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The Trials of Eric Mareo

6 A Pharmakon, a Pharmakos and a Pure Woman

6 A Pharmakon, a Pharmakos and a Pure Woman

1 Second Trial Notes of Evidence, EMP, p.134.

2 Second Trial Notes of Evidence, EMP, p.146.

3 For some influential near-contemporary accounts of New Zealand puritanism, see E.H. McCormick, Letters and Art in New Zealand (Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs, 1940), Bill Pearson, 'Fretful Sleepers', Landfall, 6 (1952): 201-30 and R.M. Chapman, 'Fiction and the Social Pattern', Landfall, 7 (1953): 26-58. For a discussion of Puritanism and counter- puritanism before the First World War, see Eldred-Grigg, Pleasures of the Flesh. Although Eldred-Grigg attempts to counter the perception of New Zealand as an unusually puritan country it is significant that his history does not extend past 1915 when, arguably, 'puritanism' was at its height.

4 Phillida Bunkle, 'The Origins of the Women's Movement in New Zealand: The Women's Christian Temperance Union 1885-1895', Women in New Zealand Society, edited by Phillida Bunkle and Beryl Hughes (Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1980), p.72. See also Raewyn Dalziel 'The Colonial Helpmeet: Women's Role and the Vote in Nineteenth Century New Zealand', Women in History: Essays on European Women in New Zealand, edited by Barbara Brookes, Charlotte Macdonald and Margaret Tennant (Wellington: Allen and Unwin/Port Nicholson Press, 1986), pp.55-68 and Barbara Brookes, 'A Weakness for Strong Subjects', New Zealand Journal of History 27 (1993): 140-56.

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5 Erik Olssen, 'Families and the Gendering of European New Zealand in the Colonial Period, 1840-80', The Gendered Kiwi, p.54. For an earlier discussion of the post-colonial period, see the same author's 'Women, Work and Family: 1880-1926' in Women in New Zealand Society pp. 159-83.

6 This at least was the case in Australia, according to Ann Summers in her classic Damned Whores and God's Police (Ringwood, Vic: Penguin, 1994).

7 Roberta Nicholls, The Women's Parliament: The National Council of Women of New Zealand 1896-1920 (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1996), pp.68-88 and Dorothy Page, The National Council of Women: A Centennial History (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1996). However Charlotte Macdonald has countered what she calls the '"the black hole" of New Zealand's feminist history' between the first and the second 'waves' of feminism, in The Vote, the Pill and the Demon Drink: A History of Feminist Writing in New Zealand, 1869-1993 (Wellington: Bridget Williams Books, 1993), p.8. On the conservative aspects of the Plunket Society, see Erik Olssen, 'Truby King and the Plunket Society: An Analysis of a Prescriptive Ideology,' New Zealand Journal of History 15 (1981): 3-23.

8 Quoted in Sue Kedgley, Mum's the Word (Auckland: Random House, 1996), p.115. Of course it has been argued that the gender imbalance of nineteenth- century New Zealand society resulted in a masculinist society. However, there is no logical reason why a gender imbalance could not create the cultural conditions where both highly 'feminine' and 'masculine' values could thrive. A relative absence of women would make 'feminine' virtues desirable by virtue of their scarcity and unmarried men and their 'batchelor' values commonplace by virtue of their numerical predominance. For the case that the gender imbalance created a 'man's country', see Jock Phillips, A Man's Country? The Image of the Pakeha Male, revised ed. (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1996), pp.4-11. For the contrary position, see Raewyn Dalziel, 'The Colonial Helpmeet: Women's Role and the Vote in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand', in Women in History, pp.55-68 and for the skeptical position about the effects of the gender imbalance see Charlotte Macdonald, 'Too Many Men and Too Few Women: Gender's "Fatal Impact" in Nineteenth-Century Colonies', in The Gendered Kiwi, p.28.

9 AS, 17 June 1936.

10 Meredith, A Long Brief, p.96.

11 John Parascandola, Drugs and Narcotics in History, edited by Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p.156.

12 See Derek Chain's and Gloria Rawlinson, The Book of Iris: A Life of Robin Hyde (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2002), p.189. We are grateful to Fergus Barrowman for pointing this out. Hyde's article is reprinted in Disputed Ground: Robin Hyde, Journalist, introduced and selected by Gillian Boddy & Jacqueline Matthews (Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1991), p.257.

13 Charles Raymond Henwood, A Turned on World: Drug use in New Zealand (Wellington: Hicks Smith, 1971), p.61. See also Redmer Yska, New Zealand Green: The Story of Marijuana in New Zealand (Auckland: Bateman, 1990) pp.7-34.

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14 Parascandola, Drugs and Narcotics in History, p.160.

15 Harcourt, I Appeal, p.72. For the association of drugs and bohemianism during the postwar period, see Marek Kohn, Dope Girls: The Birth of the British Drug Underground (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1992).

16 See Zygmunt Baumann's description of 'proteophobia' as 'the apprehension and vexation related not to something or someone disquieting through otherness and unfamiliarity, but to something or someone that does not fit the structure of the orderly world, does not fall easily into any of the established categories' and his argument that '"the Jews'" in antisemitic discourse 'incarnate' the kind of 'ambivalence' that occasions such 'proteophobia' in 'Allosemitism: Premodern, Modern, Postmodern' in Modernity, Culture and 'the Jew', edited by Bryan Cheyette and Laura Marcus (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998), p.144.

17 Harcourt, I Appeal, p.68.

18 Helen Blagrove to the Minister of Justice, 1 July 1936, EMP.

19 NZH, 26 February 1936.

20 Truth, 18 March 1936.

21 First Trial Notes of Evidence, EMP, p.29.

22 Harcourt, I Appeal, p.67.

23 'I Appeal' by 'Criticus': A Review, EMP.

24 Obs, 9 July 1936.

25 Quoted in Barbara Brookes, 'Housewives' Depression: The Debate over Abortion and Birth Control in the 1930s', New Zealand Journal of History 15(1981), p.130.

26 Brookes, 'Housewives' Depression', 122n. See also Phillipa Mein Smith, Maternity in Dispute: New Zealand, 1920-1939 (Wellington: Historical Publications Branch, 1986), pp. 101-15 and Mary Dobbie, A Matter for Women: Early Years of the Family Planning Movement (Auckland: Family Planning Association, 1995).

27 Truth, 24 June 1936.

28 Ibid.

29 Aekins to the Governor-General, 14 July 1936, EMP.

30 Truth, 24 June 1936.

31 See Bronwyn Dalley, 'Criminal Conversations: Infanticide, Gender and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand', The Gendered Kiwi, pp.63- 86 and 'The Cultural Remains of Elsie Walker', Fragments: New Zealand Social and Cultural History, edited by Bronwyn Dalley and Bronwyn Labrun (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2000), pp.140-62.

32 See Kai Jensen, Whole Men: The Masculine Tradition in New Zealand Literature (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1996) for a discussion of this literary tradition and more generally Gender, Culture and Power: Challenging New Zealand's Gendered Culture, edited by Bev James and Kay Saville-Smith (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1989) Phillips, A Man's Country? and Masculinities in AotearoalNew Zealand, edited by Robin Law, Hugh Campbell and John Dolan (Palmerston North: Dunmore Press, 1999).

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