|O kaua||Thou and I||O kaua ke hele||You and I go|
|Kaua||E noho kaua||Sit you and I|
|Na kaua, or taua||Na kaua ia e rave||You and I it will take|
|O maua||He, she, or it and I||O maua ke ike||He and I know|
|Maua||I rohe maua||She and I heard|
|Na maua||Na maua e nana||He and I will look|
The possessive and objective cases of the first person dual, and second person, orua, ye two, and the third person, raua, they two, have their several forms of nominative, possessive, and objective cases constructed in a manner similar to those of the singular.
|O kakou||We, including the party speaking, and the party addressed||O kakou ke rohé||We hear|
|Kakou||E himeni kakou||Let sing us|
|Na kakou||Na kakou e malana||Ye and I (will) take heedpage 468|
|O makou||We, excluding the party addressed||O makou wale no||They and I only|
|Makou||Ke horoi nei makou||Washing (are) we|
|Na makou||Na makou e ave aku||We, i, e. our party, will take away|
The other cases and persons of the plural are as numerous and precise as in the singular and dual. The adjective pronouns are possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, and relative.
Adjectives.—The adjective follows the noun to which it belongs. There are several degrees of comparison, though the form of the adjective undergoes no change: the degrees are expressed by distinct words. There is, properly speaking, no superlative; it is, however, expressed by prefixing the definite article, as ke kiekie, ke nui, the high, the great.
Verbs.—The verbs are active, passive, and neuter. The regular active verb, in the Hawaiian dialect, admits of four conjugations, as rohe, to hear, hoo-rohe, to cause to hear, rohe-iä, heard, and hoo-rohe-iä, to cause to be heard. Some of the verbs admit the second and fourth, but reject the third, as noho, to sit, hoo-noho, to cause to sit, and hoo-noho-ia, to cause to be seated. Others again allow the third and fourth, but not the second, as pepehi, to beat, pepehi-ia, beaten, and hoo-pepehi-ia, to cause to be beaten. The verbs usually precede the nouns and pronouns, as here au, go I, and e noho marie oe, sit still you, instead of, I go, and you sit still.
The adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, are numerous; but a description of them, and their relative situation in the construction of their sentences, would take up too much room.
Their numerals resemble the Malayan more than any other part of their language.
|A kahi one.||arima five.||avaru eight.|
|arua two.||aono six.||aiva nine.|
|atoru three.—ahaa four.||ahitu seven.||Umi ten.|
Eleven would be either umi-kumu-ma-kahi, ten the root and one, or umi-akahi-keu, ten one over; this would be continued by adding the units to the ten till twenty, which they call iva-karua, forty they call kanahaa, for seventy-six they would say forty twenty ten and six, and continue counting by forties till 400, which they call a rau, then they add till 4000, which they call mäno, 40,000 they call lehu, and 400,000 a kini; beyond this we do not know that they carry their calculations: the above words are sometimes doubled, as manomano kinikini; they are, however, only used thus to express a large but indefinite number. Their selection of the number four in calculations is singular; thus, 864,895 would be, according to their method of reckoning, two kini, or 400,000s, one lehu, 40,000, six mano, or 4000s, two rau, or 400s. two kanaha, or 40s, one umi, or ten and five. They calculate time by the moon; allow twelve to a year; have a distinct name for every moon, and every night of the moon, and reckon the parts of a month by the number of nights, as po akoru ainei, nights three ago, instead of three days ago. The following are some of the most common words in their language:
|ra, or la||sun.|
|lani||heaven, or sky.|
|mata||face and eye.|
|rima||hands and arms|
|wawae||legs and feet.|
The following specimen of native composition will convey some idea of their idiom. The translation is servile; and with this I shall close these remarks on their language. It is a letter written by the late king in answer to one I sent, acquainting him with my second arrival in the islands, on the 4th of Feb. 1823.
“Mr. Ellis, eo.
Mr. Ellis, attend.
Aroha ino oe, me ko wahine, me na keiki Attachment great (to) you, and your wife, with children
a pau a orua. I ola oukou ia Jehova ia all of ye two. Preserved (have) you (been) by Jehovah
laua o Iesu Kraist. Eia kau wahi olero ia oe, Mr. Ellis, they two Jesus Christ. This (is) my word to you, Mr. Ellis,
apopo a kela la ku a ahiahi, a ku hoi mai, to-morrow or the day after when evening, then I return.
I ka tabu a leila ua ite kaua. A i makemake oe On the Sabbath then (shall) meet we. But if desire you
e here mai ianei maitai no hoi. Ike ware oe i na'rii to come here, well also. Seen indeed (have) you the page 471 e Tahiti. Aroha ware na'rii o Bolabola.
I ola oe ia Jehova ia Jesu Kraist.
Saved (may) you (be) by Jehovah by Jesus Christ.
∗The term for the Society Islands.