The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 4, Issue 6 (October 1, 1929)
New Zealand Scenic Attractions — Aids to Advertising
The Alps whose snows are spread High between the clouds and sun.
The most effective method of advertising scenic attractions is by pictorial means, which speak more eloquently than the most poetic description. Any region which is noted for its allurements can, with special advantage, be re-presented by means of a pictorial or perspective map, which is itself based upon an ordinary map or plan. Particularly is this the case when a fairly extensive area is to be represented. The extent to which perspective maps have been utilised seems quite inadequate in view of the wonders of our national scenery, which are an asset to the country and which demand that every means should be taken to present them in the most attractive way. As an aid to this object, the utilisation of pictorial maps should not be overlooked.
In the type of pictorial map here referred to the first consideration is the representation, with an approach to general accuracy, of the actual features of the country, such as will be of some practical as well as pictorial value. Although an artistic element enters into the production of a pictorial map, the kind of technique employed is a matter of taste; but a pictorial representation produced solely in accordance with some particular form of artistic expression—e.g., the impressionist variety—although excellent in itself, may cause an erroneous “impression” of the actual features of the terrain.
A perspective map possesses some advantages, apart from important considerations such as colour, technique, names, etc., over other means of depicting any region. For example, a photograph of an alpine scene is usually taken from a comparatively low altitude. Recognising this, a prominent New Zealand alpinist expressed the opinion that, for pictorial purposes, aeroplane photos might be more suitable. It seems, however, that this depends upon certain conditions under which the photograph is taken. In the case of the vertical aeroplane photographs, although they are often taken at fairly high altitudes, they are unsuitable pictorially and are intended to serve, by means of mosaic patching, the purpose of an ordinary map or plan. Expert knowledge is also required for the difficult task of their interpretation. As for the oblique aeroplane photos, which correspond to pictorial drawings, the altitudes from which they are said to be taken generally range from only 500ft. to 2000ft. But in the case of a perspective map, the elevation can be adjusted to take in any desired area. Also, information having advertising value can be clearly shown on a pictorial map, which would be obscure or indistinguishable in photographs. As a supplement to map data, however, photographs may be of great value in producing a pictorial map, particularly when the map information is incomplete.page 50
The perspective map reproduced herewith, shows an area of over 200 miles of New Zealand territory. The elevation adopted in the construction to represent suitably the region was far beyond the photographic range of aeroplanes.
There is a choice of three methods in the production of a perspective map: (1) the perspective projection on the vertical plane, (2) the oblique plane, and (3) the cylinder. The first is generally suitable for pictorial purposes, the second may be employed if less obscuration of the features of the country is desired, while the third method is of use for a cyclorama or the developed cylinder. If the earth's curvature is taken into consideration in representing extensive areas, the perspective construction requires some modification.
Note on the Perspective Drawing of Mt. Cook Locality.
In this drawing the perspective projection on the vertical plane was adopted, and, in order to represent a fairly extensive area, viz., from the Mount Cook Hermitage to the upper part of the Godley Glacier, the view was considered to be taken from an elevation of almost 8 miles, while the distance and bearing from the Hermitage equals 17 miles and 216 1/2deg. respectively.
The drawing was based on the one-inch-to-the-mile map and approximate contours were interpolated for every 1000 feet from the heights given on the map. A grid was then drawn on the map, thus providing, when the grid was thrown into perspective, a guide to drawing in the map information. When represented according to their perspective heights, the contours formed a good framework for the topographical features, the details of which were to a great extent filled in from photographic data obtained from various alpinists.
For the projected shadows, the sun's rays at an angle of 30deg. with the horizontal was chosen in the plane of the picture. The points page 51 of shadow were obtained by the aid of sections—the points lying in that part of the section which intercepted the solar rays—taken at fairly close intervals across the map, and the lines of shadow were obtained by interpolating the shadow points.
The chief consideration in the execution of the perspective drawing was a general degree of accuracy, and this appears to have been attained when alpinists, such as Messrs. A. P. Harper (President, N.Z. Alpine Club), W. A. Kennedy, and others, find no difficulty in recognising features independent of their names. It also gives at a glance a comprehensive view of the Mt. Cook region. In some important respects this is the first map of its kind produced in New Zealand.
Her beauty abides in all changes
O'er isles where the palm meets the pine,
Where torrents sweep cold from white ranges
Ot coasts of the fern-tree and vine….
“Mr. H. H. Sterling, the Big Chief of the N.Z. Railways, makes a hobby of pleasing the public with special travelling concessions. His latest little gift is with reference to parties by rail.
“The railway tariff provides that pleasure parties of not less than twelve members may travel first class at second class rates for any journey, and if the return journey is made the same day those who elect to travel second class are carried at three-quarters of the ordinary return fares.
“In the past all applications for the concession rates were submitted to the District Traffic Manager. Under the new system a stationmaster anywhere may grant the concession, or any passenger agent or business agent has authority to issue the necessary permit, provided he ascertains that the rolling stock can be made available for the party.”
(From the July issue of “Aussie.“)page 52