An Account of the Voyages undertaken by the order of His Present Majesty, for making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour: Drawn from the Journals which were kept by the several Commanders, and from the Papers of Joseph Banks, Esq. [Vol. II]
We made sail, from noon on Monday the 3d to noon on Tuesday the 4th, standing to the westward, and all the time kept in soundings, having from fourteen to thirty fathoms; not regular, but sometimes more, sometimes less. At noon on the 4th, we were in fourteen fathoms, and latitude 6° 44′ S. longitude 223° 51′ W. our course and distance since the 3d at noon, were S. 76 W. one hundred and twenty miles to the westward. At noon, on the 5th of September, we were in latitude 7° 25′ S. longitude 225° 41′ W. having been in soundings the whole time from ten to twenty fathoms.
At half an hour after one in the morning of the next day, we passed a small island which bore from us N. N. W. distant between three and four miles; and at day-light we discovered another low island, extending from N. N. W. to N. N. E. distant about two or three leagues. Upon this island, which did not appear to be very small, I believe I should have landed to examine its produce, if the wind had not blown too fresh to admit of it. When we passed this island we had only ten fathoms water, with a rocky bottom; and therefore I was afraid of running down the leeward, lest I should meet with shoal water and foul ground. These islands have no place in charts except they are the Arrou islands; and if these, they are laid down much too far from New Guinea. I found the south part of them to lie in latitude 7° 6′ S. longitude 225° W.
We continued to steer W. S. W. at the rate of four miles and an half an hour, till ten o'clock at night, when we had forty-two fathoms, at eleven we had thirty-seven, at twelve forty-five, at one in the morning forty-nine, and at three 120, after which we had no ground. At day-light we made all the sail we could, and at ten o'clock saw land, extending from N. page 430 N. W. to W. by N. distant between five and six leagues: at noon it bore from N. to W. and at about the same distance: it appeared to be level, and of a moderate height: by our distance from New Guinea, it ought to have been part of the Arrou Islands, but it lies a degree farther to the south than any of these islands are laid down in the charts; and by the latitude should be Timor Laoe[gap — reason: unclear]: we founded, but had no ground with fifty fathoms.
As I was not able to satisfy myself from any chart, what land it was that I saw to leeward, and fearing that it might trend away more southerly, the weather also being so hazy that we could not see far, I steered S. W. and by four had lost fight of the island. I was now sure that no part of it lay to the southward of 8° 15′ S. and continued standing to the S. W. with an easy sail, and a fresh breeze at S. E. by E. with E. S. E. we founded every hour, but had no bottom with 120 fathoms.
At day-break in the morning we steered to W. S. W. and afterwards W. by S. which by noon brought us into the latitude of 9° 30′ S. longitude 229° 34′ W. and, by our run from New Guinea, we ought to have been within fight of Weasel Isles, which in the charts are laid down at the distance of twenty or twenty-five leagues from the coast of New Holland; we however saw nothing, and therefore they must have been placed erroneously; nor can this be thought strange, when if is considered that not only thele islands, but the coast which bounds this Tea, have been discovered and explored by different people, and at different times, and the charts upon which they are delineated, put together by others, perhaps at the distance of more than a century after the discoveries had been made; not to mention that the discoverers themselves had not all the requisites for keeping an accurate journal, of which those of the present age are possessed.
We continued our course, steering W. till the evening of the 8th, when the variation of the compass, by several azimuths, was 12′ W. and by the amplitude 5 W. At noon on the 9th, our latitude, by observation, was 9° 46′ S. longitude 232° 7′ W. For the last two days we had steered due W. yet, by observation, page 431 we made sixteen miles southing, six miles from noon on the 6th to noon on the 7th, and ten miles from noon on the 7th to noon on the 8th, by which it appeared that there was a current setting to the southward. At sunset we found the variation to be 2 W. and, at the same time, saw an appearance of very high land bearing N. W.
In the morning of the 10th we saw clearly that what had appeared to be land the night before was Timor. At noon our latitude, by observation, was 10° I' S. which was fifteen miles to the southward of that given by the log; our longitude, by observation, was 233° 27′ W. We steered N. W. in order to obtain a more distinct view of the land in sight, till four o'clock in the morning of the 11th, when the wind came to the N. W. and W. with which we stood to the southward till nine, when we tacked and stood N. W. having the wind now at W. S. W. At sun-rise, the land had appeared to extend from W. N. W. to N. E. and at noon, we could see it extend to the westward as far as W. by S. ½ S. but no farther to the eastward than N. by E. We were now well assured, that as the first land we had seen was Timor, the last island we had passed was Timor Laoet, or Laut. Laoet, is a word in the language of Malacca signifying Sea, and this island was named by the inhabitants of that country. The south part of it lies in latitude 8° 15′ S. longitude 228° 10′ W. but in the charts the south point is laid down in various latitudes, from 8° 30′ to 9° 30′; it is indeed possible that the land we saw might be some other island, but the presumption to the contrary is very strong; for if Timor Laut had lain where it is placed in the charts, we must have seen it there. We were now in latitude 9° 27′ S. longitude, by an observation of the sun and moon, 233° 54′ W. we were the day before in 233° 27′; the difference is 27′, exactly the same that was given by the log: this, however, is a degree of accuracy in observation that is seldom to be expected. In the afternoon, we stood in shore till eight in the evening, when we tacked and stood of, being at a distance of about three leagues from the land, which at sun-set extended from S. W. ½ W. to N. E. at this time we founded, and had no ground with 140 page 432 fathoms. At midnight, having but little wind, we tacked, and stood in, and at noon the next day our latitude by observation, was 9° 36′ S. This day, we saw smoke on shore in several places, and had seen many fires during the night. The land appeared to be very high, rising in gradual slopes one above another: the hills were in general covered with thick woods, but among them we could distinguish naked spots of a considerable extent, which had the appearance of having been cleared by art. At five o'clock in the afternoon we were within a mile and a half of the shore, in sixteen fathoms water, and a-breast of a small inlet into the low land, which lies in latitude 9° 34′ S. and probably is the same that Dampier entered with his boat, for it did not seem to have sufficient depth of water for a ship. The land here answered well to the description that he has given of it: close to the beach it was covered with high spiry trees, which he mentions as having the appearance of pines; behind these there seemed to be salt water creeks, and many mangroves, interspersed however with cocoa-nut trees: the flat land at the beach appeared in some places to extend inward two or three miles before the rife of the first hill; in this part, however, we saw no appearance of plantations or houses, but great fertility, and from the number of fires, we judged that the place must be well peopled.
When we had approached within a mile and an half of the shore, we tacked and stood off, and the extremes of the coast then extended from N. E. by E. to W. by S. ½ S. The south westerly extremity was a low point, distant from us about three leagues. While we were standing in for the shore, we founded several times, but had no ground till we came within two miles and a half, and then we had five and twenty fathoms, with a soft bottom. After we had tacked, we stood off still midnight, with the wind at S. we then tacked and stood two hours to the westward, when the wind veered to S. W. and W. S. W. and we then stood to the southward again. In the morning we found the variation to be 1° 10′ W. by the amplitude, and by the azimuth 10° 27′. At noon our latitude was by observation, 9° 45′ S. our longitude 234° 12 W. we were then about page 433 seven leagues distant from the land, which extended from N. 31 E. to W. S. W. ½ W.
With light land breezes from W. by N. for a few hours in a morning, and sea breezes from S. S. W. and S. we advanced to the westward but slowly. At noon, on the 14th, we were between six and seven leagues from the land, which extended from N. by E. to S. 78 W. we still saw smoke in many places by day, and fire by night, both upon the low land and the mountains beyond it. We continued steering along the shore, till the morning of the 15th, the land still appearing hilly, but not so high as it had been: the hills in general came quite down to the sea, and where they did not, we saw, instead of flats and mangrove land, immense groves of cocoa-nut trees, reaching about a mile up from the beach: there the plantations and houses commenced, and appeared to be innumerable. The houses were shaded by groves of the fan-palm, or borassus, and the plantations, which were inclosed by a fence, reached almost to the tops of the highest hills. We saw however neither people nor cattle, though our glasses were continually employed, at which we were not a little surprised.
We continued our course with little variation, till nine o'clock in the morning of the 16th, when we saw the small island called Rotte; and at noon, the island Semàu, lying off the south end of Timor, bore N. W.
Dampier, who has given a large description of the island of Timor, says, that it is seventy leagues long, and sixteen broad, and that it lies nearly N. E. and S. W. I found the east side of it to lie nearest N. E. by E. and S. W. by W. and the south end to lie in latitude 10° 23′ S. longitude 236° 5′ W. We ran about forty-five leagues along the east side, and found the navigation altogether free from danger. The land, which is bounded by the sea, except near the south end, is low for two or three miles within the beach, and in general intersected by salt creeks: behind the low land are mountains, which rise one above another to a considerable height. We steered W. N. W. till two in the afternoon, when, being within a small distance of the north end of Rotte, we hauled up N. N. W. page 434 in order to go between it and Semau: after steering three leagues upon this course, we edged away N. W. and W. and by six, we were clear of all the islands. At this time the south part of Semau, which lies in latitude 10° 15′ S. bore N. E. distant four leagues, and the island of Rotte extended as far to the southward as S. 36 W. The north end of this island, and the south end of Timor, lie N. ½ E. and S. ½ W. and are about three or four leagues distant from each other. At the west end of the passage between Rotte and Semau, are two small islands, one of which lies near the Rotte shore, and the other off the south-west point of Semau: there is a good channel between them, about six miles broad, through which we passed. The isle of Rotte has not so lofty and mountainous an appearance as Timor, though it is agreeably diversified by hill and valley: on the north side there are many sandy beaches, near which grew some trees of the fan palm, but the far greater part was covered with a kind of brushy wood, that was without leaves. The appearance of Semau was nearly the same with that of Timor, but not quite so high. About ten o'clock at night, we observed a phaenomenon in the heavens, which in many particulars resembled the aurora borealis, and in others was very different: it consisted of a dull reddish light, and reached about twenty degrees above the horizon: its extent was very different at different times, but it was never less than eight or ten points of the compass: through, and out of this, passed rays of light of a brighter colour, which vanished, and were renewed nearly in the same time as those of the aurora borealis, but had no degree of the tremulous or vibratory motion which is observed in that phaenomenon: the body of it bore S. S. E. from the ship, and it continued, without any diminution of its brightness, till twelve o'clock, when we retired to sleep, but how long afterwards, I cannot tell.
Being clear of all the islands, which are laid down in the maps we had on board, between Timor and Java, we steered a west course till six o'clock the next morning, when we unexpectedly saw an island bearing W. S. W. and at first I thought we had made a new discovery. We steered directly for it, and by ten page 435 o'clock were close in with the north side of it, where we saw houses, cocoa-nut trees, and, to our very agreeable surprise, numerous flocks of sheep. This was a temptation not to be resisted by people in our situation, especially as many of us were in a bad state of health, and many still repining at my not having touched at Timor: it was therefore soon determined to attempt a commerce with people who appeared to be so well able to supply our many necessities, and remove at once the sickness and discontent that had got footing among us. The pinnace was hoisted out, and Mr. Gore, the Second Lieutenant, sent to see if there was any convenient place to land, taking with him some trifles, as presents to the natives if any of them should appear. While he was gone, we saw from the ship two men on horseback, who seemed to be riding upon the hills for their amusement, and often stopped to look at the ship. By this we knew that the place had been settled by Europeans, and hoped that the many disagreeable circumstances which always attend the first establishment of commerce with savages, would be avoided. In the mean time, Mr. Gore landed in a small sandy cove near some houses, and was met by eight or ten of the natives, who, as well in their dress as their persons very much resembled the Malays: they were without arms, except the knives which it is their custom to wear in their girdles, and one of them had a jack-ass with him: they courteously invited him ashore, and conversed with him by signs, but very little of the meaning of either party could be understood by the other. In a short time he returned with this report, and, to our great mortification, added, that there was no anchorage for the ship. I sent him however a second time, with both money and goods, that he might, if possible, purchase some refreshments, at least for the sick; and Dr. Solander went in the boat with him. In the mean time I kept standing on and off with the ship, which at this time was within about a mile of the shore. Before the boat could land, we saw two other horsemen, one of whom was in a compleat European dress, consisting of a blue coat, a white waistcoat, and a laced hat: these people when the boat came to the shore, took little notice of her, but sauntered page 436 tered about, and seemed to look with great curiosity as the ship. We saw, however, other horsemen, and a great number of persons on foot, gather round our people, and, to our great satisfaction, perceived several cocoa-nuts carried into the boat, from which we concluded that peace and commerce were established between us.
After the boat had been ashore about an hour and a half, she made the signal for having intelligence that there was a bay to the leeward where we might anchor: we stood away directly for it, and the boat following; soon came on board. The Lieutenant told us, that he had seen some of the principal people, who were dressed in fine linen, and had chains of gold round their necks, he said that he had not been able to trade, because the owner of the cocoa-nuts was absent, but that about two dozen had been sent to the boat as a present, and that some linen had been accepted in return. The people, to give him the information that he wanted, drew a map upon the sand, in which they made a rude representation of a harbour to leeward, and a town near it: they also gave him to understand, that sheep, hogs, fowls, and fruit might there be procured in great plenty. Some of them frequently pronounced the word Portuguese, and said something of Larntuca, upon the island of Ende: from this circumstance, we conjectured that there were Portuguese somewhere upon the island; and a Portuguese, who was in our boat, attempted to converse with the Indians in that language, but soon found that they knew only a word or two of it by rote: one of them, however, when they were giving our people to understand that there was a town near the harbour to which they had directed us, intimated, that as a token of going right, we should see somewhat, which he expressed by crossing his fingers, and the Portuguese instantly conceived that he meant to express a cross. Just as our people were putting off, the horseman in the European dress came up; but the officer not having his commission about him, thought it best to decline a conference.
At seven o'clock in the evening, we came to an anchor in the bay to which we had been directed, at page 437 about the distance of a mile from the shore, in thirty-eight fathoms water, with a clear sandy bottom. The north point of the bay bore N. 30 E distant two miles and an half, and the south point, or west end of the island, bore S. 63 W. Just as we got round the north point, and entered the bay, we discovered a large Indian town, or village, upon which we stood on, hoisting a jack on the fore-top-mast head: soon after, to our great surprise, Dutch colours were hoisted in the town, and three guns fired; we stood on, however, till we had foundings, and then anchored.
As soon as it was light in the morning we saw the same coulours hoisted upon the beach, a-breast of the ship; supposing therefore that the Dutch had a settlement here, I sent Lieutenant Gore a-shore, to wait upon the Governor, or the chief person residing upon the spot, acquainting him who we were, and for what purpose we had touched upon the coast. As soon as he came a-shore, he was received by a guard of between twenty and thirty Indians, armed with muskets, who conducted him to the town where the colours had been hoisted the night before, carrying with them those that had been hoisted upon the beach, and marching without any military regularity. As soon as he arrived, he was introduced to the Raja, or King of the island, and by a Portuguese interpreter told him, that the ship was a man of war belonging to the king of Great Britain, and that she had many sick on board, for whom he wanted to purchase such refreshments as the island afforded. His Majesty replied, that he was willing to supply us with whatever we wanted, but that, being in alliance with the Dutch East India Company, he was not at liberty to trade with any other people, without having first procured their consent, for which, however, he said he would immediately apply to a Dutchman who belonged to the company, and who was the only white man upon the island. To this man, who resided at some distance, a letter was immediately dispatched, acquainting him with our arrival and request; in the mean time, Mr. Gore dispatched a messenger to me, with an account of the situation, and the state of the treaty. In about three hours the Dutch resident answered the letter that had page 438 been sent him in person: he proved to be a native of Saxony, and his name is Johan Christopher Lange, and the same person whom we had seen on horseback in an European dress: he behaved with great civility to Mr. Gore, and assured him that we were at liberty to purchase of the natives whatever we pleased. After a short time, he expressed a desire of coming on board, so did the King also, and several of his attendants. Mr. Gore intimated that he was ready to attend them, but they desired that two of our people might be left on shore as hostages; and in this also they were indulged.
About two o'clock they all came a-board the ship, and our dinner being ready, they accepted our invitation to partake of it. I expected them immediately to sit down; but the King seemed to hesitate, and at last, with some confusion, said, he did not imagine that we, who were white men, would suffer him, who was of a different colour, to sit down in our company; a compliment soon removed his scruples, and we all sat down together with great chearfulness and cordiality. Happily we were at no loss for interpreters, both Dr. Solander and Mr. Sporing understanding Dutch enough to keep up a conversation with Mr. Lange; and several of the seamen were able to converse with such of the natives as spoke Portuguese. Our dinner happened to be mutton, and the King expressed a desire of having an English sheep: we had but one left, however, that was presented to him. The facility with which this was procured encouraged him to ask for an English dog, and Mr. Banks politely gave up his greyhound. Mr. Lange then intimated, that a spying-glass would be acceptable, and one was immediately put into his hand. Our guests then told us, that the island abounded with buffaloes, sheep, hogs, and fowls, plenty of which should be driven down to the beach the next day, that we might purchase as many of them as we should think fit: this put us all into high spirits, and the liquor circulated rather faster than either the Indians or the Saxon could bear. They intimated their desire to go away, however, before they were quite drunk: they were received upon deck, as they had been when they came a-board, by the marines page 439 under arms. The King expressed a curiosity to see them exercise, in which he was gratified, and they fired three rounds. He looked at them with great attention, and was much surprised at their regularity and expedition, especially in cocking their pieces: the first time they did it, he struck the side of the ship with a stick that he had in his hand, and cried out with great vehemence, that all the locks made but one click. They were dismissed with many presents, and when they went away saluted with nine guns: Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went a-shore with them, and as soon as they put off gave us three cheers.
Our gentlemen, when they came a-shore, walked up with them to the town, which consists of many houses, and some of them were large; they are, however, nothing more than a thatched roof, supported over a boarded floor, by pillars about four feet high. They produced some of their palm-wine, which was the fresh unfermented juice of the tree; it had a sweet but not a disagreeable taste, and hopes were conceived that it might contribute to recover our sick from the scurvy. Soon after it was dark Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander returned on board.
In the morning of the 19th I went a-shore with Mr. Banks, and several of the officers and gentlemen, to return the King's visit; but my chief business was to procure some buffaloes, sheep, and fowls, which we had been told should be driven down to the beach. We were greatly mortified to find that no steps had been taken to fulfil this promise; however, we proceeded to the house of assembly, which, with two or three more, had been erected by the Dutch East India Company, and are distinguished from the rest by two pieces of wood resembling a pair of cow's horns, one of which is set up at each end of the ridge that terminates the roof; and these were certainly what the Indian intended to represent by crossing his fingers; though our Portuguese, who was a good Catholic, construed the sign into a cross, which had persuaded us that the settlement belonged to his countrymen. In this place we met Mr. Lange and the King, whose name was A Madocho Lomi Djara, attended by many of the principal people. We told them, that we had page 440 in the boat goods of various kinds, which we proposed to barter for such refreshments as they would give us in exchange, and desired leave to bring them on shore; which being granted, they were brought a-shore accordingly. We then attempted to settle the price of the buffaloes, sheep, hogs, and other commodities which we proposed to purchase, and for which we were to pay in money; but as soon as this was mentioned Mr. Lange left us, telling us, that these preliminaries must be settled with the natives; he said, however, that he had received a letter from the Governor of Concordia, in Timor, the purport of which he would communicate to us when he returned.
As the morning was now far advanced, and we were very unwilling to return on board and eat salt provisions, when so many delicacies surrounded us a-shore, we petitioned his Majesty for liberty to purchase a small hog and some rice, and to employ his subjects to dress them for us. He answered very graciously, that if we could eat victuals dressed by his subjects, which he could scarcely suppose, he would do himself the honour of entertaining us. We expressed our gratitude, and immediately sent on board for liquors.
About five o'clock dinner was ready; it was served in six-and-thirty dishes, or rather baskets, containing alternately rice and pork, and three bowls of earthen ware, filled with the liquor in which the pork had been boiled; these were ranged upon the floor, and mats laid round them for us to sit upon. We were then conducted by turns to a hole in the floor, near which stood a man with water in a vessel, made of the leaves of the fan-palm, who assisted us in washing our hands. When this was done, we placed ourselves round the victuals, and waited for the King. As he did not come, we inquired for him, and were told, that the custom of the country did not permit the person who gave the entertainment to sit down with his guests; but that, if we suspected the victuals to be poisoned, he would come and taste them. We immediately declared that we had no such suspicion, and desired that none of the rituals of hospitality might be violated on our account. The Prime Minister and page 441 Mr. Lange were of our party, and we made a most luxurious meal; we thought the pork and rice excellent, and the broth not to be despised, but the spoons, which were made of leaves, were so small that few of us had patience to use them. After dinner our wine passed briskly about, and we again enquired for our royal host, thinking that though the custom of his country would not allow him to eat with us, he might at least share in the jolity of our bottle; but he again excused himself, saying, that the master of a feast should never be drunk, which there was no certain way to avoid but by not tasting the liquor. We did not however drink our wine where we had eaten our victuals, but as soon as we had dined made room for the seamen and servants, who immediately took our places: they could not dispatch all that we had left, but the women who came to clear away the bowls and baskets, obliged them to carry away with them what they had not eaten. As wine generally warms and opens the heart, we took an opportunity, when we thought its influence began to be felt, to revive the subject of the buffaloes and sheep, of which we had not in all this time heard a syllabel, though they were to have been brought down early in the morning. But our Saxon Dutchman, with great phlegm, began to communicate to us the contents of the letter which he pretended to have received from the Governor of Concordia. He said, that after acquainting him that a vessel had steered from thence towards the island where we were now a-shore, it required him, if such ship should apply for provisions, in distress, to relieve her, but not to suffer her to stay longer than was absolutely necessary, nor to make any large presents to the inferior people, or to leave any with those of superior rank, to be afterwards distributed among them; but he was graciously pleased to add, that we were at liberty to give beads and other trifles in exchange for petty civilities and palm-wine.
It was the general opinion that this letter was a fiction; that the prohibitory orders were feigned, with a view to get money from us for breaking them; and that, by precluding our liberality to the natives, this page 442 man hoped more easily to turn it into another channel.
In the evening we received intelligence from our trading place, that no buffaloes or hogs had been brought down, and only a few sheep, which had been taken away before our people, who had sent for money, could procure it. Some fowls, however, had been bought, and a large quantity of a kind of syrup, made of the juice of the palm-tree, which, though infinitely superior to molasses or treacle, sold at a very low price. We complained of our disappointment to Mr. Lange, who had now another subterfuge; he said, that if we had gone down to the beach ourselves, we might have purchased what we pleased; but that the natives were afraid to take money of our people, left it should be counterfeit. We could not but feel some indignation against a man who had concealed this, being true, or alledged it, being false. I started up, however, and went immediately to the beach, but no cattle or sheep were to be seen, nor were any at hand to be produced. While I was gone, Lange, who knew well enough that I should succeed no better than my people, told Mr. Banks that the natives were displeased at our not having offered them gold for their stock, and that if gold was not offered, nothing would be bought. Mr. Banks did not think it worth his while to reply, but soon after rose up, and we all returned on board, very much dissatisfied with the issue of our negociations. During the course of the day the King had promised that some cattle and sheep should be brought down in the morning, and had given a reason for our disappointment something more plausible; he said, that the buffaloes were far up the country, and that there had not been time to bring them down to the beach.
The next morning we went a-shore again. Dr. Solander went up to the town to speak to Lange, and I remained upon the beach, to see what could be done in the purchase of provisions. I found here an old Indian, who, as he appeared to have some authority, we had among ourselves called the Prime Minister. To engage this man in our interest, I presented him with page 443 a spying-glass, but I saw nothing at market except one small buffalo. I inquired the price of it, and was told five guineas: this was twice as much as it was worth; however, I offered three, which I could perceive the man who treated with me thought a good price; but he said that he must acquaint the King with what I had offered before he could take it. A messenger was immediately dispatched to his Majesty, who soon returned, and said, that the buffalo would not be sold for any thing less than five guineas. This price I absolutely refused to give; and another messenger was sent away with an account of my refusal. This messenger was longer absent than the other, and while I was waiting for his return I saw, to my great astonishment, Dr. Solander coming from the town, followed by above a hundred men, some armed with musquets and some with lances. When I inquired the meaning of this hostile appearance, the Doctor told me, that Mr. Lange had interpreted to him a message from the King, purporting, that the people would not trade with us, because we had refused to give them more than half the value of what they had to fell, and that we should not be permitted to trade upon any terms longer than this day. Besides the officers who commanded the party, there came with it a man who was born at Timor, of Portuguese parents, and who, as we afterwards discovered, was a kind of colleague to the Dutch factor. By this man, what they pretended to be the King's order, was delivered to me, of the same purport of that which Dr. Solander had received from Mr. Lange. We were all clearly of opinion, that this was a mere artifice of the factor's to extort money from us, for which we had been prepared by the account of a letter from Concordia. And while we were hesitating what step to take, the Portuguese, that he might the sooner accomplish his purpose, began to drive away the people who had brought down poultry and syrup, and others that were now coming down with buffaloes and sheep. At this time I glanced my eye upon the old man whom I had complimented in the morning with the spying-glass, and I thought, by his looks, that he did not heartily approve of what page 444 was doing; I therefore took him by the hand, and presented him with an old broad sword. This instantly turned the scale in our favour; he received the sword with a transport of joy, and flourishing it over the busy Portuguese, who crouched like a fox to a lion, he made him, and the officer who commanded the party, fit down upon the ground behind him. The people who, whatever were the crafty pretences of these iniquitous factors for a Dutch company, were eager to supply us with whatever we wanted, and seemed also to be more desirous of goods than money, instantly improved the advantage that had been procured them, and the market was stocked almost in an instant. To establish a trade for buffaloes, however, which I most wanted, I found it necessary to give ten guineas for two, one of which weighed no more than an hundred and sixty pounds; but I bought seven more much cheaper, and might afterwards have purchased as many as I pleased almost upon my own terms, for they were now driven down to the water-side in herds. In the first two that I had bought so dear, Lange had certainly a share; and it was in hopes to obtain part of the price of others, that he had pretended we must pay for them in gold. The natives, however, sold what they afterwards brought down much to their satisfaction, without paying part of the price to him, as a reward for exacting money from us. Most of the buffaloes that we bought, after our friend the Prime Minister, had procured us a fair market, were sold for a musquet a-piece, and at this price we might have bought as many as would have freighted our ship.
The refreshments which we procured here consisted of nine buffaloes, fix sheep, three hogs, thirty dozen of fowls, a few times, and some cocoa-nuts, many dozens of eggs, half of which, however, proved to be rotten, a little garlic, and several hundred gallons of palm-syrup.