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Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand : a report comprising the results of official explorations

Chapter XIX. Altitudes. General.All other altitudes have been calculated by me from barometrical observations. Datum line—High-water mark

page 474

Chapter XIX. Altitudes. General.

All other altitudes have been calculated by me from barometrical observations.

Datum line—High-water mark

North-Eastern District.
Mount Alexander 2452
Black Hill, near Motanau 1800
Mount Cass 1723
Mount Montserrat, Cass Range 1493
Mount Totara ditto 1822
Mount Vulcan ditto 1342
Pendel Hill 1728
Ned's Farewell, North of Motanau 1107
Burnt Hut Hill ditto ditto 1202
Glendhu Peak ditto ditto 1367
Sailrock ditto ditto 1101
Ben Lomond 1565
Moore's Hill, North 940
Moore's South 1442
Mount Donald 1605
page 475
Hurunui and Waipara District.
Mount Mason 2787
Mount Hilton 2013
Mount Lance 2535
Mount Arden 2375
Hamilton Range 2568
Highest point of Limestone Eange on "Western side of Weka Pass Creek 1430
Horsley Downs 1265
Waitohi Plains 978
Island Down 1163
Mount Macdonald 1406
Black Hill, North 1312
Black Hill, Middle 1824
Black Hill, South 1796
Hurunui Mound 897
North Deans 1879
Mount Brown 1608
Glengarry 478
Seadown 598
Mount Grey 3064
Mount Thomas 3354
Mount Karetu 3177
* Junction of South Hurunui with Hurunui. 1416
* Eastern foot of Hurunui (Harper's) Pass 2300
* Terrace on Southern side of "Waipara 248
* Barer-bed ditto ditto 192
* Terrace on Northern ditto 217
* Weka Pass Hotel 451
* First Weka Pass Bridge 550
Middle Eastern District.
Burnt Hill (near Oxford) 1210
Upper Gorge Hill, Waimakariri 2093
Mount Torlesse 6434
Mount Torlesse, ridge above Waimakariri 4029
Trig. Station, Kowhai Bush 1271
Moraine Hill, near Kowhai 1231
Kowhai Corner Hill 1425page 476
Little Gorge Hill (Waimakariri ditto) 1024
Gorge Hill 1171
Gorge Hill lower end on plains (lagoon) 886
Racecourse Hill 897
Big Ben, Trig. Station 4646
Thirteen-Mile Bush Range 5224
Brown Coal Beds behind Big Ben, where the Creek cuts through the main seam 2891
Summit of Dolerite ridge above it 3160
Junction of Kowhai with Macfarlane's stream 1787
Coal Measures in Kowhai, entrance of Adit 1424
Little Racecourse Hill 1012
Russell's Peak 3946
Russell's Range 2726
Abner's Head 1902
Wether Hill, left Bank Selwyn 2265
Flagpole Hill, right bank Selwyn 2939
Cairnhill (Malvern Hills) 1634
Mount Misery ditto ditto 1910
Mount Pleasant ditto ditto 2116
Yorkie's Pass ditto ditto 1563
Rocky Peak ditto ditto 2763
Pass between Rocky Peak and Pullwoolpeak 1687
Rockwood Home station (verandah) 1370
High Peak 3177
Snowy Peak 2917
Little Snowdon 2095
Four Peak Range 2410
Wai-anianiwha, where it enters the plains 797
Basalt-ridge, between Selwyn and Wai-anianiwha 1192
Hart's Coal Pit 1015
Saddle above Hart's Coal Pit to Wai-anianiwha 1162
Upton's Flat (verandah of house) 1383
Precipice Point Selwyn 964
Saddle between High Peak and Snowy Peak 2491
Hill's Pass to Upton's Flat 1816
Harper's Hill, summit 1334
The Hon. John Hall's Station (verandah) 765
Barker's Hill (near Lake Coleridge) 2941
Rabbit Hill (Lake Coleridge) 3924page 477
Bryant's Hill 1593
Woolshed Hill 1210
Curiosity Shop beds inRakaia Valley 651
Wmdwhistle.House 1532
Upper Acheron Flat, junction of two branches 1684
Snowdon verandah 1664
Shoulder of Fighting Hill, where old road crosses 1797
Bed of Acheron where road crosses 1202
Pudding Hill south of Rakaia 2849
Double Hill (approximate) 2230
Prospect Hill, 2891
Small Lake Hill, South of Lake Heron (approximate) 2472
Trinity Hill ditto 3335
Harper's Knob, at Junction of River Potts with Rangitata 2745
Gawler Downs 2099
Mount Hutt 7016
Ribbonwood Range, near Lake Heron 5862
Mount Harper 5216
Sugarloaf, Rangitata (roche moutonnée) 3268
Sugarloaf, Lake Heron ditto 3822
Mount Somers 5240
Mount Peel 5633
Rocky wall surrounding Lake Coleridge, East of Sheep'Range 2087
Junction of Whitcombe Pass stream with Rakaia 2958
Mein's Knob, between Lyell and Ramsay Gflaciers 4437
Greenlaw's Hut, in Valley of Wilberforce 3041
Two stones on Southern Foot of Browning's Pass3392
Saddle above Browning's Pass leading into chasm5321
Banks' Peninsula.
Herbert Peak 3014
Castlehill 2900
Mount Pleasant 1638
*Observatory above Railway Tunnel 1230
Bridle Path to Lyttelton 1080
Mount Evans 2308
Pigeon Bay Peak 2043
Mount Duvauchelles 2406
Mount Bossu 2336
Laverick's Peak 2478page 478
Cass' Peak 1780
a Devil's Peak 2050
a One Tree Hill 2310
a Rhodes' Sugarloaf 2000'
a Mount Berard 2500
a The Knobs 1880
Dyer's Pass 937
South-Eastern District.
Blue Mountains, South Peak 5376
Blue Mountains, North Peak 5356
Four Peak Range, South Peak 4811
"Waitohi Hill, near Orari 2274
Kakahu Limestone Hill, northern side 939
Kakahu Hill, behind Bush 1307
Trig. Station at Upper Opuha, near Messrs. Walker and Clogstoun's Out-station 1579
Greraldine Hill 773
Mount Horrible 1272
Mount Misery near Mount Horrible 1798
Waimate Hill, Waihao District 1268
Mount Studholnie ditto 3562
Mount Blyth ditto 3299
Mount Pudding Hill ditto 1137
Mount Yellow Hill ditto 2185
Mount Two Peaks ditto 3395
Mount McLeod's ditto 3012
Elephant Hill 1673
Station Peak, behind Meyers' (Waitaki) 2905
Mount Dryburgh, Hakataramea 3025
Gorge Hill ditto 2089
o Ben Moore 6111
o Totara Peak 5876
Southern Alps.
o Terrace Peak, near head of Lake Hawea 6800
o Triplet Peak, ditto ditto 7064
o Mount Albert 7065
o Mount Aspiring 9949
o Mount Pollux 8633page 479
o Mount Castor 8588
o Mount Alba 8268
o Oblong Peak 7640
o Cleft Peak 6769
o Mount Nix (Mount Stewart) 9101
a Mount Cook 13200
o Mount Cook 12460
a Mount Tasman 12320
Mount Dobson, near Lake Takapo 6271
Observation Peak, Macaulay River 7862
Mount Sinclair 7022
Line of Perpetual Snow South-Eastern side of Mount Cook 7800
Line of Perpetual Snow Western ditto ditto 6900
Limit of Fagus Forest in River Hopkins 3180
Limit of Fagus Forest in River Dobson 3280
Limit of Fagus Forest in River Rakaia 2430
Limit of Fagus Forest in River Wilberforce 2360
Limit of Fagus forest on Mount Brewster 4320
Limit of Alpine shrub vegetation on Mount Brewster 4920
Western slopes of Southern Alps.
Western foot of Hurunui Pass 1781
* Junction of Otira with Hurunui River 812
* Junction of Taipo with Hurunui River 375
Junction of Waimea with Hurunui River 148
Sale Glacier, source of Hokitika River 4183
Hokitika River, where it enters the plains 429
Junction of Kokatahi with Hokitika 173
Francis Joseph Glacier, terminal face (Waiau) 705
Prince Alfred Glacier terminal face (Weheka) 702
Brewster Glacier terminal face (Haast) 4810
Junction of Leading Creek with River Haast 1510
Junction of Wills with River Haast 723
Junction of Burke with River Haast 382
Junction of Clarke with River Haast 246
Mount Brewster, first peak near source of River Haast 7200
page 480
River Waitaki.
Great Tasman Glacier, terminal face 2456
Junction of Hochstetter Glacier, ditto 4850
Murchison Glacier, ditto 3540
Mueller Glacier, ditto 2578
Hooker Glacier, ditto 2691
Junction of Hooker with Tasman River 2296
Junction of Jollie with Tasman River 2014
Great Godley Glacier, terminal face 3583
Classen Glacier, ditto 3528
Junction of Grey with Godley Glacier 4832
Separation Glacier between Mount Forbes and d'Archiac 4382
Macaulay Glacier, terminal face 4375
Junction of River Macaulay with River Godloy 2611
Huxley Glacier, terminal face 5242
Faraday Glacier, ditto 4723
Richardson Glacier, ditto 4231
Selwyn Glacier, ditto 4311
Hourglass Glacier, ditto 3816
Junction of River Dobson with River Hopkins 2086
Junction of Holmes'Creek with River Hopkins 2190
End of terminal moraine, Ahuriri Valley 2464
Junction of Pukaki with Takapo River 1547
Junction of Ohau with Waitaki 1475
Junction of Ahuriri with ditto 1168
Junction of Hakataremea with ditto 781
Lowest moraine accumulation in Waitaki Valley 716
Molyneux River.
Junction of Fish Creek with Makaroa 1362
Junction of Blue River with ditto 1210
Junction of Wilkin with ditto 1058
Rangitata River.
Havelock Glacier, terminal face 3909
Forbes Glacier, ditto 3837
Clyde Glacier, ditto 3762
Tyndall Glacier, ditto 3950
Lawrence Glacier, ditto 4061page 481
Junction of Forbes river with Havelock River 2871
Junction of M'Coy River with Clyde River 3269
Junction of Lawrence River with ditto 2284
Junction of Havelock River with ditto 2192
Junction of Potts' River with Rangitata 1762
Junction of Pudding-stone Valley stream with ditto 1440
Where Rangitata enters Canterbury plains 1180
Banks above it, uppermost terrace 1443
Ashburton River.
Ashburton Glacier, terminal face 4832
Junction of lower branches 2511
Junction of Clearwater Creek with Ashburton 1832
Rakaia River.
Ramsay Glacier, terminal face 3354
Lyell Glacier, ditto 3568
Martius Glacier, ditto 4268
Junction of Whitcombe stream with Rakaia 2958
Hawker Glacier, forming Cameron River 4478
Junction of two Glaciers, forming Hawker Glacier 5667
Junction of River Cameron with Rakaia 2052
Neave Glacier, forming River Matthias 3788
Junction of two main branches of Matthias 2236
Junction of Matthias with Rakaia 1688
Stewart Glacier, terminal face 3584
Junction of two main branches of Stewart 3090
Junction of Stewart River with Wilberforce 2374
Camp Creek junction with ditto 3041
Junction of River Harper with River Avoca 2103
Junction of Western branch ditto 2531
Avoca Glacier, terminal face 4749
Junction of two source branches of Avoca 3416
Junction of River Harper with Wilberforce 1610
Waimakariri River.
Waimakariri Glacier, source of White River terminal face 4162
Ponds, sources of, Northern Branch 5141
Junction of Poulter River with Waimakariri 1621
Junction of Porter River with Waimakariri 1361
page 482
Lake Hawea 1073
Lake Wanaka 992
Lake Pukaki 1717
Lake Ohau 1837
Lake Takapo 2437
Lake Alexandrina 2460
Lake Acland 2205
Lake Tripp 2228
Lake Heron 2255
Lake Browning 4616
Lake Coleridge 1694
Lake Selfe 1962
Lake Ida 2304
* Lake Lyndon 2743
Lake Taylor 1948
* Lake Sumner 1735
* Lake Pearson 2085
Lake Letitia 2079
Lake Blackwater 2023
Lake Poerua 345
Lake Brunner 227
Lake Kanieri 468
Lake Hall 229
Lake The World 1980
Lake Greorgina 1823
Lake Catherine 1740
* Hurunui (Harper's) Pass 3150
* Arthur's Pass 3013
Harman's Pass 3980
Browning's Pass 4752
Whitcombe's Pass 4212
Haast's Pass 1716
* Porter's Pass, leading into Waimakariri country 3097
Lake Lyndon Pass, from Rakaia into Waimakariri 2747
Burke's Pass, from Opihi to Lake Takapo 2464
Walker's Pass, from Opihi to Waihi 2984
Tripp's Pass from Orari to Opuha 2255page 483
Pass between Cass and Godley Rivers, near Huxley Grlacier 6565
Eraser's Pass, between Lake Pukaki and head of Lake Ohau 3992
Pass between Selwyn and Hawkins 1687
Pass between Rubicon and sources of Kowai 3705
Pass between Mount Somers and Mount Somers Range 3684
Pass between Sources of North and South Hinds 3025
Pass between Ashburton and Rakaia, near Lake Heron 2290
Pass between Ashburton and Rangitata, near Lake Tripp 2360
Pass between Hurunui aud Waitohi 1858
* Pass between Hurunui aud Waitohi lower 1242
* Weka Pass 860
Pass between Lake Selfe and Lake Ida 2396
Pass between The World and the longitudinal valley skirting Craigieburn range 2327
* Pass between Kapitea and Taramakau 575
* Pass between Waimea and Kawhaka 560
* Pass between Wainihini-hini and Kawhaka 1006
Levels of Principal Points, Canterbury Railways.
* Christchurch Railway Station, Colombo Street 15.97
* Addington Railway Station, Colombo Street 30.50
* Southbridge Junction Railway Station 88.79
* Rolleston Junction Railway Station 181.48
* Selwyn River, Ordinary Water Level 211.50
* Selwyn River, Average Surface of River Bed 209.87
* Selwyn Railway Station 220.80
* Rakaia River, Ordinary Water Level 331.50
* Rakaia Bridge, Rail Level 342.30
* Rakaia Railway Station 347.51
* Ashburton Railway Station 323.09
* Ashburton River, Average Surface of River Bed 300.00
* Hinds River, Average Surface of River Bed 275.00
* Hinds Bridge, Rail Level 282.00
* Rangitata North, Top of Terrace 370.04
* Rangitata Rver, North Branch—
* Rangitata Rver, North Branch North Side 326.36
* Rangitata Rver, North Branch South Side 332.50
* Rangitata; Rver, South Branch—
* Rangitata Rver, South Branch North Side 338.00
* Rangitata South Branch South Side 341.50page 484
* Orari River, Average Surface of River Bed 250.00
* Orari Railway Station 238.77
* Temuka Railway Station 55.62
* Temuka River, North Side 40.13
* Temuka River, South Side 44.19
* Opihi River, North Side 49.64
* Opihi River, South Side 52.28
* Washdyke Railway Station 9.10
* Timaru Railway Station 10.00
* Pareora River, North Side 13.00
* Pareora River, South Side 21.00
* Waimate Junction Railway Station 31.00
* Waimate Railway Station 174.00
* Waitaki North Railway Station 71.00
* Waitaki River, Ordinary Water Level 32.00
* Waimakariri River, South Branch—
* Waimakariri River, South Side 2.94
* Waimakariri River, North Side 7.00
* Kaiapoi Railway Station 6.50
* Rangiora Railway Station 90.09
* Ashley River, North Side 101.00
* Ashley Bridge, Formation Level 109.42
* South Kowai River, Average Surface of River Bed 117.11
* North Kowai River, Average Surface of River Bed 119.11
* Amberley Railway Station 136.86
* Cust Railway Station 423.73
* West Oxford Railway Station 800.38
* West Eyreton Railway Station 387.15
* Southbridge Railway Station 74.86
* Bealey's Road Railway Station 389.09
* Horndon Junction Railway Station 646.45
* Malvern Junction 962.69
* Hawkins River, Average Surface of River Bed 683.00
* Homebush Railway Station 707.40
* Whitecliffs Railway Station 940.27
* Pleasant Point Railway Station 203.45
* Albury 750.45
West Coast Road, by Arthur's Pass.
* Cook's Accommodation House 228.00page 485
* White's Accommodation House 631.23
* Southern base of Little Racecourse Hill 979.39
* McRae's Accommodation House (formerly Willis') 1273.54
* Southern Bank of River Kowhai 1424.47
* Centre of bed of River Kowhai 1393.62
* Riddle's Accommodation House, foot of Porter's Pass 2060.
* Summit of Porter's Pass 3097.
* Lake Lyndon, high-water line 2743.
* Springs, sources of River Porter 2535.
* River-bed of Porter, where road crosses 2266.
* Summit of Terrace, on its Western side 2491.
* Bed of River Thomas 2197.60
* Accommodation House near Mr. Enys' Station (stable of Cobb and Co.) 2374.
* Top of Terrace of Broken River, Eastern side 2390.
* Bed of Broken River 2094.
* Top of Terrace on the Western side 2350.
* Road near summit of Parapet Rock 2750.
* Bed of small Creek near Shanty 2583.
* Top of Craigieburn Saddle 2619.
* Lake Pearson 2085.
* Road crossing River Cass 1874.
* Saddle between Cass and Waimakariri (Goldney's Saddle) 1929.
* Bed of Waimakariri, between the two cuttings 1808.
* Crossing of Waimakariri 2044.
* Bealey Township (Police Reserve) 2130.
* Southern foot of Arthur's Pass (Smith's Camp) 2497.
* Arthur's Pass (highest summit) 3013.
* Southern foot of Moraine 2666.
* Summit of Moraine 2825.
* River-bed of Otira, first bridge 2035.
* Junction of two branches of Otira, near the Stockyard 1450.
* Bed of Taramakau, near junction of the Otira, where the road joins the main river 731.
* Western bank of River Taipo, near junction of Taramakau 355.
* Waimea, where the road leaves the Taramakau 168.
* Foot of Terrace 159.
* Summit of highest Terrace 652.
* MeClintock's Store, near Kawhaka Creek 422.
* Junction of Kawhaka with Arahura 104.
page 486

For the altitudes of the rivers crossing the Canterbury plains and the Plains themselves, the reader is referred to the Tables on page 403—6. The Chief Surveyor of Canterbury, Mr. J. H. Baker, and the District Engineer, Mr. Gr. P. Williams, have kindly furnished me with a number of altitude observations, by which this list has gained much in value. In all cases where altitudes of points, which I had previously calculated from barometric observations, were amongst them, I have substituted them for my own, as having been obtained by more reliable methods. In my reports on "The altitude of the country between Hokitika and Christchurch, by Arthur's and Browning's Passes," and on "The head waters of the River Rakaia," I have discussed at length the value of barometric observations when compared with those obtained by the spirit-level, at the same time giving the results of both methods in a tabular form. In this list only the spirit-level altitudes along the West Coast Road are given, as obtained by Mr. Edward Dobson, C.E., formerly Provincial Engineer of the Canterbury Province, to whom I am indebted for them.

a Altitudes from the Admiralty Charts.

o Altitudes obtained by the Trigonometrical Survey of Otago.

† Altitudes obtained by the Trigonometrical Survey of Canterbury.

* Altitudes obtained with the spirit level by the Public Works Department.