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Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand : a report comprising the results of official explorations


page v


Preface iii.
Contents v.
Illustrations xi.
Part I.
Historical Notes on the Progress of the Geological Survey.
Chapter I.—
  From the Beginning of the Geological Survey to the Discovery of the West Coast Goldfields. 1
  Geological Survey of Mount Pleasant, Banks' Peninsula, 1860 2
  Exploration of the Rivers Rangitata and Ashburton, 1861 3
  Exploration of the Malvern Hills and Mount Torlesse, 1861 16
  Exploration of the Head-waters of the Waitaki, 1862 18
  Visit to the Opawa Stream, 1862 43
  Journey to the Waitaki, Lake Wanaka, and the West Coast, 1862-63 44
  Artesian Wells in Christchurch, 1863 58
  Malvern Hills Coalfields, 1863. Building Stones, 1864 59
  Search for Coal in the Ashburton and Rangitata Districts, 1864 60
  Geological Survey of the Christchurch-Lyttelton Railway Tunnel 62
  Canterbury Plains 63
  New Zealand Industrial Exhibition, Dunedin, 1865 64
Chapter II.—
  From the Discovery of the West Coast Goldfields to the Termination of the Geological Survey, end of June, 1868 65
  Journey to the West Coast, 1865 65
  Journey to Westland by Arthur's Pass, returning by Browning's Pass, October, 1865 107
  First Visit to Middle Waipara, 1866 122
  Journey to the Head-waters of the Rakaia, 1866 123
  Christchurch and Lyttelton Railway Tunnel 143
  First Excavations for Moa-bones in Glenmark, 1866 143
  Journey to the Waipara and Hurunui, 1867 144
  Exploration of the Head-waters of the Waimakariri, 1867 145page vi
  Journey to the Sources of the Waipara, 1867 152
  Collecting Saurian Remains in the Middle Waipara, 1867 155
  A Visit to Glenmark, and Heavy Floods, end of July and beginning of August, 1867 155
  Journey along the Eastern Base of the Ranges, from the Gorge of the Rakaia to the Waitaki and to the Sources of the Hakateramea 156
  Geological Examination of Banks' Peninsula, 1868 157
  Journey to the Southern Portion of Westland, 1868 157
Chapter III.—
  The Canterbury Museum and Geological Explorations from 1868 to 1876 167
Part II.
Physical Geography.
Chapter I.—
  General Considerations 172
Chapter II.—
  Orographical Features 177
Chapter III.—
  Glaciers, Rivers, and Lakes 193
  The Waitaki 199
  The Rakaia 206
  The Rangitata 210
  The Waimakariri 212
  The Ashburton 214
  The Head-waters of the Molyneux 215
  The Hurunui 216
  The Opihi, the Ashley 218
  The Waipara, the Selwyn 219
  The Hinds, the Orari, the Waihao, the Pareora 220
  The Grey, the Taramakau 221
  The Hokitika 222
  The Mikonui, the Waitaha and Wanganui, the Poerua, the Whataroa 224
  The Okarito, the Waiau 225
  The Waikukupa, the Weheka 226
  The Karangarua 227
  The Mahitahi, the Paringa, the Haast 228
  The Okuru and Waiatoto, the Arawata 229
Chapter IV.—
  Plains 231page vii
Part III.
Chapter I.—
  Introduction 236
Chapter II.—
  General Geological Structure 240
Chapter III.—
  Stratigraphical Geology—General Synopsis and Description of Geological Formations 249
Chapter IV.—
  The Gneiss Granite Formation 252
  Extent. Igneous Eruptive Rocks. Crystalline Metamorphic Formation East of the Central Chain 253
Chapter V.—
  Westland Formation, Extent 256
  Texture of Rocks, and Position of Strata 257
  Igneous Rocks 258
  Mineral Veins 259
Chapter VI.—
  Waihao Formation, Extent 260
  Position of Strata and Texture of Rocks 261
  Age and Thickness. Igneous Rocks. Mineral Veins 264
Chapter VII.—
  The Mount Torlesse Formation 266
  Texture of Rocks and Position of Strata 274
  Extent 278
  Thickness and Age. Igneous Rocks 279
  Relations to Older Formations 280
Chapter VIII.—
  The Melaphyre and Quartziferous Porphyry Eruptions 281
  Extent 282
  Character and Sequence of Eruptive Rocks. Melaphyre Series 283
  Quartziferous Porphyry and Pitchstone Series 285
Chapter IX.—
  The Waipara Formation 291
  Extent 292
  Sequence and Character of Rocks. Position of Strata. Fossil Contents 293
  The Cretaceo-tertiary Period in Westland 298
  Igneous Rocks 300page viii
Chapter X.—
  The Oamaru Formation. Extent 304
  Sequence and Character of the Rocks. Position of Strata 305
  Principal Fossil Contents 310
  Igneous Rocks 313
  Age and Thickness 314
Chapter XI.—
  The Pareora Formation. Extent 316
  Sequence and Character of Rocks, and Position of Strata 317
  Fossil Contents 319
  Igneous Rocks. Age and Thickness 323
Chapter XII.—
  Banks' Peninsula 324
  Chemical Analysis of Rocks 350
  The Christchurch and Lyttelton Railway Tunnel 355
Chapter XIII.—
  The Alluvial Goldfields of Westland 361
Chapter XIV.—
  (A) Raised Beaches 366
  (B) The Loess Formation 367
    Extent 369
Chapter XV.—
  The Great Glacier Formation—General Considerations 371
  Extent and Characteristics of the Glaciers (A) Eastern Slopes of the Southern Alps. The Waitaki Glacier 384
  The Rakaia Glacier 386
  The Rangitata Glacier 390
  The Waimakariri Glacier 391
  The Clutha Glacier (B) Western Slopes of Southern Alps 392
  (C) The Formation of the Canterbury Plains 396
  Tables of Altitudes of Canterbury Plains 403
Chapter XVI.—
  The Quaternary and Recent Periods—(A) First Appearance of Man in this Island 407
  (B) The Dinornithidæ or Moa 431
  (C) Occurrence of Moa-bones and Time of Extinction of the Dinornithidæ 437
  (D) Glenmark 442page ix
Chapter XVIII.—
  Economic Geology—Coal 450
  Building Stones 462
  Limestones 463
  Clays 464
  Sands, Ores 465
  Gold 466
  Copper, Iron, and Manganese 467
  Other Ores. Water Supply 468
Chapter XIX.—
  Altitudes 474