Other formats

    TEI XML file   ePub eBook file  


    mail icontwitter iconBlogspot iconrss icon

Polynesian Researches


page 102


Proposed route—An ancient fortress—Aid from the governor—Another native dance—Height of Mouna Huararai—Manner of preparing bark for native cloth—Cultivation of the cloth plant—Method of manufacturing and painting various kinds of cloth—Conversation with the governor—Departure from Kairua—Description of our guide—Several heiaus—Population of the western coast—Tracts of rugged lava—Scence of the battle which took place, in consequence of the abolition of idolatry, in 1819—Description of the battle—Tomb of a celebrated priest-Account of Captain Cook's death, and the honours rendered to his remains—Encouraging missionary labours.

July 15th. Our whole number being now together at the place where we had previously agreed to commence our tour, we no longer delayed to decide on the route we should take, and the manner in which we should endeavour to accomplish the objects of our visit. Anxious to gain a thorough acquaintance with the circumstances of the people, and their disposition relative to Missionary operations, we agreed to travel on foot from Kairua, through the villages on the southern shore, to pass round the south point, and continue along the south-east shore, till we should arrive at the path leading to the great volcano, situated at the foot of Mouna Roa, and about twenty-five-miles distant page 103 from the sea, which we thought it improper to pass unnoticed. We proposed, after visiting the volcano, either to descend to the shore, and travel along the coast through the division of Puna, or across the interior to the division of Hiro, as circumstances might then render most expedient. From Waiakea in Hiro, we agreed to proceed along the eastern shore, till an opportunity should offer for part of our number to cross over the mountains of Kohala, while the rest should travel along the shore, round the north point of the island, and meet their companions at Towaihae, whence they could return direct to Oahu, if a means of conveyance should present itself, or to Kairua, and there wait for a vessel. The plan of our tour being thus arranged, we were anxious to receive the aid of the governor in its execution.

I afterwards accompanied Mr. Thurston to the well, where we found the natives boring the hard rocks of lava, which they intended to blast. We encouraged them in their laborious work, and then visited the ruins of an old military fortification, formerly belonging to the makaainana, (common people, as distinguished from the aristocracy, or reigning chiefs.) In those periods of their history, during which the island of Hawaii was divided into a number of independent governments under different chiefs, which was the case prior to the reign of Taraiopu, who was king at the time of its discovery by Captain Cook; this had been a place of considerable importance. All that at. present remains is part of the wall, about eighteen or twenty feet high, and fourteen feet thick at the bottom, built of lava, and apparently entire. In the upper part of page 104 the wall are apertures resembling embrasures; but they could not have been designed for cannon, that being an engine of war with which the natives have but recently become acquainted. The part of the wall now standing, is near the mouth of Raniakea, the spacious cavern already mentioned, which formed a valuable appendage to the fort. In this cavern, children and aged persons were placed for security during an assault or sally from the fort, and sometimes the wives of the warriors also, when they did not accompany their husbands to the battle. The fortification was probably extensive, as traces of the ancient walls are discoverable in several places; but what were its original dimensions, the natives who were with us could not tell. They asserted, however, that the cavern, if not the fort also, was formerly surrounded by a strong palisade.

In the afternoon, in company with Mr. Thurston, I waited on the governor, according to appointment; made him acquainted with our arrangements, and solicited the accommodation of a boat or canoe, to carry our baggage, and a man acquainted with the island, to act as guide, and to procure provisions, offering him, at the same time, any remuneration he might require for such assistance. After inquiring what baggage we intended to take, and how long we expected to be absent from Kairua, he generously offered to send a canoe as far as it could go with safety, and also to furnish a guide for the whole tour, without any recompense whatever. He recommended that we should take a few articles for barter, as, occasionally, we might perhaps be obliged to purchase our food, or hire men to carry our baggage. After thanking him for his kindness, we returned.

page 105

About four o'clock in the afternoon, another party of musicians and dancers, followed by multitudes of people, took their station nearly on the spot occupied yesterday by those from Kaii. The musicians, seven in number, seated themselves on the sand; a curiously carved drum, made by hollowing out a solid piece of wood, and covering the top with shark's skin, was placed before each, which they beat with the palm or fingers of their right hand. A neat little drum, made of the shell of a large cocoa-nut, was also fixed on the knee, by the side of the large drum, and beat with a small stick held in the left hand. When the musicians had arranged themselves in a line, across the beach, and a bustling man, who appeared to be master of the ceremonies, had, with a large branch of a cocoa-nut tree, cleared a circle of considerable extent, two interesting little children, (a boy and a girl,) apparently about nine years of age, came forward, habited in the dancing costume of the country, with garlands of flowers on their heads, wreaths around their necks, bracelets on their wrists, and buskins on their ankles. When they had reached the centre of the ring, they commenced their dance to the music of the drums; cantilating, alternately with the musicians, a song in honour of some ancient chief of Hawaii.

The governor of the island was present, accompanied, as it is customary for every chieftain of distinction to be on public occasions, by a retinue of favourite chiefs and attendants. Having almost entirely laid aside the native costume, and adopted that of the foreigners who visit the islands, he appeared on this occasion in a light European dress, and sat on a Canton-made arm-chair, opposite the dancers, during the whole exhibition. A servant, page 106 with a light kihei of painted native cloth throws over his shoulder, stood behind his chair, holding a highly polished spittoon, made of the beautifully brown wood of the cordia in one hand, and in the other a handsome kahiri, an elastic rod, three of four feet long, having the shining feathers of the tropic-bird tastefully fastened round the upper end with which he fanned away the flies from the person of his master.

The beach was crowded with spectators, and the exhibition kept up with spirit, till the overspreading shades of evening put an end to their mirth, and afforded a respite to the poor children, whose little limbs must have been very much fatigued by two hours of constant exercise. We were anxious to address the multitude on the subject of religion before they should disperse; but so intent were they on their amusement, that they could not have been diverted from it. I succeeded, however, in taking a sketch of the novel assemblage, in which, a youth, who had climbed a high pole, (that, looking over the heads of the throng who surrounded the dancers, he might witness the scene,) formed a conspicuous object.

A messenger now invited us to sup with the governor, and we soon after joined him and his friends around his hospitable board. Our repast was not accompanied by the gladsome sound o. “harp in hall” or “aged minstrel's flowing lay,” yet it was enlivened by an interesting youthful bard, twelve or fourteen years of age, who was seated on the ground in the large room in which we were assembled, and who, during the supper, sung, in a monotonous but pleasing strain, the deeds of former chiefs, ancestors of our host. His fingers swept no “classic lyre,” but beat, in a page 107 manner responsive to his song, a rustic little drum, formed of a calabash, beautifully stained, and covered at the head with a piece of shark skin. The governor and his friends were evidently pleased with his lay, and the youth seemed repaid by their approbation.

In the morning of the 16th, Messrs. Goodrich and Harwood endeavoured to ascertain the height of Mouna Huararai, by means of two observations at the extremity of a base line of two thousand two hundred and thirty feet. They made the height of the mountain to be seven thousand eight hundred and twenty-two feet; but their quadrant being an inferior one, we thought the height of the mountain greater than that given above, though it is never covered with snow.

The accounts the natives gave us of the roads we were to travel, and the effects the short journeys already made, had produced on our shoes, convinced us that those we had brought with us would be worn out before we had proceeded even half way round the island. We therefore provided a substitute, by procuring a tough bull's hide from the governor's store-house, and making ourselves rude sandals; these we afterwards found very serviceable, as they enabled us to travel over large tracts of lava with much more expedition and comfort than we could possibly have done without them.

At four p. m. the musicians from Kaii again collected on the beach, and the dancer commenced a hura, similar to that exhibited on Monday evening. We had previously appointed a religious meeting for this time, and, about an hour before sun-set proposed to the governor to hold it on the beach, where the people were already assembled. He page 108 approved, and followed us to the edge of the circle, where we took our station, opposite the musicians. At the governor's request the music ceased, and the dancer came and sat down just in front of us. We sang a hymn; I then offered up a short prayer, and afterwards addressed the people from Acts xiv. 15; “And preach unto you, that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, which made heaven and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein.” The multitude collected was from different and distant parts of the island, and appeared to listen with attention to the word spoken. To many, it was doubtless the first time they had heard of the name of Jehovah, or of Jesus Christ his Son, and we afterwards heard them conversing among themselves about the truths they had heard.

After supper and family worship at the governor's, I spent the evening in conversation with him, partly on traditions respecting some remarkable places in the neighbourhood of Kairua, and partly on the subject of religion. I spoke on the desirableness of his building a place for the public worship of the true God, and the advantages of keeping the Sabbath as a day of holy rest, recommending him to set the common people a good example, and use his influence to induce them to attend public service on the Lord's day. He said it was his intention to build a church by and by, when the maka-ainana should become interested in these things, and when they should have a Missionary to reside permanently with them; but that at present the people at Kairua were indifferent to all religion.

For several days past we have observed many of the people bringing home from their plantations page 109 bundles of young wauti, (a variety of the morus papyrifera,) from which we infer that this is the season for cloth-making in this part of the island.

This morning, the 17th, we perceived Keoua, the governor's wife, and her female attendants, with about forty other women, under the pleasant shade of a beautiful clump of cordia or kou trees, employed in stripping off the bark from bundles of wauti sticks, for the purpose of making it into cloth. The sticks were generally from six to ten feet long, and about an inch in diameter at the thickest end. They first cut the bark, the whole length of the stick, with a sharp serrated shell, and having carefully peeled it off, rolled it into small coils, the inner bark being outside. In this state it is left some time, to make it flat and smooth. Keoua not only worked herself, but appeared to take the superintendence of the whole party. Whenever a fine piece of bark was found, it was shewn to her, and put aside to be manufactured into wairiirii, or some other particular cloth. With lively chat and cheerful song, they appeared to beguile the hours of labour until noon, when having finished their work, they repaired to their dwellings.

The wauti plant, of which the greater part of the cloth on this side of the island is made, is cultivated with much care in their gardens of sugarcane, plantain, &c. and whole plantations are sometimes appropriated exclusively to its growth. Slips about a foot long are planted nearly two feet apart, in long rows, four or six feet asunder. Two or three shoots rise from most of the slips, and grow till they are six or twelve feet high, according to the richness of the soil, or the kind of cloth for which they are intended. Any small branches page 110 that may sprout out from the side of the shoot, are carefully plucked off, and sometimes the bud at the top of the plant is pulled out, to cause an increase in its size. Occasionally they are two years growing, and seldom reach the size at which they are fit for use, in less than twelve or even eighteen months, when they are cut off near the ground, the old roots being left, to produce shoots another year.

The bark, when stripped off and rolled up, as described above, is left several days; when, on being unrolled, it appears flat. The outer bark is then taken off, generally by scraping it with a large shell, and the inner bark, of which the cloth is made, is occasionally laid in water, to extract the resinous substances it may contain. Each piece of bark is then taken singly, and laid across a piece of wood, twelve or eighteen feet long, six inches square, smooth on the top, but having a groove on the under side, and is beaten with a square mallet of hard heavy wood, about a foot in length, and two inches wide; three sides are carved in grooves or ribs, the other into squares, in order that one mallet may answer for the different kinds of cloth they are accustomed to manufacture.

Various sorts of cloth are made with this plant, some remarkably fine and even; that which has been beaten with a mallet, carved in different patterns, much resembles muslin at first sight, while that made with a grooved mallet appears, until closely examined, something like dimity. There are other kinds, very thick and tough, which look like wash-leather; but the most common son is the paii, worn round the waists of the females. To make this, a piece of bark is beaten till it is page 111 four yards long, and more than a yard wide, and of an equal texture throughout. Sometimes two or three pieces of bark are necessary to make one piece of cloth. Five of these pieces, when finished, are spread out one upon the other, and fastened together at one end. These five pieces make one paii. The inside pieces are usually white, or yellow; but the outside piece is stained, or painted, with vegetable dyes. No gum is used in the manufacture of the paii, except that contained in the bark, yet the fibres adhere firmly together. Those painted red or yellow, &c. are sometimes rubbed over with a vegetable oil, in which chips of sandal wood, or the seeds of the pandanus odorotissima, have been steeped. This is designed to perfume the cloth, and render it impervious to wet; it is, however, less durable than the common paii.

There is another kind of cloth, called tapa moe, (sleeping cloth,) made principally for the chiefs, who use it to wrap themselves in at night, while they sleep. It is generally three or four vards square, very thick, being formed of several layers of common tapa, cemented with gum, and beaten with a grooved mallet till they are closely interwoven. The colour is various, either white, yellow, brown, or black, according to the fancy of its owner. Nearly resembling the tapa moe is the kihei, only it is both thinner and smaller. It is made in the same manner, and is about the size of a large shawl, or counterpane. Sometimes it is brown, but more frequently white or yellow, intermixed with red and black. It is generally worn by the men, thrown loosely over one shoulder, passed under the opposite arm, and tied in front, or on the other shoulder.

page 112

But the best kind of cloth made with the cultivated plant is the wairiirii, which is made into paus for the females, and maros for the men. The paüs are generally four yards long, and about one yard wide, very thick, beautifully painted with brilliant red, yellow, and black colours, and covered over with a fine gum and resinous varnish, which not only preserves the colours, but renders the cloth impervious and durable. The maros are about a foot wide, and three or four yards long.

The colours they employ are procured from the leaves, bark, berries, or roots of indigenous plants, and require much skill in their preparation. One or two kinds of earth are also used in mixing the darker colours. Since foreigners have visited them, they have found, upon trial, that our colours are better than theirs, and the paints they purchase from ships have superseded in a great degree the native colours, in the painting of the most valuable kinds of cloth.

Their manner of painting is ingenious. They cut the pattern they intend to stamp on their cloth, on the inner side of a narrow piece of bamboo, spread their cloth before them on a board, and having their colours properly mixed, in a calabash by their side, dip the point of the bamboo, which they hold in their right hand, into the paint, strike it against the edge of the calabash, place it on the right or left side of the cloth, and press it down with the fingers of the left hand. The pattern is dipped in the paint after every impression, which is repeated till the cloth is finished.

The tapa in general lasts but a little while, compared with any kind of wove cloth, yet, if kept free from wet, which causes it to rend like paper, some kinds may be worn a considerable time. The page 113 fabrication of it shews both invention and industry: and whether we consider its different textures, its varied and regular patterns, its beautiful colours, so admirably preserved by means of the varnish, we are at once convinced, that the people who manufacture it are neither deficient in taste, nor incapable of receiving the improvements of civilized society.

∗Specimens of the principal kinds of native cloth, manufactured in the Sandwich Islands, may be seen in the Missionary Museum, Austin Friars.

During the forenoon, Mr. Harwood made an auger, to aid the well-diggers in boring the rocks. I walked with Mr. Thurston to see what progress they had made, and to encourage them to persevere. The rocks, they said, were hard, and their progress slow, yet they were not discouraged, but hoped to find the work easier as they descended.

After dinner, the governor entered freely into conversation on religious subjects, particularly respecting the resurrection of the body, the destruction of the heavens and the earth at the last day, and the final judgment. After listening attentively to what was said upon these subjects, he inquired about the locality of heaven and hell. He was told that we did not know where the one or the other was situated, as none had ever returned from either, to tell mankind about them; and we only know, that there is a place called heaven, where God makes glorious manifestations of his perfections, and where all good men are perfectly happy; and that there is a place where wicked men will endure endless misery. He then said, “How do you know these things ?” I asked for his bible, and translated the passages which inculcate the doctrine of the resurrection, &c. and page 114 told him it was from that book we obtained our knowledge of these things; and that it was the contents of that book which we had come to teach the people of Hawaii. He then asked if all the people in our native countries were acquainted with the bible. I answered, that from the abundant means of instruction enjoyed there, the greater portion of the people had either read the book, or had in some other way become acquainted with its principal contents. He then said, How is it that such numbers of them swear, get intoxicated, and do so many things prohibited in that book ? He was told, that there was a vast difference between knowing the word of God, and obeying it; and that it was most likely, those persons knew their conduct was displeasing to God, yet persisted in it, because agreeable to their corrupt inclinations. He asked if God would not be angry with us for troubling him so frequently with our prayers? If he was like man, he said, he was sure he would. I replied, that God was always “waiting to be gracious,” more ready to hear than we were to pray; that indeed he was not like man, or his patience would have been exhausted long ago by the wickedness of men; but that he continued exercising long-suffering and forbearance towards sinners, that they might turn from their wickedness and live.

We supped with the governor as usual, and, after family worship with his household, prepared our baggage for our journey, some of which we left to be forwarded by the Ainoa to Waiakea, a district on the eastern side of the island.

About eleven o'clock in the forenoon, on the 18th, we waited on the governor, to express our grateful sense of the generous hospitality we had page 115 experienced from him, during our stay at Kairua We also thanked him for the advice he had given, and the aid he had so kindly furnished for the prosecution of our journey, and informed him that we were ready to proceed. He had before given mstructions to our guide. He now directed the man who was going in the canoe, to take care of our things, and told us he would send some men to carry our baggage by land, as far as Kearake'kua. We then took leave of him, and proceeded on our journey. Messrs. Bishop and Harwood went in the canoe, the rest of our number travelled on foot.

Our guide, Makoa, who had been the king's messenger many years, and was well acquainted with the island, led the way. He was rather a singular looking little man, between forty and fifty years of age. A thick tuft of jet-black curling hair shaded his wrinkled forehead, and a long bunch of the same kind hung down behind each of his ears. The rest of his head was cropped as short as shears could make it. His small black eyes were ornamented with tataued vandyke semicircles. Two goats, impressed in the same indelible manner, stood rampant over each of his brows; one, like the supporter of a coat of arms, was fixed on each side of his nose, and two more guarded the corners of his mouth. The upper part of his beard was shaven close; but that which grew under his chin, was drawn together, braided for an inch or two, and then tied in a knot, while he extremities below the knot spread out in curls like a tassel. A light kihei, (cloth worn like a shawl,) was carelessly thrown over one shoulder and tied in a knot on the other; and a large fan, made of cocoa-nut leaf, in his hand, served to beat page 116 away the flies, or the boys, when either became two numerous or troublesome.

Leaving Kairua, we passed through the villages thickly scattered along the shore to the southward. The country around looked unusually green and cheerful, owing to the frequent rains, which for some months past have fallen on this side of the island. Even the barren lava, over which we travelled, seemed to veil its sterility beneath tufts of tall waving grass, or spreading shrubs and flowers. The sides of the hills, laid out for a considerable extent in gardens and fields, and generally cultivated with potatoes and other vegetables, were beautiful. The number of heiaus, and depositories of the dead, which we passed, convinced us that this part of the island must formerly have been populous. The latter were built with fragments of lava, laid up evenly on the outside, generally about eight feet long, from four to six broad, and about four feet high. Some appeared very ancient, others had evidently been standing but a few year.

At Ruapua we examined an interesting heiau, called Kauaikahaora, built of immense blocks of lava, and found its dimensions to be one hundred and fifty feet by seventy. At the north end was a smaller enclosure, sixty feet long and ten wide, partitioned off by a high wall, with but one narrow entrance. The places where the idols formerly stood were apparent, though the idols had been removed. The spot where the altar had been erected could be distinctly traced; it was a mound of earth, paved with smooth stones, and surrounded by a firm curb of lava. The adjacent ground was strewed with bones of the ancient offerings. The natives informed us that four principal idols were page 117 formerly worshipped there, one of stone, two of wood, and one covered with red feathers. One of them, they said, was brought from a foreign country. Their names were Kanenuiakea, (great and wide-spreading Kane,) who was brought from Tauai, Kaneruruhonua, (earth-shaking Kane,) Roramakaeha, and Kekuaaimanu.

Leaving the heiau, we passed by a number of smaller temples, principally on the sea-shore, dedicated to Kuura, a male, and Hina, a female idol, worshipped by fishermen, as they were supposed to preside over the sea, and to conduct or impel, to the shores of Hawaii, the various shoals of fish that visit them at different seasons of the year. The first of any kind of fish, taken in the season, was always presented to them, especially the operu, a kind of herring. This custom exactly accords with the former practice of the inhabitants of Maui and the adjacent islands, and of the Society Islanders.

At two p. m. we reached Horuaroa, a large and populous district. Here we found Keoua, the governor's wife, and her attendants, who had come from Kairua for wauti, with which to make cloth. Shortly after, we reached a village called Karuaokalani, (the second heaven,) where was a fine heiau, in good preservation. It is called Pakiha; its dimensions were two hundred and seventy feet by two hundred and ten. We could not learn the idol to which it was dedicated, but were informed it was built in the time of Keakealani, who, according to tradition, was queen of Hawaii about eleven generations back. The walls were solid, thick, and nearly entire; and the singular manner in which the stones were piled upon the top, like so many small spires, gave it an unusually interesting page 118 appearance. Before we left Karuaokalani the inhabitants pointed out to us a spot called Maukareoreo, the place of a celebrated giant o. that name, who was one of the attendants of Umi, king of Hawaii, about twelve generations since, and who, they told us, was so tall that he could pluck the cocoa-nuts from the trees as he walked along; and when the king was playing in the surf, where it was five or six fathoms deep, would walk out to him without being wet above his loins; and when he was in a canoe, if he saw any fish lying among the coral at the same depth, would just put his hand down and take them. They also told us he was a great warrior, and that, to his prowess principally, Umi was indebted for many of his victories. The Hawaiians are fond of the marvellous, as well as many people who are better informed; and probably this passion, together with the distance of time since Maukareoreo existed, has led them to magnify one of Umi's followers, of perhaps a little larger stature than his fellows, into a giant sixty feet high.

Our road now lay through a pleasant part of the district, thickly inhabited, and ornamented occasionally with clumps of kou-trees. Several spots were pointed out to us, where the remains of heiaus, belonging to the late king Tamehameha, were still visible. After travelling some time, we came to Kanekaheilani, a large heiau more than two hundred feet square. In the midst of it was a clear pool of brackish water, which the natives told us was the favourite bathing-place of Tamehameha, and which he allowed no other person to use. A rude figure, carved in stone, standing on one side of the gateway by which we entered, was the only image we saw here. About fifty yards page 119 further on, was another heiau, called Hale o Tairi (house of Tairi.) It was built by Tamehameha soon after he had assumed the government of the island. Only one mutilated image was now standing, though it is evident that, but a few years ago, there had been many. The natives were very desirous to shew us the place where the image of Tairi the war-god stood, and told us, that frequently in the evening he used to be seen flying about in the neighbourhood, in the form of a luminous substance like a flame, or like the tail of a comet. We told them that the luminous appearance which they saw was an occurrence common to other countries, and produced by natural causes; that the natives of the Society Islands formerly, whenever they observed such a phenomenon, supposed it to be Tane, one of their gods, taking his flight from one marae to another, or passing through the district seeking whom he might destroy, and were consequently filled with terror; but now, they wondered how they could ever have given way to such fears, from so inoffensive a circumstance. We asked them if they did not see the same appearances now, though the god had been destroyed, and his worship discontinued ? They said, “No; it has not been seen since the abolition of idolatry.” We assured them it did not proceed from the power of the god Tairi, but that it was a luminous vapour, under the control of Jehovah, the creator and governor of all things which they beheld.

We walked on to Pahoehoe, where we entered a large house, in which many workmen were employed in making canoes. About fifty people soon after assembled around us. We asked them if they were willing to hear about the true God, page 120 and the way of salvation ? They answered, Yes. I then addressed them for about twenty minutes on the first principles of the gospel. As soon as I began to speak, they all sat down, and observed perfect silence. Shortly after this service, we took our leave, and proceeded along the shore to Kahaluu; where a smart shower of rain obliged us to take shelter in a house by the road-side. While resting there, the voice of wailing reached our ears. We inquired whence it came? and were informed by the people of the house, that a sick person in the neighbourhood had just expired. We asked where the soul was gone to ? They answered, they knew not whither, but that it would never return. I spoke to them respecting the condition of departed souls, the resurrection of the body, and the general judgment which will follow; telling them afterwards of the love of Christ, who had brought life and immortality to light, and by his death secured eternal happiness to all that believe in him. They listened attentively, and continued the conversation till the rain abated, when we pursued our journey. We passed another large heiau, and travelled about a mile across a rugged bed of lava, which had evidently been ejected from a volcano more recently than the vast tracts of the same substance by which it was surrounded. It also appeared to have been torn to pieces, and tossed up in the most confused manner, by some violent convulsion of the earth, at the time it was in a semifluid state. There was a kind of path formed across the most level part of it, by large smooth round stones, brought from the sea-shore, and placed three or four feet apart. By stepping from one to another of these, we passed over the roughest piece of lava we had yet page 121 seen; and soon after five p. m. we arrived at Keauhou, a pleasant village, containing one hundred and thirty-five houses, and about eight miles from Kairua. Messrs. Bishop and Harwood reached the same place about an hour earlier, and here we proposed to spend the night. We had not been long in the village, when about one hundred and fifty people collected round the house in which we stopped. After singing and prayer, Mr. Thurston preached to them. They gave good attention; and though we conversed with them a considerable time after the service was ended, they still thronged our house, and seemed unwilling to disperse. During our walk from Kairua to this place, we counted six hundred and ten houses, and allowed one hundred more for those who live among the plantations on the sides of the hills. Reckoning five persons to each house, which we think not far from a correct calculation, the population of the tract though which we have travelled to-day will be about three thousand five hundred and fifty souls. We also passed nineteen heiaus, of different dimensions, some of which we carefully examined. Late in the evening we spread our mats on the loose pebbles of which the floor of the house was formed, and, thankful for the mercies we had received, laid ourselves down, and enjoyed a comfortable night's repose. Thermometer at sunset 71°.

Early the next morning, numbers of the natives collected around our lodgings, and, when informed that we intended to perform religious worship, sat down on the ground, and became silent. After singing a hymn in their language, I gave a short exhortation, followed by prayer. They afterwards kept us in conversation till about half-past eight page 122 when we left Keauhou, and pursued our journey. Mr. Harwood proceeded in the canoe; the rest of our number travelled on foot. Our way lay across a rough tract of lava, resembling that which we passed over the preceding afternoon. In many places it seemed as if the surface of the lava had become hard, while a few inches underneath it had remained semifluid, and in that state had been broken up, and left in its present confused and irregular form. This rugged appearance of the external lava was probably produced by the expansive force of the heated air beneath the crust, but that could not have caused the deep chasms or fissures which we saw in several places. We also observed many large spherical volcanic stones, the surface of which had been fused, and in some places had peeled off like a crust or shell, an inch or two in thickness. The centre of some of these stones, which we broke, was of a dark blue colour and compact texture, and did not appear to have been affected by the fire which had calcined the surface.

After travelling about two miles over this barren waste, we reached the place where, in the autumn of 1819, the decisive battle was fought between the forces of Rihoriho, the present king, and his cousin, Kekuaokalani, in which the latter was slain, his followers completely overthrown, and the cruel system of idolatry, which he took up arms to support, effectually destroyed. The natives pointed out to us the place where the king's troops, led on by Karaimoku, were first attacked by the idolatrous party. We saw several small heaps of stones, which our guide informed us were the graves of those who, during the conflict, had fallen there. We were then shewn the page 123 spot on which the king's troops formed a line from the sea-shore towards the mountains, and drove the opposing party before them to a rising ground, where a stone fence, about breast high, enabled the enemy to defend themselves for some time, but from which they were at length driven by a party of Karaimoku's warriors. The small tumuli increased in number as we passed along, until we came to a place called Tuamoo. Here Kekuaokalani made his last stand, rallied his flying forces, and seemed, for a moment, to turn the scale of victory; but being weak with the loss of blood, from a wound he had received in the early part of the engagement, he fainted and fell. However, he soon revived, and, though unable to stand, sat on a fragment of lava, and twice loaded and fired his musket on the advancing party. He now received a ball in his left breast, and, immediately covering his face with his feather cloak, expired in the midst of his friends. His wife Manona, during the whole of the day, fought by his side with steady and dauntless courage. A few moments after her husband's death, perceiving Karaimoku and his sister advancing, she called out for quarter; but the words had scarcely escaped from her lips, when she received a ball in her left temple, fell upon the lifeless body of her husband, and instantly expired. The idolaters having lost their chief, made but feeble resistance afterwards; yet the combat, which commenced in the forenoon, continued till near sunset, when the king's troops, finding their enemies had all either fled or surrendered, returned to Kairua.

Karaimoku grieved much at the death of page 124 Kekuaokalani, who was his own sister's son. He delayed the engagement as long as possible; and, the same morning that the battle took place, sent a messenger, addressing the young chief as his son, and requesting him to refrain from hostilities till they could have an interview, and, if possible, effect an accommodation. But the message was rejected, and the messenger obliged to jump into the sea, and swim to save his life. In the moment of victory, also, he acted with humanity; and, contrary to the usual custom, the vanquished were not pursued, and murdered in their retreats. A little way south of the spot where the chief fell, was a small cave, into which, in the confusion that followed the death of Kekuaokalani, a woman attached to his party crept, and, drawing a piece of lava over its mouth, remained until night, beneath whose friendly cover she fled to the mountains, not knowing that the victors had returned without pursuing their foes. The wives of warriors often accompanied their husbands to battle, and were frequently slain. Their practice, in this respect, resembled that of the Society Islanders on similar occasions. They generally followed in the rear, carrying calabashes of water, or of poë, a little dried fish, or other portable provision, with which to recruit their husbands' strength when weary, or afford a draught of water when thirsty or faint; but they followed, more particularly, to be at hand if their husbands should be wounded.

Some women, more courageous than the rest, or urged on by affection, advanced side by side with their husbands to the front of the battle, bearing a small calabash of water in one hand, and a spear, a dart, or a stone, in the other; and, in page 125 in the event of the husband's being killed, they seldom survived.

A pile of stones, somewhat larger than the rest, marked the spot where the rival chief and his affectionate and heroic wife expired. A few yards nearer the sea, an oblong pile of stones, in the form of a tomb, about ten feet long and six wide, was raised over the grave in which they were both interred. A number of lowly flowering bushes grew around, and a beautiful convolvulus in full bloom almost covered it with foliage and flowers. We could not view this rudely constructed tomb without renewed lamentation over the miseries of war, and a strong feeling of regret for the untimely end of the youthful pair, especially for the affectionate Manona, whom even the horrors of savage fight, in which the demon of war wears his most terrific form, could not prevent from following the fortune, and sharing the dangers, that she might administer to the comfort, of her much-loved husband. This feeling was not a little increased by the recollection of the delusion of which they were the ill-fated victims, and in support of which they were prodigal of their blood. Alas ! they knew not, till from the fatal field they entered the eternal world, the value of that life which they had lost, and the true nature of that cause in which they had sacrificed it. The piles of stones rose thick around the spot where they lay; and we were informed that they were the graves of his kahu, (particular friends and companions,) who stood by him to the ast, manifesting a steadfastness which even their enemies admired, and a degree of courage worthy of being exercised in a better cause.

Kekuaokalani was first cousin to Rihoriho. He page 126 is represented by some as having been an enterprising and restless young man, aspiring to share the government with his cousin, if not to reign in his stead. The late king Tamehameha, a short time before his death, left the government of the islands to his eldest son Rihoriho, and the care of the gods, their temples, and the support of their worship, to the king and Kekuaokalani, together with the rest of the chiefs.

Almost the first public act of the young king Rihoriho, and before the arrival of any Missionary, was the abolition of the national idolatry, and all the restrictions of the tabu system by which it was upheld. This system, with all its superstitious cruelty, had existed, and had exerted its degrading yet almost supernatural influence over the people, from time immemorial; and it required no small degree of courage by one single act to abrogate its inflexible laws, and destroy its dreaded power. But several acts of Rihoriho's reign shew that he possessed a mind well adapted for such undertakings.

His motives for this decisive measure appear to have been, in the first place, a desire to ameliorate the condition of his wives, and the females in general, whom the tabu sunk into a state of extreme wretchedness and degradation, obliging them to subsist only on inferior kinds of food, and not allowing them to cook their provisions, such as they were, at the same fire, or even eat in the same place where the men took theirs. And in the second place, he seems to have been influenced by a wish to diminish the power of the priests, and avoid that expenditure of labour and property which the support of idolatry required, and which he was anxious to employ for other page 127 purposes. He had also heard what Pomare and the Tahitian chiefs had done in the Society Islands. He consulted some of the principal chiefs, particularly Karaimoku, who declared his intention not to keep or observe any more tabu's; and though several of the priests said the gods would recompense any neglect with vengeance, Hevaheva, the high priest of his father's war-god, said no evil consequences would follow the discontinuance of the worship of the gods. Soon after this, the king made a feast, to which many chiefs of the different islands were invited. The guests assembled, as usual; the men in one place, the women in another. The food was cut up by Mr. Young, from whom, as well as from some of the chiefs, we have received the account and when all were about to begin their meal, the king ordered his attendants to carry some fowls and such prohibited food, to the place where his wives and other females were assembled; he then went, and, sitting down with them, began to eat, and directed them to do the same. A shout of surprise burst from the multitude around; several other chiefs followed his example. The men and women sat promiscuously, and ate the same food, which they called ai noa, general or common eating, in opposition to the former ai tabu, restricted or sacred eating. The ai tabu was one of the perpetual restrictions imposed by their idolatry on all ranks of the people, from their birth until their death. This public violation of it manifested the king's intention to destroy the whole system, which very shortly after was accomplished by the priest Hevaheva's resigning his office, and the king declaring that there should no longer be any priests, or any worship rendered to the gods.

page 128

Kakuaokalani, though he had no share in the government, yet had, in common with the other high chiefs, received a charge concerning the gods. Urged on by the priests, who promised him victory, by a superstitious reverence for the idols of his ancestors, and perhaps also by a hope of defeating Rihoriho, and securing the government to himself, he took up arms.

The abolition of idolatry by Rihoriho was thus the immediate occasion of the war, which terminating in his favour, left him sole monarch of the Sandwich Islands. This was the summit of his ambition, and the consummation of his wishes, though probably the least among the all-wise and benevolent purposes of Him, who ruleth all things after the counsel of his own will, and causeth even the wrath of man to praise him. Little did the pagan chief imagine, when he collected his forces, offered his sacrifices, and, preceded by his wargod, marched to the battle, that he was urging on his way to remove the most formidable barrier that existed to the introduction of a religion which should finally triumph over every system of idolatry in the world; and as little did the victorious chiefs, when they beheld themselves masters of the field, and returned in triumph to the king, think that success had only prepared the way for their own subjection to a Prince, whose heralds (then on their way) should soon proclaim his laws in their camp, and demand their allegiance to his crown;—whose divine power should erect among them a kingdom, of which they themselves should delight to become subjects, and commence a reign that should be everlasting.

Leaving Tuamoo, we passed on to Honuaino, where, being thirsty and weary, we sat down on page 129 the side of a canoe, under the shade of a finespreading hibiscus, and begged a little water of the villagers. We had not remained many minutes, before we were surrounded by about one hundred and fifty people. After explaining to them in few words our feelings on meeting them, we asked them if they would like to hear what we had to say to them. They replied, Ae, (yes,) and sat down immediately. We sung a hymn and prayed, and I addressed them for about half an hour on the first principles of Christianity. They all appeared gratified, said they were naau po, (dark-hearted,) and should be glad to be instructed in all these things, if any body would teach them. We now travelled on to Hokukano, where we passed a pahu tabu, (sacred enclosure,) which the natives told us was built by Taraiopu, king of the island at the time it was discovered by Captain Cook. A little further on we examined a buoa (tomb) of a celebrated priest. It was composed of loose stones, neatly laid, about eight feet square and five high. In the centre was a small mound of earth, higher than the walls; over this a house had formerly been erected, but it was now fallen to decay; around it were long poles, stuck in the earth, about three or four inches apart, and united together at the top. We asked why the grave was enclosed with those tall sticks ? Some said it was a custom so to inter persons of consequence; others said it was to prevent the spirit from coming out. A mode of interment corresponding with this, appears to prevail among some of the tribes inhabiting the north-west coast of the American continent. On the top of a high mountain, in the neighbourhood, stood the remains of page 130 an old heiau, dedicated to Ukanipo, a shark, to which, we were informed, all the people along the coast, for a considerable distance, used to repair, at stated times, with abundant offerings. Passing on along a rugged road, we reached Kaavaroa soon after 2 p. m. Kamakau received us kindly, spread out a mat for us to sit down on, handed us a calabash of good fresh water, (a great luxury on this side of the island,) and ordered a goat to be prepared for our refreshment. He appeared as zealous in his pursuit of truth, earnest in his desires after his own salvation, and concerned for that of his people, as when formerly visited. One or two inferior chiefs, from a district belonging to him, in the south part of the island, were sitting in the house when we entered. He afterwards began to talk with them on matters of religion, with an earnestness and intelligence which surprised us.

∗Terreeoboo in Cook's Voyages.

In the afternoon Mr. Thurston and I climbed the rocks which rise in a north-east direction from the village, and visited the cave in which the body of Captain Cook was deposited, on being first taken from the beach. These rocks, which are entirely composed of lava, are nearly two hundred feet high, and in some parts very steep. A winding path of rather difficult ascent leads to the cave, which is situated on the face of the rocks, about half-way to the top. In front of it is a kind of ledge three or four feet wide, and immediately over it the rocks rise perpendicularly for a yard or two, but afterwards the ascent is gradual to the summit

The cave itself is of volcanic formation, and appears to have been one of those subterranean tunnels so numerous on the island, by which the page 131 volcanoes in the interior sometimes discharge their contents upon the shore. It is five feet high, and the entrance about eight or ten feet wide. The roof and sides within are of obsidian or hard vitreous lava; and along the floor, it is evident that in some remote period a stream of the same kind of lava has also flowed.

There are a number of persons at Kaavaroa, and other places in the islands, who either were present themselves at the unhappy dispute, which in this vicinity terminated the valuable life of the celebrated Captain Cook, or who, from their connexion with those who were on the spot, are well acquainted with the particulars of that melancholy event. With many of them we have frequently conversed, and, though their narratives differ in a few smaller points, they all agree in the main facts with the account published by Captain King, his successor.

7 Captain Cook's name is thus pronounced by the natives.

“The foreigner,” they say, “was not to blame; for, in the first instance, our people stole his boat, and he, in order to recover it, designed to take our king on board his ship, and detain him there till it should be restored. Kapena Kuke and Taraiopu our king were walking together towards the shore, when our people, conscious of what had been done, thronged round the king, and objected to his going any further. His wife also joined her entreaties that he would not go on board the ships. While he was hesitating, a man came running from the other side of the bay, entered the crowd almost breathless, and exclaimed, ‘It is war!—the foreigners have commenced hostilities, have fired on a canoe from one of their boats, and killed page 132 a chief.' This enraged some of our people, and alarmed the chiefs, as they feared Captain Cook would kill the king. The people armed themselves with stones, clubs, and spears. Kanona heated her husband not to go. All the chiefs did the same. The king sat down. The Captain seemed agitated, and was walking towards his boat, when one of our men attacked him with a spear: he turned, and with his double-barrelled gun shot the man who struck him. Some of our people then threw stones at him, which being seen by his men, they fired on us. Captain Cook then endeavoured to stop his men from firing, but could not, on account of the noise. He was turnine again to speak to us, when he was stabbed in the back with a pahoa; a spear was at the same timedriven through his body; he fell into the water, and spoke no more.

∗We have several times inquired, particularly of the natives acquainted with the circumstances, whether Captain Cook was facing them, or had his back towards them, when he received the fatal thrust; and their answer, is general, has been as here stated, which accords very nearly with Captain King's account, who says, “Our unfortunate commander, the last time he was seen distinctly, was standing at the water's edge, and calling out to the boats to cease firing, and pull in. If it be true, as some of those present have imagined, that the marines and boatmen fired without his orders, and that he was desirous of preventing any further bloodshed, it is not improbable, that his humanity, on this occasion, proved fatal to him: for it was remarked, that whilst he faced the natives, none of them had offered him any violence, but that having turned about, to give his orders to the boats, he was stabbed in the back, and fell with his face into the water”. See Captain King's Continuation of Cook's Voyages, 4to. vol. iii. pages 45 and 46.

“After he was dead, we all wailed. His bones were separated—the flesh was scraped off and page 133 burnt, as was the practice in regard to our own chiefs when they died. We thought he was the god Rono, worshipped him as such, and, after his death, reverenced his bones.

Not only were his bones so treated, but almost every relic left with them. Among other things, a sledge, which, from their description of it, must have come from the north-west coast of America, left at the islands by Captain Cook, or some of his companions, was afterwards worshipped by the people. They called it, probably from its singular shape, Opaitauarii, a crab or shrimp, for a chief to rest on; from opai, a crab or shrimp, tau, to rest or sit, and arii, a chief.

Many of the chiefs frequently express the sorrow they feel whenever they think of the Captain; and even the common people usually speak of these facts with apparent regret. Yet they exonerate the king Taraiopu from all blame, as nothing was done by his orders. I was once in a house in Oahu with Karaimoku, and several other chiefs, looking over the plates in the folio edition of Cook's Voyages. They were greatly affected with the print which represented his death, and inquired if I knew the names of those who were slain on that occasion. I perceived Karaimoku more than once wipe the tears from his eyes, while conversing about this melancholy event. He said, he recollected Captain Cook's visit, if not also his person, though he was at Maui at the time of his death. More than once, when conversing with us on the length of time the Missionaries had been in the Society. Islands, they have said, “Why did you not come here sooner ? Was it because we killed Captain Cook?”

We have sometimes asked them what inducement page 134 they had to steal the boat, when they possessed so many canoes of their own. They have generally answered, that they did not take it to transport themselves from one island to another, for their own canoes were more convenient, and they knew better how to manage them; but because they saw it was not sewed together, but fastened with nails. These they wanted,—therefore stole the boat, and broke it to pieces the next day, in order to obtain the nails to make fishhooks with. We have every reason to believe that this was the principal, if not the only motive, by which they were actuated in committing the depredation which ultimately led to such unhappy consequences. They prize nails very highly; and though we do not know that they ever went so far in their endeavours to obtain a more abundant supply, as the Society Islanders did, who actually planted them in the ground, hoping they would grow like potatoes, or any other vegetable, yet such is the value they still set on them, that the fishermen would rather receive a wrought nail, to make of it a fish-hook according to their own taste, than the best English-made fish-hook we could give them.

It has been supposed that the circumstance of Captain Cook's bones being separated, and the flesh taken from them, was evidence of a savage and unrelenting barbarity; but so far from this, it was the result of the highest respect they could shew him.

We may also mention here, the reason for which the remains of Captain Cook received, as was the case, the worship of a god. Among the kings who governed Hawaii, or an extensive district in the island, during what may in its chronology be page 135 called the fabulous age, was Rono or Orono; who, on some account, became offended with his wife, and murdered her; but afterwards lamented the act so much, as to induce a state of mental derangement. In this state he travelled through all the islands, boxing and wrestling with every one he met.

He subsequently set sail in a singularly shaped canoe for Tahiti, or a foreign country. After his departure he was deified by his countrymen, and annual games of boxing and wrestling were instituted to his honour. As soon as Captain Cook arrived, it was supposed, and reported, that the god Rono was returned; the priests clothed him with the sacred cloth worn only by the god, conducted him to their temples, sacrificed animals to propitiate his favour, and hence the people prostrated themselves before him as he walked through the villages. But when, in the attack made upon him, they saw his blood running, and heard his groans, they said, “No, this is not Rono.” Some, however, after his death, still supposed him to be Rono, and expected he would appear again. Some of his bones, his ribs, and breastbone, were page 136 considered sacred, as part of Rono, and deposited in a heiau (temple) dedicated to Rono, on the opposite side of the island. There religious homage was paid to them, and from thence they were annually carried in procession to several other heiaus, or borne by the priests round the island, to collect the offerings of the people, for the support of the worship of the god Rono. The bones were preserved in a small basket of wicker-work, completely covered over with red feathers; which in those days were considered to be the most valuable articles the natives possessed.

∗Captain King was led to suppose that the bones of the trunk were burnt with the flesh. Part of them probably were so disposed of, but not the whole. It appears that none of them were returned; for, describing those brought to Captain Clarke, which were all they received, he says, “When we arrived at the beach, Eappo came into the pinnace, and delivered to the captain the bones, wrapped up in a large quantity of fine new cloth, and covered with a spotted cloak of black and white feathers. We found in it both the hands of Captain Cook entire, which were well known, from a remarkable scar on one of them, that divided the thumb from the forefinger, the whole length of the metacarpal bone; the skull, but with the scalp separated from it, and the bones that form the face, wanting; the scalp, with the hair upon it cut short, and the ears adhering to it; the bones of both arms, with the skin of the fore-arms hanging to them; the thigh and leg bones joined together, but without the feet; the ligaments of the joints were entire; and the whole bore evident marks of having been in the fire, except the hands, which had the flesh left upon them, and were cut in several places, and crammed with salt, apparently with an intention of preserving them. The lower jaw and feet, which were wanting, Eappo told us, had been seized by different chiefs, and that Terreeoboo was using every means to recover them.” Speaking of Eappo's first visit after the death of Captin Cook, says, “We learned from this person, that the flesh of all the bodies of our people, together with the bones of the trunks, had been burnt.”—Captain King's Continuation of Cook's Voyages, vol. iii. pages 78, 79, and 80.

The Missionaries in the Society Islands had, by means of some Sandwich Islanders, been long acquainted with the circumstance of some of Capt. Cook's bones being preserved in one of their temples, and receiving religious worship; and since the time of my arrival, in company with the deputation from the London Missionary Society, in 1822, every endeavour has been made to learn, page 137 though without success, whether they were still in existence, and where they were kept. All those of whom inquiry has been made, have uniformly asserted, that they were formerly kept by the priests of Rono, and worshipped, but have never given any satisfactory information as to where they are now. Whenever we have asked the king, or Hevaheva the chief priest, or any of the chiefs, they have either told us they were under the care of those who had themselves said they knew nothing about them, or that they were now lost.

The best conclusion we may form is, that part of Captain Cook's bones were preserved by the priests, and were considered sacred by the people probably till the abolition of idolatry in 1819: that, at that period they were committed to the secret care of some chief, or deposited by the priests who had charge of them, in a cave, unknown to all besides themselves. The manner in which they were then disposed of, will, it is presumed, remain a secret, till the knowledge of it is entirely lost. The priests and chiefs always appear unwilling to enter into conversation on the subject, and desirous to avoid the recollection of the unhappy circumstance.

From the above account, as well as every other statement given by the natives, it is evident that the death of Captain Cook was unpremeditated, and resulted from their dread of his anger; a sense of danger, or the momentary impulse of passion, exciting them to revenge the death of the chief who had been shot.

Few intelligent visitors leave Hawaii without making a pilgrimage to the spot where he fell. We have often visited it, and, though several page 138 natives have been our guides on different occasions, they have invariably conducted us to the same place. A number of cocoa-nut trees grow near the shore, and there are perforations through two of them, which the natives say were produced by the balls fired from the boats on the occasion of his death.

We have never walked over these rocks without emotions of melancholy interest. The mind invariably reverts to the circumstances of their discovery; the satisfaction of the visitors; the surprise of the natives; the worship they paid to their discoverer; and the fatal catastrophe which here terminated his days; and, although in every event we acknowledge an overruling Providence, we cannot but lament the untimely end of a man whose discoveries contributed so much to the advancement of science, introduced us to an acquaintance with our antipodes, and led the way for the philosopher in his extended researches, the merchant in his distant commerce, and the Missionary in his errand of mercy to the unenlightened heathen at the ends of the earth.

∗It will be gratifying to the Christian reader to know, that, under the auspices of the governor of the island, and the friendly influence of the present chief of the place, Naihe, and his wife Kapiolani, who are steady, intelligent, discreet, and one, if not both, it is hoped, pious persons, a Missionary station has since been formed in this village; and that, on the shore of the same bay, and not far from the spot where this murderous affray took place, and where Captain Cook was killed, a school has been opened, and a house erected for Christian worship; and that the inhabitants of the neighbourhood are instructed in the elements of learning, and the peaceful principles of the Christian religion; and in their intelligence, cleanliness. order, industry, and good conduct, are exhibiting, in a most satisfactory manner, its benign effects.

page 139

Towards evening we examined another buoa similar to the one we had passed at Hokukano. On entering it, we found part of a canoe, several calabashes, some mats, tapa &c. and three small idols, about eighteen inches long, carefully wrapped in cloth. The man who accompanied us said, “My father lies here, don't disturb him; I have not yet done weeping for him, though he has been dead some years.” We assured him of our sympathy with him in the loss of his father; and having satisfied our curiosity, which he was willing to gratify by allowing us to enter the tomb, we returned to Kamakau's, in conversation with whom we passed the evening. He made many inquiries; such as, if he should bathe on the Sabbath, or eat fish that was caught or brought to him on that day; whether the same body would rise again at the last day; and if the spirit proceeded into the presence of God immediately on quitting the body.

During our journey to-day, we have numbered 443 houses, and eight heiaus. In the shade, the thermometer at sun-rise stood at 71.—at noon 76.—at sun-set 71.

Much rain fell during the night, but the following morning was bright and serene. It was the Sabbath, and a wide field of usefulness presented its claim to our attention on this holy day, which we felt was to be specially employed in exhibiting to the heathen around the unsearchable riches of Christ.

The village of Kaavaroa, where we lodged, stretched along the north shore of the bay. A number of villages with a considerable population were scattered on the southern shore, and it appeared our duty to go over and preach to them.

page 140

Mr. Bishop and myself, having procured a canoe from Kamakau, passed over the bay about nine a. m. Messrs. Thurston, Goodrich, and Har-wood, remained at Kaavaroa, where Mr. Thurston preached to attentive congregations, both in the morning and afternoon. The good chief Kamakau was so anxious that his people might profit by the word spoken, that he could not forbear interrupting the preacher, to request them to be attentive. After the conclusion of the services, he also addressed them, and exhorted them to be in earnest in seeking salvation through Jesus Christ; and during the day he was frequently engaged in affectionate conversation on religious subjects, with his people.

Landing on the southern shore of Kearake'kua, Mr. Bishop and I passed through the villages of Kiloa, Waipunaula, and Kalama, inviting the people, as we went along, to attend a religious exercise. At the latter place we entered a large house, built by Karaimoku's mother, Kamuaokalani, but at present belonging to Kekauonohi, his niece. It was the largest in the place, and was ninety-three feet by thirty in the inside. Here about three hundred people collected; and I preached to them from Psalm xxv. 8. After the service, they seemed desirous to enter into conversation on what they had heard. One man stood up, and called out aloud, “I desire Jehovah, the good Lord, for my God! but we have no one to tell us about him.” In the afternoon we sent the head man word to collect the people, that they might hear the word of God again. It rained, but a considerable number soon assembled in the large house, and I preached to them from 1 Tim. i. 15. Many kept arriving half an hour after the page 141 service had commenced, which induced me to recapitulate the discourse, yet they did not seem weary. When it was finished, the head man addressed the people, recommending them to attend to what they had heard, and proposed that henceforth they should abstain from all labour on the Sabbath, and pray to Jehovah and Jesus Christ; assuring them that such was his own intention. After answering several inquiries, and encouraging them to adopt the proposal that had been made by the head man, we bade them farewell, and proceeded to another village.

Two large heaps of ti root, (a variety of dracsena, from the sweet root of which an intoxicating drink is made,) and one or two vessels of sugarcane juice in a state of fermentation, preparatory to its being distilled, were, during the day, thrown away at this place, in consequence of some public remarks against intoxication. After leaving Kalama, we walked to Keei, a considerable village on the south point of Kearake'kua bay. As we approached it, we passed over the ground where, about forty years ago, Tamehameha encamped with his warriors, previous to his decisive battles with Kivaraao, the son of Taraiopu. On reaching the head man's house, about one hundred people soon collected before the door, and I preached to them from Psalm lxx. 4. concluding, as usual, with prayer. We then went into the house prepared for our lodging, which the good people soon made very comfortable, by spreading some cocoa-nut leaves on the ground, and covering them with a clean mat. The kind host then proposed to fetch a pig, and have it dressed for page 142 supper. We told him we had rather he would not do it on the Sabbath, but that, if agreeable, we should be glad to receive one in the morning. After family worship, we laid down on the mats to repose, thankful for the opportunities of doing good which we had enjoyed, and for the encouraging attention manifested by the people.