulata, Linne.
Terebra tigrina, Gmelin.
Terebra affinis, Gray.
Pterosoma plana, Lesson.
Atlanta gibbosa, Eydoux and Souleyet.
Atlanta turrieulata, D'Orbigny.
Atlanta guidichaudi, Eydoux and Souleyet.
Solidula sulcata, Gmelin.
Tornatina voluta, Quoy and Gaimard.
Tornatina hadfieldi, Melvill and Sianden.
Tornatina leptekes, Watson.
Retusa waughiana, Hedley.
Atys cylindrica, Hebling.
Atys hyalina, Watson.
Atys dentifera, A. Adams.
Atys dactylus, Hedley.
Cylichna erecta, Hedley.
Haminea vitrea, A. Adams.
Cylindrobulla sculpta, Nevill.
Akera aperta, Hedley.
Hydatina amplustre, Linne.
Hydatina physis, Linne.
Ringicula parvula, Hedley.
Ringicula incisa, Hedley. sp.
Linaacina inflata D'Orbigny.
Linaacina buliraodes, D'Orbigny.
Clio virgula, Bang.
Clio acicula, Rang.
Clio striata, Bang.
Clio subula, Quoy and Gaimard.
Clio pyramidata, Linne.
Guvierina columella, Bang.
Cavolinia quadridentata, Lesueur.
Cavolinia longirostris, Zesueur.
Cavolinia inflexa, Lesueur.
Agadina stimpsoni, A. Adams.
Elysia nigropunetata, var.
sanguinea, Hedley.
Phyllidia varicosa, Lamarck.
Plecotrema bellum, H. and A. Adams.
Plecotrema mordax, Dohrn.
Melampus fasciatus, Deshayes.
Melampus luteus, Quoy and Gaimard.
Tornatellina oblonga, Pease.
Tornatellina conica, Mousson.
page 528 Vertigo pediculus, Shuttleworth.
Stenogyra gracilis, Hutton.
Endodonta modicella, Ferussac.
Endodonta decemplicata, Mousson.
Trochonanina samoensis, Moussoil
Dentaliurn lessoni, Deshayes.
Oadulus aratus, Hedley.
Anoinia sp.
Area zebra, Swainson.
Area raaculata, Sowerby,
Area reticulata, Gmelin.
Area velata, Sowerby.
Area tenella, Reeve.
Area congenita, Smith.
Area pteroessa, Smith.
Limopsis davidi, Hedley.
Septifer excisus, Wiegman.
Modiola australis, Gray.
Lithophaga teres, Philippi.
Lithophaga levigata, Quoy and Gaimard.
Plicatula imbricata, Menke.
Spondylus ocellatus, Reeve.
Lima bullata, Sowerby.
Lima tenera, Chemnitz.
Lima squamosa, Lamarck.
Lima angulata, Sowerby.
Lima fragilis, Gmelin.
Limea pectinata, H. Adams.
Pecten squamatus, Gmelin.
Pecten pallium, Linne.
Pecten distans, Reeve.
Pecten madreporarum, Sowerby.
Pecten speciosus, Reeve.
Hinnites sp.
Pteria peasei, Bunker.
Pteria cumingii, Reeve.
Melina samoensis, Baird.
Pinna sp.
Ostrea hanleyana, Sowerby.
Ostrea cristagalli, Linne.
Cardita sweeti, Hedley.
Lucina exasperata, Reeve.
Lucina punctata, Linne.
Lucina divergens, Philippi.
Lucina oblonga, Hedley.
Corbis fimbriata, Linne.
Cryptodon globosum, Forskal.
Tellina rugosa, Born.
page 529 Tellina scobinata, Linne.
Tellina flammula, Deshayes.
Tellina dispar, Conrad,
Tellina obliquaria, Deshayes.
Tellina rhomboides, Quoy and Gaimard.
Tellina robusta, Hanley.
Tellina opalina, Sowerby.
Tellina fijiensis, Sowerby.
Tellina crebrimaculata, Sowerby.
Tellina ellicensis, Hedley.
Libitina guinaica, Lamarck.
Circe pectinata, Linne.
Circe picta, Lamarck.
Circe castrensis, Linne.
Oytherea obliquata, var.
prora, Conrad.
prora subpellucida, Sowerby.
Venus toreuma, Gould.
Venus puerpera, var.
listen, Gray.
Venerupis macrophylla, Deshayes.
Naranio lapicida, Chemnitz.
Crassatella sp.
Kelly a pacifica, Hedley.
Scintilla semiclausa, Sotwrby.
Atactodea striata, Gmelin.
Asaphis deflorata, Linne.
Psamniobia squauimosa, Lamarck.
Cardiura angulatum, Lamarck.
Cardiura maculosum, Wood.
cardissa, var.
dionæurn, Sowerby.
dionseurn fragrum, Linne.
dionseurn fragrum, var.
sueziense, Issel.
Tridacna gigas, var.
squamosa, Lamarck.
squamosa elongata, Lamarck.
Chama imbricata, Broderip.
Chama spinosa, Broderip.
Chama unicornis, Bruguiére.
Corbula taheitensis, Lamarck.
G-astrochæna lamellosa, Deshayes.
Nausitoria aurita, Hedley.
Tonicia sp.

Class Brachiopoda.

Thecidea maxilla, Hedley.

Class Echinodermata.

To the Echinodermata enumerated in the body of this work there are added in the following list the species collected by page 530J. S. Gardiner, and determined by F. P. Bedford and F. J Bell* A sea-urchin, believed to be Metalia sternalis, Gray, was occasionally found dead at high-water mark on the beaches of the leeward islets of Funafuti, but as no specimens were preserved for exact identification, it is not here included. A starfish dredged off the north-west corner of Funafuti, at a depth of one hundred and thirty fathoms by H.M.S. " Penguin," which was, in life, bordered by segments of brick-red and yellow-red, size R. 30 mm., has been presented to the Australian Museum by Lieutenant A. Waugh, R.N. This has been determined by Mr. Whitelegge as probably an immature example of Nardoa gomophia, Perrier, originally described from New Caledonia.

  • Echinothrix diadema, Linne.
  • Echinothrix turcarum.,'Schynvoet.
  • Heterocentrotus mamillatus, Klein.
  • Echinometra lucunter, Leske.
  • Echinometra oblonga, Blainville.
  • Echinus angulosus, Leslce.
  • Laganum depressum, Lesson.
  • Echinoneus cyclostomus, Leske.
  • Maretia planulata, Lamarck.
  • Ophidiaster cylindricus, Lamarck.
  • Linckia pacifica, Gray.
  • Nardoa gomophia, Perrier.
  • Culcita acutispina, Bell.
  • Opbiactis savignii, Muller and Troschel.
  • Ophiocoma scolopendrina, Agassiz.
  • Ophiocoma erinaceus, Mutter and Troschel.
  • Ophiarthrum elegans, Peters.
  • Mulleria echinites, Jaeger.
  • Mulleria parvula, Selenka.
  • Holothuria argus, Jaeger.
  • Holothuria atra, Jaeger.
  • Holothuria atra, var. amboinensis, Semper.
  • Holothuria vagabunda, Selenka.
  • Holothuria maculata, Brandt.
  • Holothuria imitans, Ludwig.
  • Chiridota intermedia, Bedford.
  • Synapta ooplax, Marenzeller.

* Bedford and Bell—Proe. Zool. Soc, 1898, pp. 834-850.

Perrier—Archiv. Zool. Exper., iv., 1875, p. 431.

Class Annelida.

  • Eurythoe complanata, Pallas.
  • Eurythoe pacifica, var. levukænsis, McInto.
  • Phyllodoce sp.
  • Perichæta grubei, Rosa.
  • Perichseta sp.
page 531

Class Gephyrea.

To the list of Gephyrean worms recorded by A. E. Shipley from Funafuti,* has been added A. steenstrupii, identified (ante p. 394) by Mr. Whitelegge. The distribution of most of these has been further elucidated by Shipley in a Report on the Willey Collection.

  • Sipunculus vastatus, Selenka and Bulow.
  • Sipunculus funafuti, Shipley.
  • Physcosoma nigrescens, Keferstein.
  • Physcosoma pacificum, Keferstein.
  • Physcosoma scolops, Selenka and de Man.
  • Physcosoma varians, Keferstein.
  • Physcosoma microdontodon, Sluiter.
  • Physcosoma dentigerum, Selenka and de Man.
  • Aspidosiphon elegans, Chamisso and Eysenhardt.
  • Aspidosiphon steenstrupii, Diesing.
  • Aspidosiphon klunzingeri, Selenka and Bulow.
  • Cloeosiphon aspergillum, Quatrefages.

* Shipley—Proc. Zool. Soc, 1898, pp. 468-473.

Willey—Zoological Results, part 2, 1899, p. 151-158.

Class Porifera.

  • Reniera australis, Lendenfeld.
  • Reniera sp.
  • Halichondria solida var. rugosa, Ridley and Dendy.
  • Spinosella glomerata, Whitelegge.
  • Gellius aculeatus, Whitelegge.
  • Clathria pellicula, Whitelegge.
  • Agelas gracilis, Whitelegge.
  • Echinodictyum asperum, Ridley and Dendy.
  • Acanthella stipitata, Carter.
  • Acanthella pulcherrima, Ridley and Dendy.
  • Ciocalypta incrustans, Whitelegge.
  • Polymastia dendyi, Whitelegge.
  • Spirastrella papillosa, Ridley and Dendy.
  • Euspongia irregularis var.
  • Silicata, Lendenfeld.
  • Hippospongia dura, Lendenfeld.
  • Spongelia fragilis var. irregularis, Lendenfeld.

Class Hydrozoa.

A dead specimen of Distichopora rosea was, collected on the beach but was overlooked in packing. Some notes on Millepora from Funafuti have been published by Prof. S. J. Hickson.

  • Thuiaria divergens, Whitelegge.
  • Aglaophenia clavicula, Whitelegge.
  • Millepora squarrosa, Lamarck.
  • Millepora platyphylla, Ehrenberg.page 532
  • Millepora nodosa, Esper.
  • Millepora tortuosa, Dana.
  • Distichopora rosea, Kent.
  • Physalia megalista, Lamarck.

Hickson—Proc. Zool. Soc, 1898, p. 828.

Class Scyphozoa.

  • Aurelia clausa, Lesson.
  • Polyrhiza orithyia, Haeckel.

Class Actinozoa.

The following list of Actinozoa is compiled from different sources under the supervision of Mr. Whitelegge, whose papers in this volume (pp. 213 - 225, 307 - 320, 349 -368, and 384 - 391) have formed the basis. With these have been incorporated information from the articles of J. S. Gardiner and I. L. Hiles.*

In some prefatory notes to the Mollusca, it was remarked that the high proportion of novelties to the mass of previously known forms should not be mistaken for an indication of endemic importance, but should be ascribed to the imperfection of our knowledge of the continental faunas. This statement has received support from the Gorgonidæ in the brief time that has elapsed since it was written. Keroeides gracilis has been retaken by Willey in New Guinea, Villogorgia rubra by Willey in the Loyalty Islands, Acamptogogia spinosa by Willey in New Britain, Lobophytum hedleyi and L. densum by Hedley in New Caledonia.

Some giant specimens of a white Sea Anemone, ten inches in diameter, were observed on Funafuti, but defied any effort to remove them and are hence unnoted in the following list.

The specific identification of Reef Corals is regarded by the highest authorities as a matter of extreme uncertainty. H. M. Bernard wrote:—" The only specimens which can be claimed with absolute certainty as specifically identical are a few which have in each case been gathered at the same place and time, and resemble one another as closely as if they were two fragments of one and the same stock. Beyond these no certainty exists, and strict regard to the variations of form and structure would compel us to label all the remaining specimens as different varieties or species." To maintain such a position means chaos. Either we must, as Bernard proceeds to suggest, " break loose from the restraint of the Linnean species," or deal with the group on the broader lines on which Hickson has lately dealt with the Heliopora and Millepora.

page 533

Finding ourselves unable to reconcile the species enumerated by Whitelegge and Gardiner the results arrived at by each are given in parallel columns.

  • Sarcophytum glaucum, Quoy and Gaimard.
  • Sarcophytum trochoheliophorum var. amboinense, Marenzeller.
  • Sarcophytum latum, Dana.
  • Lobophytum pauciflorum var. validum, Marenzeller.
  • Lobophytum hedleyi, Whitelegge.
  • Lobophytum marenzelleri, Wright and Studer.
  • Lobophytum tuberculosum, Quoy and Gaimard,
  • Lobophytum confertum, Dana.
  • Lobophytum densum, Whitelegge.
  • Lobophytum viride, Quoy and Gaimard.
  • Spongodes pallida. Whitelegge
  • Spongodes curvicornis, Wright and Studer.
  • Siphonogorgia godeffroyi, Kolliker.
  • Siphonogorgia pallida, Studer.
  • Siphonogorgia kollikeri, Wright and Studer.
  • Siphonogorgia macrospina, Whitelegge.
  • Heliopora cærulea, Pallas.
  • Keroides gracilis, Whitelegge.
  • Acamptogorgia spinosa, Hiles.
  • Acanthogorgia breviflora, Whitelegge.
  • Acanthomuricea simplex, Whitelegge.
  • Villogorgia flagellata, Whitelegge.
  • Villogorgia intricata, Gray.
  • Villogorgia ruber, Hiles.
  • Bebryce studeri, Whitelegge.
  • Muricella purpurea, Whitelegge.
  • Plexaura antipathes, Esper.
  • Nicella laxa, Whitelegge.
  • Verrucella flabellata, Whitelegge.
  • Antipathella brookii, Whitelegge.
  • Zoanthus funafutiensis, Hill and Whitelegge.
  • Gemmaria willeyi, Kill and Whitelegge.
  • Palythoa howesi, Haddon and Shackleton.
  • Palythoa kochii, Haddon and Shackleton.
  • Palythoa coesia, Dana.

* Gardiner—Proc. Zool. Soc, 1897, pp. 941-953; Idem 1898, pp. 257-276, 525 - 539, and 994 -1000; Hiles, in Willey, Zoological Results, part 2, 1899, pp. 195 - 204.

Bernard—Cat. Madreporarian Corals Brit. Mus. 1896, p. 20.

Reef Corals

Reported from Funafuti by,—
Whitelegge. Gardiner.
Caryophyila clavus var. epitheata, Duncan. Rhizotrochus, sp.
Stylophora digitata, Pallas. Stylophora digitata, Pallas.
Stylophora flabellata, Quelch.
Stylophora compressa, Gardiner.
Stylophora rugosa, Gardiner.page 534
Stylophora pistillata, Esper.
Stylophora palmata, Blainville.
Stylophora lobata, Gardiner.
Pocillopora grandis, Dana. Pocillopora, grandis, Dana.
Pocillopora caespitosa, Dana. Pocillopora glomerata, Gardiner.
Pocillopora verrucosa, E. & Sol. Pocillopora rugosa, Gardiner.
Pocillopora mæandrina, Dana.
Pocillopora squarrosa, Dana.
Pocillopora aspera, Verrill.
Pocillopora aspera, var. danæ, V.
Pocillopora aspera, var. ligulata, Dana.
Pocillopora favosa, Ehrenherg.
Pocillopora clavaria, Ehrenherg.
Pocillopora brevicornis, Lam.
Pocillopora septata, Gardiner.
Pocillopora suffruticosa, Verrill.
Pocillopora paucistella, Quelc/i.
Seriatopora conferta, Quelch.
Seriatopora spinosa, Ed. & Haime.
Mussa costata, Dana.
Coeloria esperi, Edw. and H.
Hydnophora microconia, Lam.
Astreea versipora, Dana.
Astreea danse, Ediw. and H.
Astreea denticulata, E. and Sol.
Acanthastræa patula, Dana.
Aeanthastreea eehinata, Dana.
Leptastræa solida, Edw. and H.
Leptastrsea transversa, Klunz.
Cyphastræa danæ, Edw. and H.
Pavonia repens, Bruggeman. Pavonia repens, Bruggeman.
Pavonia explanata, Lamarck.
Psammocera contigua, Esp. Psammoeera contigua, Esp.
Psammocera fossata, Dana. Psammocera haimeana, Ed.& H.
Psammocera superficialis, Gard.
Psammocera savigniensis, Gard.
Oxypora sp.
Fungia tenuidens, Quelch.
Fungia discus, Dana.
Halomitra irregularis, Gardiner.
Herpolitha crassa, Gardiner.
Madreporaria fruticosa, Brook. Madreporaria fruticosa, Brook.
Madreporaria syringodes, Brook. Madreporaria syringodes, Brook. Gardiner.
Madreporaria spicifera, Dana.
Madreporaria botryodes, Brook Madreporaria scaunda, Dana.
var. funafutiensis, Madreporaria scabrosa, Quelch.
Whitelegge. Madreporaria reticulata, Brook.page 535
Madreporaria patula, Brook. Madreporaria profunda, Gard.
Madreporaria effloreseens, Dana. Madreporaria surculosa, Dana.
Madreporaria eurystoma,Klunz. Madreporaria latistella, Brook.
Madreporaria spinulifera, Madreporaria sinensis, Brook.
Whitelegge. Madreporaria cuneata, Dana.
Madreporaria impressa, Whitelegge. Madreporaria bæodaetyla,Brook.
Madreporaria loripes, Brook.
Madreporaria angulata, Quelch.
Astræopora incrustans, Bernard. Astræopora listeri, Bernard.
Astrssopora ocellata, Bernard. Astrssopora tabulata, Gardiner.
Astrssopora hirsuta, Bernard Astrssopora ovalis, Bernard.
Montipora verrucosa, Dana. Montipora verrucosa, Lamarck.
Montipora foveolata, Dana. Montipora profunda, Bernard.
Montipora tuberosa, Klunzinger. Montipora caliculata, Dana, var.
Montipora scabricula, Dana. piriformis,.Bernard.
Montipora exserta, Quelch. Montipora saxea, Bernard.
Montipora incognita, Bernard.
Montipora granifera, Bernard.
Porites lutea, Edw. and H. Porites arenosa, Esper.
Porites lichen, Dana. Porites arenosa,var. lutea,E.& H.
Porites lobata, Dana. Porites arenosa,var. parvicellata,
Porites crassa, Quelch. Gardiner.
Porites mirabilis, Quelch. Porites purpurea, Gardiner.
Porites gaimardi, Edw. and H. Porites trimurata, Gardiner.
Porites umbellifera, Gardiner.
Porites superfusa, Gardiner.
Porites exilis, Gardiner.

Class Foraminifera.

Pressure of Museum duties has unfortunately not allowed the preparation of a Report on the Forarninifera collected at Funafuti.

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