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page xvi page xvii


Chapter I. Tutira—Its Prominent Physical Features. External configuration—probable elevation of land as plateau—subsidence at later period responsible for eastward tilt—“comb” formation key to physical outlines—dry cliff system—wet cliff system—lakes—rainfall 1
CHAPTER II. ROCK CONSTITUENTS OF THE RUN. Formation of west sandstone and limestone—of centre sandstone and conglomerate—of east marl, sandstone, and limestone 9
CHAPTER III. THE LAKES. Interpolation of new feature in geology—possibilities of the past—lakes probably due to subsidence—future extinction—effects of human interference 12
CHAPTER IV. THE SOILS OF TUTIRA—PAST AND PRESENT. Original order of deposition—theory of pumice deposit—fertility of land dependent on angle of inclination—pumice alluvium 22
CHAPTER V. SUBCUTANEOUS EROSION. Process akin to dissolution of dead beast—what water has not done—gapping and fissuring of countryside—filtration as through blotting-paper—unwrinkled soil sheet—sag—peak country intermediate between plateau of past and plain of future—pervious soil sheet still on top 28page xviii
CHAPTER VI. SURFACE SLIPS. Melting of marl country—land avalanches—earth creeps—attrition retarded by limestone and conglomerate caps—movement of rock fragments—sink holes—pillule process—action of frost and wind 39
CHAPTER VII. THE FOREST OF THE PAST. Surface timber plentiful—preservation in bog and lake basins—presence of huge boles rediscovered by fire—honeycombed ground—evidence afforded by certain surviving ferns—duration of forest—date of disappearance—re-establishment of woodlands 46
CHAPTER VIII. TWO PERIODS OF MAORI LIFE. Twilight interval between heathendom and Christianity—the Ngai-Tatara wanderers—occupations and amusements—ancient pas on station—peace betwixt war and war—shrinkage of native population—station vacated by Maoris 52
CHAPTER IX. TRAILS FROM THE COAST TO TUTIRA. Line of scantiest vegetation followed—folk-lore and legends—ancient settlement marked by certain grasses—recent settlement by peach-groves 62
CHAPTER X. TRAILS ROUND TUTIRA LAKE. Food-supply of river and lake—legends—disaster of Taurangakoau—story of Te Amohia—vengeance of Ngai-Tatara—Te Whatu-i-Apiti—eel fishings 68
CHAPTER XI. THE TRAIL TO THE RANGES. Legends rarer—treachery of Urewera—story of Waiatara—fall of Titi-a-Punga—Tutira-upokopipi 90
CHAPTER XII. VEGETATION OF THE STATION PRIOR TO SETTLEMENT. Bracken—forest and woodland—upland meadow—bog gardens—cliff survivors 97page xix
CHAPTER XIII. THE FERNS OF TUTIRA. Remarkable record—retreat of fugitives 110
CHAPTER XIV. THE AVIFAUNA OF THE STATION PRIOR TO SETTLEMENT. Number of breeding species probably not decreased—reduction in birds—species noted 113
CHAPTER XV. IN THE BEGINNING. Purchase and lease of native lands—station taken up—early owners 116
CHAPTER XVI. THE LURE OF IMPROVEMENTS. Early days—enthusiasm of youthful owners—diary of '79—Arcadian life 120
CHAPTER XVII. HARD TIMES. Inexperience of pioneers—difficulties in regard to stock and land—purchased sheep—losses—finances of run—drop in wool—disaster 132
CHAPTER XVIII. THE RISE AND FALL OF H. G.-S. AND A. M. C. New owners take delivery—ride inland—sight of Tutira lake—the simple life—blunders—contraction of feeding area—mortality in flock—book-keeping—crisis in wool market—H. G.-S. sole survivor 147
CHAPTER XIX. FERN-CRUSHING. Typical paddock—original covering of bracken and tutu—destruction by fire and stock—ebb and flow of sheep feed—increase of manuka—failure of sown grasses—consolidation of ground—triumph of native grass 162page xx
CHAPTER XX. THE CHARTOGRAPHERS OF THE STATION. Swine as surveyors—cattle and horse trails—sheep-paths—change of drove-roads into lines of shrubbery—sinuosities of walking paths straightened—competition of pack trails for traffic—wind-blow returfed—ovine viaducts—sleeping-shelves—earth-bubbles—mud-banks 180
CHAPTER XXI. STOCKING AND SCOUR. Transformation from sponge to slate—fluctuations of streams—changes in estuaries—hardening of hills—effect on pasture 198
CHAPTER XXII. FUTURE OF NATIVE AVIFAUNA. Former exuberance of bird life—reasons of diminution—hopes for the future—successful adaptations—value of cliff and gorge—factors in race maintenance—question of positive protection 203
CHAPTER XXIII. THE PARTNERSHIP OF H. G.-S. AND T. J. S. Wool at bedrock price—a second start—“making” of country and feeding of stock—flock of ewes and hoggets only—light clip—big sale of surplus stock—reduction in death-rate—considered improvements—early agriculture—burning and surface sowing—increase of flock 220
CHAPTER XXIV. THE NATURALISED ALIEN FLORA OF TUTIRA. Colonisation of world by British weeds—annals of station marked in alien plants—each phase in station life responsible for new acclimatisation—invasion accelerated by motor traffic—difficulties in grouping—lists of plants 242
CHAPTER XXV. STOWAWAYS. Methods of spread—impossibility of prevention—action taken always too late—the life of a sack 252page xxi
CHAPTER XXVI. GARDEN ESCAPES. Species permanent in reconstituted flora of New Zealand—survival of potato—arrival of tansy—spread of seeds by alien birds 259
CHAPTER XXVII. CHILDREN OF THE CHURCH. Heralds preparing the way—news of Christianity carried inland with plants and seeds—stone fruits—pot-herbs—the weeping willow 265
CHAPTER XXVIII. BURDENS OF SIN. Dumpings by living animals—by plants themselves—examples—plants parasitic to mankind—history of milk-thistle 275
CHAPTER XXIX. FIRE AND FLOOD WEEDS. Vast temporary multiplication—burnt areas overrun—seed carried by wind—glued to wool of sheep—spread by stock 282
CHAPTER XXX. PEDESTRIANS. Approach of wayfarers—passivity of certain aliens contrasted with spread of others—centres of weed liberation—difficulties of early pedestrians—invasion accelerated by construction of dray-road—weed-camps and recruiting-grounds—waders in water-tables 287
CHAPTER XXXI. THE STOCKING OF TUTIRA BY ALIEN ANIMALS. Self-invited strangers—Kiore maori—the old English black rat—the brown rat—late arrival of mouse—each representative of phase in history of New Zealand 307
CHAPTER XXXII. OTHER ALIENS ON TUTIRA PRIOR TO 1882. Presentation of red-deer by Prince Albert—story of lost stag—its attachment to “wild” horses—its fate—pea-hen—pheasants—spread of insects—the honey bee 314page xxii
CHAPTER XXXIII. ACCLIMATISATION CENTRES AND MIGRATION ROUTES. Age of enthusiasm—game preservation and democracy—acclimatisation a doubtful success—areas of liberation—Tutira the waist of a sand-glass—lines of light—the highway of man 321
CHAPTER XXXIV. THE INVASION FROM THE SOUTH. Arrivals noted by writer—liberation of vermin—solitary goldfinch—solitary minah—emancipation of species—greenfinch and yellow-hammer—game-birds—hares—weasels—starlings—rabbits—rooks 328
CHAPTER XXXV. THE INVASION FROM THE NORTH. Auckland Acclimatisation Society—trek of sparrow—New Zealand in the 'sixties—the sparrow in Hawke's Bay—blackbird and thrush migration—chaffinch and redpole—the bumble-bee—arrivals from Wairoa 340
CHAPTER XXXVI. DOMESTIC ANIMALS “WILD.” Horses, cattle, and pig of little importance to station—story of “Tommy”—“wild” dogs—instinct and intelligence in collies—cats—“bushrangers” in Opouahi—limestone ravines—melanism—possible solution—rapidity in change of colour 351
CHAPTER XXXVII. RECONSIDERATIONS. Arrival of sparrow and wax-eye compared—futures unshackled by past—surviving traces of seasonal impulse—general trend of migration—no settlement whilst leaders advance—congestion—leadership uncoveted—sex of pioneers—scouting 363
CHAPTER XXXVIII. VICISSITUDES. Apology for seeming egotism—sociology of station life—land policy of New Zealand government—Royal Commission visits station—recommendations—raising the mana of Tutira—necessity for increase of flock—utilisation of trough of run—outbreak of war—subdivision of run—advice to readers—concluding remarks 382
Index 252