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Chapter XII. — The Vegetation of the Station Prior to Settlement

page 97

Chapter XII.
The Vegetation of the Station Prior to Settlement.

The two halves of New Zealand are separated by a narrow strait. At the date of their discovery, one—the South Island—was an open land fit for immediate settlement, carrying nutritious grasses; the other—the North Island—was a vast tangle of fern, of scrub, and of forest. In it there was no open country ready to the settler's hand; the pioneers of the North had to create their pasturage.

On Tutira grew a few acres of tussock-grass (Poa cœspitosa), a few score acres of flax (Phormium tenax) and of raupo (Typha angustifolia). A few hundred acres also of forest and woodland lay hidden in gorges and ravines. Otherwise, over the whole station stretched an illimitable sea of bracken (Pteris aquilina, var. esculenta). This plant, against which the station has been battling for more than forty years, delights in loose humus, sandy soil, and pumice grit. Into such soils—never dry, yet never water-logged—its rhizomes penetrate many feet. It is perhaps the only fern which thrives on manure. Year after year it will invade garden-plots; it will persist season after season in sheepyards. On ploughed grounds fed with artificials its fronds spring taller, thicker in stem, and of a deeper green.

In fallen forest country, burnt and elsewhere grassed, every hollow stump eight or ten feet across, into which stock cannot reach, becomes a huge fern - vase. The fenced - in railway lines carry on either side, through cleared bushland, long ribbons of bracken. Intermingled with light open bush, I have measured fronds fourteen feet long. So situated, they develop something of the habits of a creeper—the stalks becoming finer and more pliable, the lower pinnæ aborting, the whole frond growing languorous and etiolated. In open lands on Tutira growth was most luxuriant on eastern and southern slopes. page 98 On such aspects, in competition with tutu (Coraria ruscifolia) and koromiko (Veronica salicifolia), fern averaged five or six feet in height. On hot dry northern and western slopes it grew a foot or two less. No dry soil, however, was too bad to nourish bracken. Stunted to a few stiff inches, it covered alike the driest hill-tops and the most arid flats.

The growth of the plant is as follows: early in November myriads of minute brown-green circinate fronds begin to appear, each uplifting its own little cap of earth, as trap-door spiders raise the lids of their dry homes. Later these fronds grow into notes of interrogation, then, rising well above the old growth, each opens into the likeness of a man's hand bent back from the wrist, with fingers still curled up.

Later again the fronds develop into antlered spikes mossed with ferruginous dust. At last, fully unfolded, they assume the sombre green hue characteristic of fern country in New Zealand. On poorest soils bracken most quickly matures; on good ground weeks pass before the fronds attain completion. After its spring growth, unless scorched by fire or eaten by stock, the plant rests until the following spring. Unlike its British relative, which rots away in a single winter, six or seven different seasons' crop can be discriminated in the tangled masses of the New Zealand plant. The lowest are in various stages of fragmentary decay, others brittle and brown though sound; another is mottled with grey, but still in patches preserving its green; another bowed and weatherworn, only its tips sere; another dull green and almost perfect; the latest crop of all still erect and topping the growths of former years. Such was the appearance of Tutira in former times.

There was but little room for other plants. In fact, as mountains prove the last resort of peoples driven from their homes by conquest, so in the cliff system of Tutira plants survived which must have otherwise perished in the tyranny of fern. The reader knows the physiography of the station—an alternation of slope and cliff; a drainage system far beneath the level. Over every slope fern lay in swathes: it reached to the base of every cliff, it hung like a fringe over every precipice.

Forest and woodland covered less than two out of sixty thousand acres—forest growing in the ranges of the interior, well worthy of its name from the immense size of many of its individual page 98a
Tawa Bush.

Tawa Bush.

page 99 trees, woods flourishing on the lower - lying seaward edge of the run. Although restricted in area, this forest of the hinterland—the last shred and relic of the primeval vegetation which had at one time covered the district—was representative of both the mixed and unmixed “bush” of New Zealand. Looking downwards on to it from a higher altitude, the eye was primarily arrested by the number of very ancient grey-headed moribund totara (Podocarpus Totara), the very grandsires of the bush—their boles measuring 12, 14, and 16 feet in diameter. These magnificent trees live for the most part in single grandeur. They are dotted irregularly about the bush—dying, so to speak, on their feet, their short stubbed heads conspicuous in the surrounding greenery on account of the lichens glued to the dying boughs. Their great vitality has been sapped by age; their centres are hollow or choked with rotted wood, sometimes with mere dry powder. Adown their boles bark hangs loose in enormous strips and sheets. About their mighty roots lie foot-deep accumulations of mouldered wood, piles of bark already shed—for trees in the warm wet New Zealand bush thus cleanse themselves, ridding their skins of parasitic growth as birds by washing and dust-baths check lice. Considering not only the tardy growth of the totara, but its still slower senescence, I can never reckon the life of the greatest of these trees at less than one or two thousand years. Perhaps it is more—perhaps much more—for I have watched during one-third of a century certain dying branches: there has been in them no appreciable change, although that period of time is one-third of the tenth of the span suggested as the minimum duration of life. Perhaps some of these totaras on Maungaharuru were saplings when, twenty hundred years ago, Christ worked in Galilee; at any rate they must be of an enormous age. Flourishing on the spots that especially suit them are to be found also specimens of four other great New Zealand pines: white pine, kahikatea (Podocarpus dacrydiodes); matai (Podocarpus spicatus); black pine, miro (Podocarpus ferrugineus); and red pine, rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum). Other large species in the mixed bush are hinau (Elœocarpus dentatus), tawa (Beilschmiedia tawa), and maire (Olea lanceolata).

In the vicinity of these huge trees lie, coiled or sprawling on the ground like snakes, lianes, lawyers, vines, and clematis stems. Partly dragged up by the growth to which in youth their shoots have clung, page 100 partly drawn voluntarily towards air and light, their bare rope-like stems strike and chafe, hang and swing, against the boles like loose rigging against a mast. Seen from above, these individual trees, or little companies of trees, can easily be detected by their varying shades of green. About the middle or lower slopes stand venerable brotherhoods of tawa, grey with long pendant lichens, “old man's beard”; there are patches also of deep-green broadleaf (Griselinia littoralis), a species, by-the-bye, never met with on Tutira except far inland.

Another striking characteristic of this intermixed forest is the evenness, as seen from above, of the rolling contour of its ceiling of green. No tree-tops project above the general level; in this effect, however, there is nothing of blighting or blasting. The individual members of the forest community seem to have been born docile, to have acquired ante-natal knowledge of the effects of gales, never to have attempted usurpation of more than their fair share of the open commonwealth of sky. No tops are to be seen “caught and cuffed by the gale,” no solitary shoots eroded and blown bare; the upper surface of the forest is as smooth in its inequalities as downlands in wheat. Conditions are somewhat dissimilar where masses of one species of tree hold undisputed sway, where narrow spurs are maned with one kind of tree as the neck of a hogged pony is stiff with hair. Such groupings of particular trees conform more or less to the shape of the locality on which they grow. They rise cone-shaped on a cone, narrow and elongated on a razor ridge. Beech of two sorts (Fagus fusca and Fagus solandri) are on Tutira the most prominent species growing thus strictly grouped; each possesses inviolate on its own territory whole spurs. Other areas are densely covered with tawhero (Weinmannia racemosa), others again with tall tree-manuka (Leptospernum scoparium). Honeysuckle (Knightia excelsa) is another species which, like the beech, the tawero, and the manuka, seems to revel in dry land, its long-drawn cone rising from the most arid of ridges.

So far we have viewed the forest from above; now we can take our stand beneath the trees. In forests of this sort no imprint holds its shape for long on the loose leaves; all is in process of decay, soft and yielding. The surface is cumbered with huge clumps of astelia, of species of asplenium flabellifolium, flaccidum and falcatum, fallen from above. Rotted branchlets and boughs, still encased in their husks or jackets of darker bark, lie strewn on the ground. Many of the boles rot standing page 100a


page 101 upright or only fall portion by portion; others prostrate are mere shells crusted with epiphytes and ferns, or clad in mosses aping in hues of softest green and yellow the forms of ferns, or stiff and erect like thickets of fairy pine. From dead trunks and boughs of harsher fibre fungus projects in ledges like lip ornaments of negro belles. Whole families of toadstools, supporting flimsy fleshy stems, their dainty parasols still rolled close, peep from beneath sheltered ledges. There can sometimes be traced in mixed forests of this sort three fairly distinct tiers of greenery: the lowest, lichen, mosses, liverwort, and ferns; the second, the massed tops of the coprosma tribe, species of which, naked below, bear their leaves on top in thin planes of foliage, thus creating a diaphanous mist, a twilight greenery, which in a shadowy way bisects the mass of trunks. Lastly, there are the tree-tops high above. In other portions of the forest there is nothing of this sort noticeable, a mere jostle of smaller and more ephemeral species competing with one another beneath the great pines, clustering about their knees and waists—fuchsia, tree-ferns, species of pittosporum, of olearia, of panax, clumps of short-lived wine-berry—makomako (Aristotelia racemosa)—and others.

Ferns grow everywhere, clinging like ivy to the rough stems, festooning them with elegant fronds, webbing them with veils of delicate rhizome, overrunning fallen boughs, drooping long languorous growths from matted clumps high overhead. Rooted in massy forks grow epiphytes such as Griselinia lucida, and huge rookeries of pineapple-like astelia. Mats of sweet-scented orchids—Earina mucronata and Earina suavolens—cling with a plexus of roots to suitable sites; often a black mossy lichen exhales in sunshine a delightful violet odour. Except where massed groups of a single species prevail, and the ground beneath is bare and dark, there is a luxuriance of growth due to the great rainfall and the large number of hours of sunshine, almost unknown elsewhere. The edges of the forest exhibit a still more voluptuous profusion of tangled growth, an even thicker profusion than in its shaded heart—clematis, rubus, vine, parsonsia, and native passion-flower competing in the ampler light. Such a forest as this, typical of the North Island, is in truth tropical in all except degree, in all except latitude and longitude. The great rainfall and the full sunshine of the Dominion have created abnormal conditions. Except where massed species prevail, growing in page 102 solitary selfish gloom, an exuberance of life prevails, a luxuriance unknown elsewhere save in the true tropical zone.

The woodlands of Tutira, in contradistinction to the forest described, were confined to gorges deep and damp, gulches such as that of the Maungahinahina, where the upper soils had been washed out, where the marls had become exposed. With the exception of a valley here and there, these woodlands were bare of great trees. Their growth, compared to that of the ranges of the west—for woodland is but a preliminary step towards real forest,—was one destined on eastern Tutira never to progress beyond the initial stage. Vegetation there was dependent on two factors—rate of growth and frequency of landslips. The slower-growing pines, for example, had never time given them to find deep anchorage. Whilst still saplings they were swept to perdition by earth-avalanches following heavy floods. The surface of the ground was renewed too constantly to allow the maturing of any but fast-growing and free-seeding species. In this light bush, tawa (Bielschmiedia tawa), mahoe or hinahina (Melicytus ramiflorus), ngaio (Myoporum lœtum)—unseen on western Tutira except after fires, rangiora (Brachyglottis rangiora), makomako—wineberry (Aristotelia racemosa), fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata), and koromiko (Veronica salicifolia), were the most common trees and shrubs.

Nikau Palm.

Nikau Palm.

Small groups of the New Zealand palm, nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida), and single plants of karaka (Corynocarpus lœvigatus), grew also in the woods of the extreme eastern corner of the run. Thickets of supplejack (Rhipogonum scandens), entanglements of “lawyer” (rubus sp.), ropes of clematis and vine, were even more dense than in the forest of the west. The soils were richer, the warmth greater. Everywhere, moreover, the ground beneath these woods was ploughed and reploughed by pig in search of drupes, roots, and grubs.

A mere shred of Tutira was under marsh or swamp; such areas page 103 were covered almost entirely with flax (Phormium tenax) and raupo (Typha angustifolia). The height of these plants varied with the drainage; on lands firm and dry each reached a noble growth; on areas of quaking bog they survived, soured and stunted with excessive wet. On dry ground grew also patches of the graceful toe-toe grass (Arundo conspicua). The outer edges of these marshes were rough with nigger's-head (Carex secta) and other coarse sedges and rushes. Sparganium antipodium also grew in certain parts, a plant remarkable in this, that it is the only native which has to my knowledge disappeared during my time on the station.

Lastly, there were on Opouahi and Heru-o-Tureia ten or twenty acres of upland meadow studded with huge, hollow, gnarled, dead, upright, broadleaf boles (Griselinia littoralis). On the ground lay in vast numbers totara spars and rotting trunks of other podocarps. These scraps of open upland had been under forest within sixty or eighty years, perhaps less. They were too high and cold for fern. For some reason not easy to understand, no crop of trees had sprung to possess the ground. It was grassed with yellow tussock (Poa cœspitosa), scented grass (Hierochloe redolens), one of those highly interesting Fuegian species,1 Poa anceps, and other high-country grasses. Amid this rough turf many interesting species had obtained a hold and were flourishing. In their proper periods, groupings and strips of Pimelea longifolia and Helichrysum bellidioides made a brave show of blossom. On a spot most desolate and damp I have got the rare Brachycome odorata. The small terrestrial orchid, Pterostylis Banksii, was very plentiful in its season. In a sheltered nook, for the first and only time on Tutira, I have found the charming Caladenia bifolia. An interesting group of plants, including amongst its species the “vegetable sheep” of New Zealand, was represented by Raoulia australis. Other sub-Alpines of this upland meadow were Brachycome Sinclairii, Celmisia incana, Gentiana Grisebachii, Plantago Raoulii, Wahlenbergia saxicola, a delicate pale blue-bell, the barbed Acæna Novæ Zealandiæ, Spear-grass

1 “The Fuegian element of the New Zealand flora,” writes Dr L. Cockayne in the second edition of his delightful ‘New Zealand Plants and their Story,’ “although considerably smaller than the Australian element, has given rise to far more speculation. This arises from the fact that though biological geographers have been willing to erect a ‘land bridge’ between Northern Australia, Malaya, and New Zealand, many have hesitated before in imagination turning into dry land the profound depths of ocean which lie between New Zealand and Antarctica or South America. At the same time the presence of this Fuegian element so far distant from its present home has to be explained.”

page 104 (Aciphylla squarrosa), species of Ligusticum, and species of Geranium; whilst just across my boundary flourishes safe in the rocks the lovely golden-yellow buttercup (Ranunculus insignis).

Other plant cities of refuge were the rock gardens of the cliffs, the sand gardens of the gritty tops, the bog gardens of the river brim and lake edge. On the dry cliffs survived two native brooms, Carmichaelia odorata and another, Vittadinia australis, Senecio lautus, Stellaria parviflora, Tillæa Sieberiana, Clianthus puniceus—brilliant in its bright scarlet racemes, and at one period, until eaten out by cattle, growing in great quantities on Heru-o-Tureia, and much more rarely on Awa-o-Totara,—Nertera depressa and Geranium sessiliflorum, both Fuegians, Pelargonium australe, Muehlenbeckia complexa, Gaultheria oppositifolia, Angelica rosæfolia, Arthropodium candidum, Daucus brachiatus, Linum monogynum, hill flax (Phormium Cookianum), and “blue grass” (Agropyrum multiflorum).1 On the damp cliffs grew Gnaphalium Keriense, the very charming delicate Calceolaria repens, its white flowers spotted with purple, Euphrasia cuneata, Cladium Sinclairii, Lagenphora Forsteri, the native daisy—Papataniwhaniwha, Arundo fulvida, and other plants.

On aits and islands and about the river's very brim the most conspicuous small plants were Veronica catarractæ, discovered at the base of the 150 - foot leap taken by the Maheawha stream, Senecio latifolius, Geum urbanum, Ourisia macrophylla, Oxalis magellanical—a fourth Fuegian,—and Viola Cunninghamii. Here and there along the lake, on the margins of springs and about damps and oozes on the limestone hills, grew a collection of miniature bog plants such as Hydrocotyle moschata, Azorella trifoliolata, Crantzia lineata, Epilobium

1 Though now everywhere eaten out by stock, Agropyrum multiflorum was a famous grass in the early days of sheep-farming in Canterbury, its seed being considered equivalent to oats for keeping horses hard and fit. An instance of this is given by Mr George Dennistoun of Peel Forest. He writes: “On one occasion, in the middle sixties, when a neighbour, Mr Fred Kimball of ‘Three Springs,’ was our guest at Haldon in the Mackenzie Country, news arrived that his small son had eaten tutu berries and was dying. ‘Three Springs’ was thirty-eight miles distant by road, or rather by bullock-track. At once my Australian thoroughbred ‘Pickwick’ was run in from the block where the horses fed, country then densely covered with seeding ‘blue grass.’ I told Kimball, who had qualified for a doctor and was a fine rider, not to trouble himself about the horse, but to think only of his boy. I can't remember how long he took, but he said he never thought it possible to have been carried as he was. He saved his boy, and ‘Pickwick,’ after a bucket of gruel, later on took his oats as if he had been called on to do nothing out of the common.” Readers can imagine for themselves what pace a man with medical knowledge, and a father to boot, would ride, knowing the effects of tutu poisoning; they can imagine, too, the racing-stable condition the horse must have been in to have stood without damage a forty-mile gallop over bad roads.

page 104a
Oxalis Magellanica. One of several Fuegian species growing on Tutira.

Oxalis Magellanica.
One of several Fuegian species growing on Tutira.

page 105 nummularifolium, Montia fontana, Gunnera monoica—the red-berried form well worthy of the rock garden,—Galium tenuicaule, Mazus pumileo, Gratiola peruviana—a fifth Fuegian,—Triglochin striatum, Mentha Cunninghamii, Cotula coronopifolia, Pratia angulata, Pratia perpusilla, Lobelia anceps, Oxalis corniculata, and Spiranthes australis.

On barren crowns, arid edges, and driest of dry flats subsisted plants such as cabbage-tree (Cordyline australis), Gnaphalium—several species, Celmisia longifolia, Pimelea lævigata, Cyathodes acerosa, Leucopogon fasciculatus, Leucopogon Frazeri, Leptospermum scoparium, Pomaderris phylicæfolia, Echinopogon ovatus, Orthoceras strictum, and Microtis porrifolia.

At a later period, when the power of the bracken was broken, many of these plants, as will be shown, left their cliffs and deserts and rushed like eager settlers on the newly-opened land.

Of the sixty thousand acres of Tutira, fifty-eight, when the station was first stocked, were under bracken, less than fifteen hundred in forest and woodland, less than five hundred in marsh, less than twenty-five in upland meadow, cliff, river-bed, desert, and brims of stagnant creeks. Had, in fact, a narrow slice been shorn from the extreme west and another from the extreme east, Tutira would have been actually what it was for all practical purposes—one vast unbroken sheet of fern. Appended are the names of species noted on the station. I believe that few of the more insignificant plants have been overlooked, but since it is the nature of the writer of this volume to care for small plants rather than trees and shrubs, the list of the latter may not be quite complete.

Cabbage Tree.

Cabbage Tree.

List of Native Plants on Tutira.

  • Clematis indivisa.
  • Clematis hexasepala.
  • Clematis Colensoi.
  • Clematis fœtida.
  • Clematis parviflora.
  • Ranunculus hirtus.
  • Ranunculus rivularis.
  • Ranunculus insignis.
Magnoliaceœ. Drimys axillaris.
  • Nasturtium palustre.
  • Cardamine hirsuta.
  • Viola Cunninghamii.
  • Melicytus ramiflorus.
page 106
  • Pittosporum tenuifolium.
  • Pittosporum crassifolium.
  • Pittosporum eugenioides.
Caryophylleœ. Stellaria parviflora.
Portulaceœ. Montia fontana.
Hypericineœ. Hypericum gramineum.
Malvaceœ. Hoheria populnea.
  • Aristotelia racemosa.
  • Elæocarpus dentatus.
  • Elæocarpus Hookerianus.
Lineœ. Linum monogynum.
  • Geranium dissectum.
  • Geranium microphyllum.
  • Geranium sessiliflorum.
  • Geranium molle.
  • Pelargonium australe.
  • Oxalis corniculata.
  • Oxalis magellanica.
Olacineœ. Pennantia corymbosa.
Rhamneœ. Pomaderris phylicæfolia.
Sapindaceœ. Alectryon excelsum.
Anacardiaceœ. Corynocarpus lævigata.
  • Coriaria ruscifolia.
  • Coriaria thymifolia.
  • Carmichælia odorata.
  • Clianthus puniceus.
  • Sophora tetraptera.
  • Rubus australis.
  • Rubus cissoides.
  • Rubus schmidelioides.
  • Geum urbanum.
  • Potentilla anserina.
  • Acæna Novæ Zealandiæ.
  • Acæna sanguisorbæ.
  • Carpodetus serratus.
  • Weinmannia racemosa.
Crassulaceœ. Tillæa Sieberiana.
  • Drosera binata.
  • Drosera auriculata.
  • Haloragis alata.
  • Haloragis depressa.
  • Haloragis micrantha.
  • Myriophyllum elatinoides.
  • Myriophyllum intermedium.
  • Gunnera monoica.
  • Leptospermum scoparium.
  • Leptospermum ericoides.
  • Metrosideros hypericifolia.
  • Metrosideros Colensoi.
  • Metrosideros scandens.
  • Epilobium pallidiflorum.
  • Epilobium chionanthum.
  • Epilobium rotundifolium.
  • Epilobium nummularifolium.
  • Fuchsia excorticata.
  • Griselinia lucida.
  • Griselinia littoralis.
  • Coprosma grandifolia.
  • Coprosma robusta.
  • Coprosma Cunninghamii.
  • Coprosma tenuifolia.
  • Coprosma parviflora.
  • Nertera depressa.
  • Galium tenuicaule.
  • Galium umbrosum.
  • Lagenophora Forsteri.
  • Brachycome Sinclairii.
  • Brachycome odorata.
  • Olearia furfuracea.
  • Olearia nitida.
  • Olearia ilicifolia.
  • Olearia Cunninghamii.
  • Olearia nummularifolia.
  • Olearia Solandri.
page 106a
Ourisia Macrophylla—Waikoau River.

Ourisia Macrophylla—Waikoau River.

page 107
  • Celmisia incana.
  • Celmisia longifolia.
  • Vittadinia australis.
  • Gnaphalium Keriense.
  • Gnaphalium subrigidum.
  • Gnaphalium luteo-album.
  • Gnaphalium japonicum.
  • Raoulia australis.
  • Helichrysum bellidioides.
  • Helichrysum filicaule.
  • Helichrysum glomeratum.
  • Cassinia leptophylla.
  • Craspedia uniflora.
  • Bidens pilosa.
  • Cotula coronopifolia.
  • Cotula australis.
  • Cotula perpusilla.
  • Erechtites quadridentata.
  • Brachyglottis repanda.
  • Senecio lautus.
  • Senecio latifolius.
  • Senecio Banksii.
  • Microseris Forsteri.
  • Picris hieracioides.
  • Sonchus oleraceus.
  • Myrsine salicina.
  • Myrsine Urvellei.
Oleaceœ. Olea lanceolata.
  • Calceolaria repens.
  • Mazus pumilio.
  • Gratiola peruviana.
  • Veronica salicifolia.
  • Veronica angustifolia.
  • Veronica catarractæ.
  • Ourisia macrophylla.
  • Euphrasia cuneata.
  • Glossostigma elatinoides.
  • Pimelea longifolia.
  • Pimelea virgata.
  • Pimelea lævigata.
Loranthaceœ. Tupeia antartica (twice noticed on Leptospermum scoparium).
  • Urtica ferox. (My rabbiter lost one dog and has had others crippled for days by this terrible nettle; a shepherd unwisely attempted to rush his well - bred horse through a mass of it, the animal became unmanageable, rolled, and refused to rise: next day it was found dead.)
  • Urtica incisa.
  • Parietaria debilis.
  • Fagus fusca.
  • Fagus Solandri.
  • Fagus sp.
  • Podocarpus Totara.
  • Podocarpus Hallii.
  • Podocarpus ferrugineus.
  • Podocarpus spicatus.
  • Podocarpus dacrydioides.
  • Dacrydium cupressinum.
Palmœ. Rhopalostylis sapida.
Pandaneœ. Freycinetia Banksii.
  • Typha angustifolia.
  • Sparganium antipodum.
  • Triglochin striatum.
  • Potamogeton polygonifolius.
  • Potamogeton Cheesemanii.
Restiaceœ. Leptocarpus simplex (edge of lake).
  • Eleocharis acuta.
  • Scirpus maritimus.
  • Scirpus prolifer.
  • Schœnus axillaris.
  • Cladium Sinclairii.
  • Cladium glomeratum.
  • Gahnia Gaudichaudi.
  • Carex virgata.
  • Carex secta.
  • Carex inversa.
  • Carex Colensoi.
  • Carex echinata.
  • Carex subdola.
  • Carex ternaria.
  • Carex lucida.page 108
Salviniaceœ. Azolla rubra.
  • Lycopodium Billardieri.
  • Lycopodium fastigiatum.
  • Lycopodium scariosum.
  • Lycopodium volubile.
  • Tmesipteris tannensis.
  • Dendrobium Cunninghamii.
  • Bulbophyllum pygmæum.
  • Earina mucronata.
  • Earina suaveolens.
  • Sarcochilus adversus.
  • Spiranthes australis.
  • Thelymitra longifolia.
  • Thelymitra imberbis.
  • Orthoceras strictum.
  • Microtis porrifolia.
  • Prasophyllum rufum.
  • Pterostylis Banksii.
  • Pterostylis foliata.
  • Caladenia bifolia.
  • Chiloglottis cornuta.
  • Corysanthes oblonga.
  • Corysanthes rotundifolia.
  • Corysanthes macrantha.
  • Gastrodia Cunninghamii.
  • Libertia grandiflors.
  • Libertia ixioides.
  • Rhipogonum scandens.
  • Cordyline Banskii.
  • Cordyline australis.
  • Cordyline indivisa (flowers always purple).
  • Astelia Solandri.
  • Astelia nervosa.
  • Phormium tenax.
  • Phormium Cookianum.
  • Arthropodium candidum.
  • Dianella intermedia.
  • Juncus pallidus.
  • Juncus bufonius.
  • Juncus Novæ Zealandiæ.
  • Luzula campestris.
Myoporineœ. Myoporum lætum.
Labiatœ. Mentha Cunninghamii.
Plantagineœ. Plantago Raoulii.
Illecebraceœ. Scleranthus biflorus.
  • Polygonum aviculare.
  • Polygonum serrulatum.
  • Rumex flexuosus.
  • Muehlenbeckia australis.
  • Muehlenbeckia complexa.
Piperaceœ. Piper excelsum.
  • Hedycarya arborea.
  • Laurelia Novæ Zealandiæ.
Laurineœ. Beilschmiedia Tawa.
Proteaceœ. Knightia excelsa.
  • Parsonsia heterophylla.
  • Parsonsia capsularis.
Loganiaceœ. Geniostoma ligustrifolium.
Gentianeœ. Gentiana Grisebachii.
  • Calystegia sepium.
  • Convolvulus erubescens.
  • Solanum nigrum.
  • Solanum aviculare.
  • Pratia angulata.
  • Pratia perpusilla.
  • Lobelia anceps.
  • Wahlenbergia gracilis.
  • Wahlenbergia saxicola.
  • Gaultheria antipoda.
  • Gaultheria oppositifolia.
Passifloreœ. Passiflora tetrandra.
  • Cyathodes acerosa.
  • Leucopogon fasciculatus.
  • Leucopogon Frazeri.
  • Dracophyllum (sp.).
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Wild Calceolaria.

Wild Calceolaria.

page 109
  • Hydrocotyle elongata.
  • Hydrocotyle moschata.
  • Hydrocotyle asiatica.
  • Azorella trifoliolata.
  • Oreomyrrhis andicola.
  • Crantzia lineata.
  • Aciphylla squarrosa.
  • Ligusticum (2 sp.).
  • Angelica rosæfolia.
  • Daucus brachiatus.
  • Panax Edgerleyi.
  • Panax Colensoi.
  • Panax arboreum.
  • Schefflera digitata.
  • Isachne australis.
  • Microlæna stipoides.
  • Microlæna avenacea.
  • Hierochloe redolens.
  • Echinopogon ovatus.
  • Deyeuxia Forsteri.
  • Deyeuxia quadriseta.
  • Dichelachne crinita.
  • Deschampsia cæspitosa.
  • Trisetum antarticum.
  • Danthonia semiannularis.
  • Danthonia pilosa.
  • Arundo conspicua.
  • Arundo fulvida.
  • Poa anceps.
  • Poa cæspitosa.
  • Poa Colensoi.
  • Poa imbecilla.
  • Agropyrum multiflorum.
  • Agropyrum scabrum.
  • Asperella gracilis.