The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 7 (December 15, 1926)
The savings effected by keeping engines running practically all day and night were illustrated by examples from the United States and South Africa. For instance:—
(1) Johannesburg to Cape Town—956 miles in 30 hours. One engine, four gangs.
(2) Peitermaritzburg-Komatipoort and back 680 miles run with one engine, caboose and relief gang.
(3) Mafeking-Buluwayo and back—980 miles run with one engine, caboose and relief gang.
On services two and three, the caboose system is in vogue. The gangs work eight hours on and off in turn, sleeping and eating in the caboose. A negro cook attends to the needs of the train crews. This system is responsible for a reduction of almost 50 per cent, in loco, costs.