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Forest Vines to Snow Tussocks: The Story of New Zealand Plants

Notes and References

Notes and References

Chapter 1

1. Druce, A. P. 1984. 'Indigenous higher plants of N. W. Nelson and indigenous higher plants of New Zealand not in N. W. Nelson.' Circulated but unpublished checklist. Botany Division, D. S. I. R.

2. Broadleaf is a term applied to flowering plants (angiosperms), whose leaves are usually much wider than those of conifers.

3. Carlquist, S. 1970. Hawaii: A Natural History. Natural History Press, New York.

4. Carlquist, S. 1965. Island Life. Natural History Press, New York.

5. Ehrendorfer, F. 1979. 'Reproductive biology in island plants.' Pp. 293-306 in Plants and Islands, D. Bramwell (Ed.). Academic Press.

6. Lloyd, David G. 1985. 'Progress in understanding the natural history of New Zealand Plants.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 707-22.

7. Mabberley, D. J. 1979. 'Pachycaul plants and islands.' Pp. 259-277 in Plants and Islands, D. Bramwell (Ed.). Academic Press.

8. Gillett, G. W. 1972. 'The role of hybridization in the evolution of the Hawaiian flora.' Pp. 205-19 in Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Evolution, D. H. Valentine (Ed.). Academic Press.

9. Rattenbury, J. A. 1962. 'Cyclic hybridisation as survival mechanism in the New Zealand forest flora.' Evolution 16: 348-63.

10. Stevens, G. R. 1980. New Zealand Adrift. Reed, Wellington.

11. Godley, E. J. 1979. 'Flower Biology in New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 17: 441-66.

12. Bawa, Kamaljit S. 1979. 'Breeding systems of trees in a tropical wet forest.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 17: 521-4.

13. Connor, H. E. 1985. 'Biosystematics of higher plants in New Zealand 1965-1984.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 613-44.

14. Primack, Richard B. 1983. 'Insect pollination in the New Zealand mountain flora.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 21: 317-33.

15. Mildenhall, D. C. 1980. 'New Zealand late Cretaceous and Cenozoic plant biogeography: a contribution.' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 31: 197-233.

page 252

16. Craw, R. C. 1982. 'Phylogenetics, Areas, Geology and the Biogeography of Croizat: A Radical View.' Systematic Zoology 31: 304–16.

17. Melville, R. 1581. 'Vicarious plant distributions and paleogeography of the Pacific region.' Pp. 238-74 in Vicariance biogeography: a Critique, G. Nelson and D. E. Rosen (Eds.). Columbia University Press, New York.

18. Carey, S. Warren. 1983. 'The necessity for earth expansion.' Pp. 375-93 in Continental Drift—a symposium, Carey S. W. (Ed.). University of Tasmania.

Chapter 2

19. Guthrie-Smith, 1926. Tutira. The Story of a New Zealand Sheep Station (Ed. 2). Blackwood, Edinburgh.

20. Brown, G. S. 1960. 'A forester in New Zealand — First impressions.' Malayan Forester 23: 47-56.

21. Richards, P. W. 1952. The Tropical Rain Forest. An Ecological Study. Cambridge University Press.

22. Dawson, J. W. and Sneddon, B. V. 1969. 'The New Zealand lowland rain forest. A comparison with tropical rain forest.' Pacific Science: 131-47.

23. Dawson, J. W. 1986. 'Floristic Relationships of lowland rainforest phanerogams of New Zealand.' Telopea 2: 681-95.

24. Godley, E. J. 1985. 'Paths to maturity.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 687-706.

25. Philipson, W. R. 1964. 'Habit in relation to age in New Zealand trees.' Maheshwari commemorative volume, Journ. Ind. Bot. Soc. 42A: 167-79.

26. Friedmann, F. and Cadet, Th. 1976. 'Observations sur l'hetérophyllie dans les Iles Mascareignes.' Adansonia, ser. 2, 15 (4): 423-40.

27. Laing, R. M. and Blackwell, E. W. 1906. Plants of New Zealand. Whitcombe and Tombs, (Ed. 7, 1964).

28. Sampson, F. B. and McLean, Jean. 1965. 'A note on the occurrence of domatia on the underside of leaves in New Zealand plants.' N. Z. Journ. Bot., 3: 104-12.

29. Bussell, W. T. 1968. 'The growth of some New Zealand trees. 1. Growth in natural conditions.' N. Z. Journ. Bot.: 63-75.

30. Bussel, W. T. 1968. 'The growth of some New Zealand trees. 2. Effects of photoperiod and temperature.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 6: 76-85.

31. Russel, R. S. 1936. 'The mechanism of leaf fall in certain New Zealand trees.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 65: 407-21.

Chapter 3

32. Harrison-Smith, J. L. 1938. 'The kauri as a host tree.' N. Z. Journ. For. 4: 173-177.

33. Rhizomes are horizontal stems on or below the surface of a substrate, usually the ground.

34. Sporangia are organs containing spores.

35. Holloway, J. E. 1923. 'Studies in the New Zealand Hymenophyllaceae.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 54: 577-618.

36. Bird, J. W. 1916. 'Observations on the lianes of the ancient forest of the Canterbury Plains of New Zealand.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 48: 315-53.

37. Dawson, J. W. 1967. 'A growth habit comparison of Metrosideros and Ficus.' Tuatara 15: 16-24.

38. MacMillan, B. H. 1973. 'Biological flora of New Zealand 7: Ripogonum scandens. Supplejack, Kareao.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 10: 641-72.

>39. This is a curious phenomenon also to be found in the equally variable leaves of juvenile pokaka (Elaeocarpus hookerianus), juvenile Pittosporum obcordatum, seedling lancewood (Pseudopanax crassifolius) and others.

40. Eagle, Audrey. 1982. Eagle's Trees and Shrubs of New Zealand. Second Series. Collins.

41. Oliver, W. R. B. 1930. 'New Zealand epiphytes.' Journ. Ecol. 18: 1-50.

42. Hatch, E. D. 1948. 'The epiphytic orchids of New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 78: 101-5.

43. Belkin, J. N. 1968. 'Mosquito studies Vll. The Culicidae of New Zealand.' Contr. Amer. Ento. Inst. 3: 1-180.

44. Kirk, T. 'On the Botany of the Thames gold fields.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 2: 89-100.

45. Dawson, J. W. 1966. 'Vegetative features of Griselinia lucida. A New Zealand shrub epiphyte.' Tuatara 14: 121-9.

46. Beddie, A. D. 1953. 'Root behaviour in Metrosideros.' Wgtn. Bot. Soc. Bull. 26: 2-6.

47. Druce, A. P. 1971. 'Uncle Rimus and Brer Ratas.' Bull. Wgtn. Bot. Soc. 37: 59-62.

48. Zotov, V. D. 1948. 'Rata the killer.' Tuatara 1: 36-8.

49. Dawson, J. W. 1985. 'Metrosideros bartletti (Myrtaceae) a new species from North Cape, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 607-10.

50. Pope, A. 1924. 'The role of the tree fern in the New Zealand bush.' N. Z. Journ. Sci. Tech. 7: 52-61.

51. Page, C. N. and Brownsey, P. J. 1986. 'Tree fern skirts — A defence against climbers and large epiphytes.' Journ. Ecol. 74: 787-97.

52. Zahlbruckner, A., Keissler, K. and Allan H. H. 1928. 'The epiphyllous lichens of Kitchener Park, Feilding, New Zealand.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 59: 304-14.

53. Fineran, B. A. 1974. 'Parasitic flowering plants.' New Zealand's Nature Heritage 23: 637-41.

54. Moore, L. B. 1940. 'The structure and life history of the root parasite Dactylanthus taylori. N. Z. Journ. Sci. Tech. 21B: 206-24.

55. Philipson, W. R. 'Some observations on root parasitism in New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 87: 1-3.

56. Barlow, B. A. 'A revision of the Loranthaceae of Australia and New Zealand.' Aust. Journ. Bot. 14: 421-99.

57. Campbell, E. O. 1962. 'The mycorrhiza of Gastrodia cunninghamii.' Trans.; Roy. Soc. N. Z. Bot. 1: 289-96.

58. Campbell, E. O. 1968. 'An investigation of Thismia rodwayi and its associated fungus.' Trans.; Roy. Soc. N. Z. Bot. 3: 209-19

page 253

59. Chandler, M. E.J. 1964. 'The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England. 4. A Summary and Survey of Findings.' London.

Chapter 4

60. Tanekaha is absent from the southern North Island.

61. The nikau reaches its southern limit on the Chatham Islands at 44°S.

62. Greenwood, R. M. and Atkinson, I. A. E. 1977. 'Evolution of the divaricating plants of New Zealand in relation to moa browsing.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 24: 21-33.

63. Cockayne, L. 1928. 'The Vegetation of New Zealand — Die Vegetation der Erde XIV.' Engelmann, Leipzig (Ed. 2).

64. McKelvey, P. J. 1963. 'The synecology of the West Taupo indigenous forests.' N. Z. Forest Service Bull. 14. Government Printer, Wellington.

65. McKelvey, P. J. 1973. 'The pattern of the Urewera Forests.' Forest Research Institute, Technical paper 59.

66. Cameron, R. J. 1955. 'Mosaic or cyclical regeneration in North Island podocarp forests.' N. Z. Journ. For. 7: 55-65.

67. Beveridge, A. E. 1973. 'Regeneration of podocarps in a central North Island forest.' N. Z. Journ. For. 18: 23-35.

68. Poole, A. L. 1937. 'A brief ecological survey of the Pukekura State Forest, South Westland.' N. Z. Journ. For. 4: 78-85.

69. Holloway, J. T. 1954. 'Forests and climates in the South Island of New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 82: 329-410.

70. Wardle P. 1963. 'The regeneration gap of New Zealand gymnosperms.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 1: 301-15.

71. Robbins, R. G. 1962. 'The podocarp-broadleaf forests of New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. Botany I: 33-75.

72. Havel, J. J. 1971. 'The Araucaria forests of New Guinea and their regenerative capacity.' Journ. Ecol. 59: 203-14.

73. Whitmore, T. C. 1966. 'The social status of Agathis in a rain forest in Melanesia.' Journ. Ecol. 54: 285-301.

74. Veblen, T. T. and Stewart, G. H. 1982. 'On the conifer regeneration gap in New Zealand: The dynamics of Libocedrus bidwillii stands on the South Island.' Journ. Ecol. 70: 413-36.

75. Whitmore, T. C. 1975. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Clarendon, Oxford.

76. Jones, E. W. 1956. 'Ecological studies on the rain forest of Southern Nigeria IV. The plateau forest of the Okumu Forest Reserve.' Journ. Ecol. 44: 83-117.

77. The terrestrial form is probably a distinct species. (See Eagle's Trees and Shrubs of New Zealand. Second Series).

78. Bieleski, R. L. 1959. 'Factors affecting growth and distribution of the kauri.' Aust. Journ. Bot. 7: 252- 94.

79. Esler, A. E. and Rumball, P. J. 1975. 'Gumland Vegetation at Kaikohe, Northland, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 13: 425-36.

80. Kumarahou flowers rubbed together with water form a sort of lather.

81. Cheeseman, T. F. 1896. 'On the flora of the North Cape District.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 29: 333-85.

82. Silver pine is replaced by yellow silver pine (Lagarostrobus intermedium) in western Southland and Stewart Island.

83. Mark, A. F. and Smith, P. M. F. 1975. 'A lowland vegetation sequence in South Westland: Pakihi bog to mixed beech-podocarp forest. Part. I: The principal strata.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 22: 76-89.

84. Rigg, H. H. 1962. 'The pakihi bogs of Westport, New Zealand.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. Botany I: 91-108.

85. Baylis, G. T. S. 1948. 'Vegetation of Great Island, Three Kings group. Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus. 3: 239-52.

86. Oliver, W. R. B. 1948. 'The Flora of the Three Kings Islands.' Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus. 3: 211-88

87. Wright, A. E. 1983. 'Conservation status of the Three Kings Islands flora in 1982.' Rec. Auck. Inst. Mus. 20: 175-84.

Chapter 5

88. Wardle, John A. 1984. The New Zealand Beeches. Ecology, Utilisation and Management. N. Z. Forest Service.

89. Nothofagus means 'false beech'.

90. Poole, A. L. 1958. 'Studies of the New Zealand Noth-ofagus species III. The entire-leaved species.' Trans. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 85: 551-64.

91. Poole, A. L. 1948. 'The flowering of beech.' N. Z. Journ. For. 5: 422-42.

92. Preest, D. S. 1963. 'A note on the dispersal characteristics of the seed of the New Zealand podocarps and beeches, and their biogeographical significance.' Pp. 415-24 in Pacific Basin Biogeography, 10th Pacific Science Congress. Gressitt, J. T. (Ed.). Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.

93. Cranwell, L. M. 1939. 'Southern-beech pollens.' Rec. Auckl. Inst. Mus. 2: 175-96.

94. Black beech and its relative mountain beech are both tolerant of dry conditions, but can also grow on poorly drained swampy sites. This is not as anomalous as it seems, as poorly drained soils are considered to be 'physiologically dry' as the lack of free oxygen greatly reduces the water absorption efficiency of the roots.

95. Wardle, P. 1965. 'A comparison of alpine timberlines in New Zealand and North America.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 3: 113-35.

96. Wardle, P. 1971. 'An explanation for alpine timberlines.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 9: 371-402.

97. Wardle, P. 1964. 'Facets of the distribution of forest vegetation in New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 2: 352-66.

page 254

98. Wardle, P. 1980. 'Ecology and distribution of silver beech (Nothofagus menziesii) in the Paringa district, South Westland, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 23-34.

99. Dansereau, P. 1964. 'Six problems in New Zealand vegetation.' Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 114-40.

Chapter 6

100. Cockayne, L. 1912. 'Observations concerning evolution, derived from ecological studies in New Zealand.' Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. 44: 1-50.

101. Cockayne, L. 1899. 'An enquiry into the seedling forms of New Zealand phanerogams and their development. Part II.' Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. 31: 361-98.

102. A partly comparable situation exists in south-west Madagascar,103 where in arid, but foggy, coastal sites there is an abundance of twiggy, densely interlaced, small-leaved shrubs belonging to genera from a number of different families. Some of the shrubs are spiny and some have zig-zag branching and short shoots as in New Zealand. The small-leaved shrubs of Madagascar are not related to those of New Zealand but probably derive from tree and shrub relatives with much larger leaves in the tropical rain forests.

103. Koechlin J., Guillaumet J-L and Morat, Ph. 1974. Flore et Vegetation de Madagascar. Vaduz: Cramer.

104. Greenwood and Atkinson distinguish 'scrub' and 'shrubland' thus: '… scrub is distinguished from forest by having most stems less than 10 cm d. b. h. Shrubland is distinguished from scrub by having a woody cover of less than 80 per cent.'

105. Allan, H. H. 1924. 'On the hybridity of Coprosma cunninghamii. ' N. Z. Journ. Sci. Tech. 6: 310-18.

106. Went, F. W. 1971. 'Parallel evolution.' Taxon 20: 197-226.

107. Diels, L. 1897. 'Vegetations Biologie von Neu-See-land.' Bot. Jahrb. 22: 202-300.

108. Wardle, P. 1963. 'Evolution and distribution of the New Zealand flora as affected by Quarternary climates.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 1: 3-17.

109. Godley, E. J. 1979. 'Leonard Cockayne and evolution.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 17: 197-215.

110. McGlone, M. S. and Webb, C. J. 1981. 'Selective forces influencing the evolution of divaricating plants.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 4: 20-28.

111. Muehlenbeckia astonii and a few divaricate species of Olearia are deciduous.

112. Cain, S. A., Castro, G. M. de O. et al. 1956. 'Applications of some phytosociological techniques to Brazilian rain forest. Part III. Life-form and leaf size classes.' Amer. Journ. Bot. 43: 928-41.

113. Moas were flightless birds, some species of which were larger than emus or ostriches. They became extinct a few centuries before the arrival of Europeans.

114. Burrows, C. J. 1980. 'Some empirical information on the diet of moas.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 125-30.

115. Atkinson, I. A. E., and Greenwood, R. M. 1980. 'Divaricating plants and moa browsing: a reply.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 165-66.

116. Lowry, J. B. 1980. 'Evolution of divaricating plants in New Zealand in relation to moa browsing.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 165.

Chapter 7

117. Molloy B. P. J., Burrows C. J. et al. 1963. 'Distribution of sub fossil forest remains in eastern South Island.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 1: 68-77.

118. McGlone, M. S. and Moar, N. T. 1977. 'The Ascarina decline and post-glacial climatic change in New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 15: 485-9.

119. Molloy, B. P. J. 1969. 'Recent history of the vegetation.' Pp. 340-60 in The Natural History of Canterbury. A. H. & A. W. Reed.

120. Connor, H. E. and Macrae, A. H. 1969. 'Montane and subalpine tussock grasslands in Canterbury.' Pp. 168-204 in The Natural History of Canterbury. A. H. & A. W. Reed.

121. McGlone, M. S. and Bathgate, J. L. 1983. 'Vegetation and climate history of the Longwood Range, South Island, New Zealand, 12000 BP. to the present.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 21: 293-315.

122. McGlone, M. S. 1978. 'Forest destruction by early Polynesians, Lake Poukawa, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand.' Journ. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 8: 275-81.

123. Calder, D. M. 1961. 'Plant ecology of subalpine shingle river beds in Canterbury, New Zealand.' Journ. Ecol. 49: 581-94.

124. an Steenis, C. G. G. J. 1981. Rheophytes of the World. Sijthoff and Noordhoff, The Netherlands.

125. Moore, L. M. and Adams, N. M. 1963. Plants of the New Zealand Coast. Paul's Book Arcade, Hamilton.

126. Molloy, B. P. J. and Simpson, M. J. A. 'Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Pachystegia (Compositae). A progress report.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 1-3.

127. Betts, M. Winifred. 1918. 'Notes on the autecology of certain plants of the peridotite belt, Nelson. Part 1. Structure of some of the plants. (No. 1).' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 50: 230-43.

128. Druce, A. P., Bartlett, J. K. and Gardner, R. O. 1979. 'Indigenous vascular plants of the serpentine area of Surville Cliffs and adjacent cliff tops, north-west of North Cape, New Zealand.' Tane 25: 187-206.

129. Healy, A. J. and Edgar, Elizabeth. 1980. Flora of New Zealand, Volume 3. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous and Spathaceous Monocotyledons. Government Printer, Wellington.

130. Healy, A. J. 1969. 'The adventive flora of Canterbury.' Pp. 261-333 in The Natural History of Canterbury. A. H. and A. W. Reed.

131. Armstrong, J. F. 1872. 'On the naturalised plants of the Province of Canterbury.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 4: 284-90.

132. Cockayne, L. 1967. New Zealand Plants and their story. 4th Ed. (Ed. E. J. Godley.) Government Printer, Wellington.

page 255

133. There may also be a fairly wide shrubland belt where the beech treeline is locally depressed as a result either (a) of persistent fogginess with consequent light and temperature reduction, or (b) of temperature inversion effects at U-shaped glacial valley heads.

Chapter 8

134. Wardle, P. 1977. 'Plant communities of Westland National Park and neighbouring lowland and coastal areas.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 15: 323-98.

135. Burrows, C. J. et al. 1979. 'New Zealand heathlands.' Pp. 339-64 in Ecosystems of the world. 9A. Heathlands and related Shrublands. Descriptive studies. Elsevier.

136. Mark A. F. 1980. 'Progress in tussock grasslands research since Cockayne's day.' Proc. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 108: 122-42.

137. Mark, A. F. 1974. 'Snow tussock grasslands.' N. Z Nature Heritage 35: 976-81. Hamlyns.

138. Dawson, J. W. and LeComte, J. R. 1978. 'Research on Aciphylla. A progress report.' Tuatara 23: 49-67.

139. Fisher, F. J. F. 1965. 'The Alpine Ranunculi of New Zealand.' Bull. N. Z. D. S. I. R. 165: 1-192.

140. Given, D. R. 1969. 'A synopsis of infrageneric categories in Celmisia. ' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 7: 400-18.

141. What is generally called a flower in the Compositae is really a very condensed inflorescence (capitulum) comprising many small flowers.

142. Gibson, Neil and Kirkpatrick, J. B. 1985. 'A comparison of cushion plant communities of New Zealand and Tasmania.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 549-66.

143. Cushion bogs are also found at sea level on the south coast of the South Island near Invercargill.

144. Wilson, H. D. 1978. Wild Plants of Mount Cook National Park. Field Guide Publication.

145. Mark, A. F. and Bliss, L. C. 1970. 'The high-alpine vegetation of Central Otago, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 8: 381-451.

Chapter 9

146. Wardle, P. 1968. 'Evidence for an indigenous pre-Quaternary element in the mountain flora of New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 6: 120-5.

147. Fleming, C. A. 1963. 'Age of the alpine biota.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 10: 15-18.

148. Raven, Peter H. 1973. 'Evolution of subalpine and alpine plant groups in New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 11: 177-200.

149. Wardle, P. 1978. 'Origin of the New Zealand mountain flora, with special reference to trans-Tasman relationships.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 16: 535-50.

150. Dawson, J. W. 1971. 'Relationships of the New Zealand Umbelliferae.' Pp. 43-61, in The Biology and Chemistry of the Umbelliferae, V. H. Heywood (Ed.). Academic Press.

151. Webb, C. J. and Druce, A. P. 1984. 'A natural intergeneric hybrid, Aciphylla squarrosa x Gingidia montana, and the frequency of hybrids among other New Zealand apioid Umbelliferae.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 22: 403-11.

152. Webb, C. J. 1986. 'Breeding systems and relationships Gingidia and related Australasian Apiaceae in Gingidia and related Australasian Apiaceae.' Pp. 383-399, in Flora and Fauna of Alpine Australasia: Ages and Origins. Bryan A. Barlow. (Ed.). C. S. I. R. O., Canberra, Australia.

153. Given, David R. 1973. 'Damnamenia gen. nov. A new subantarctic genus allied to Celmisia Cass. (Astereae — Compositae).' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 11: 785-96.

Chapter 10

154. Taylor, B. W. 1955. 'The Flora, Vegetation and Soils of Macquarie Island.' Aust. Nat. Res. Exp. Rep. Ser. B. (II), Botany: 1-192

155. Seppelt, R. D., Copson, G. R. and Brown, M. J. 1984. 'Vascular flora and vegetation of Macquarie Island.' Tasmanian Naturalist 78: 7-12.

156. Gillham, M. E. 1967. Sub-antarctic Sanctuary. Summertime on Macquarie Island. Gollancz, London.

157. Puccinellia macquariensis was also thought to be endemic, but has recently been discovered on Campbell Island.

158. Wace, N. M. 1960. 'The botany of the southern oceanic islands.' Proc. Roy. Soc. land., Ser. B, 152: 475-90.

159. Some seeds can float in the sea and arrive unharmed on distant shores. One such was picked up on the coast of Macquarie and when germinated in Australia turned out to be Caesalpinia bonduc, widespread in tropical coastal habitats. It could not have survived on Macquarie, but at least it got there.

160. Meurk, Colin D. 1982. 'Supplementary notes on plant distributions of the subantarctic Auckland Islands.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 20: 373-80.

161. Johnson, P. N. and Campbell, D. J. 1975. 'Vascular plants of the Auckland Islands.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 13: 665-720.

162. Cockayne, L. 1909. 'The ecological Botany of the subantarctic islands of New Zealand.' Pp. 182-235 in The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, Vol. 1. Government Printer, Wellington.

163. Godley, E. J. 1965. 'Notes on the vegetation of the Auckland Islands.' Proc. N. Z. Ecol. Soc. 12: 57-63.

164. Oliver, R. L. and Sorensen, J. H. 1951. 'Botanical investigations on Campbell Island.' Cape Exped. Ser. Bull. No. 7. D. S. I. R., Wellington.

165. Meurk, C. D. 1982. 'Regeneration of subantarctic plants on Campbell Island following exclusion of sheep.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 5: 51-58.

166. Williams, G. R. 1982. 'Species-area and similar relationships of insects and vascular plants on the southern outlying islands of New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 5: 86-96.

page 256

167. Cheeseman, T. F. 1909. 'On the systematic Botany of the islands to the south of New Zealand.' Pp. 389- 471, in The Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, Vol. 2. Government Printer, Wellington.

168. Wright, A. C. S. 1959. 'Soils of Chatham Island.' N. Z. Soil Bureau Bull. 19.

169. Cockayne, L. 1902. 'A short account of the plant covering of Chatham Island.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 34: 243- 325.

170. Kelly, G. C. 1983. 'Distribution and ranking of remaining areas of indigenous vegetation in the Chatham Islands, with site notes and introductory text.' Dept. of Lands and Survey Land Resources Inventory map sheet with extended legend.

171. Given, David R. and Williams Peter A. 1984. Conservation of Chatham Island Flora and Vegetation. Botany Division, D. S. I. R.

172. There is, however, a large endemic ground Astelia, A. chathamica, which grows in moist sites in the south of the main island.

173. Sykes, W. R. 1977. Kermadec Islands Flora. 'An annotated check list.' D. S. I. R. Bull. 219: 1-296.

174. Oliver, W. R. B. 1910. 'The Vegetation of the Kermadec Islands.' Trans. N. Z. Inst. 42: 118-75.

175. Laing, R. M. 1915. 'A revised list of the Norfolk Island flora with some notes on the species.' Trans. proc. N. Z. Inst. 41: 1-39.

176. Turner, J. S., Smithers, C. W. and Hoogland, R. D. 1968. The Conservation of Norfolk Island. Australian Conservation Foundation. Special Publication Number I.

177. Oliver, W. R. B. 1896. 'The vegetation and flora of Lord Howe Island.' Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. 49: 94- 161.

178. Rodd, A. N. and Pickard, John 1983. 'Census of vascular flora of Lord Howe Island.' Cunninghamia 1: 267-80.

179. Hutton, Ian, 1986. Lord Howe Island. Conservation Press, Canberra.

180. Green, P. S. 1970. 'Notes relating to the floras of Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands, I.' Journ. Ann. Arb. 51: 204-20.

181. Green, P. S. 1979. 'Observations on the phyto-geography of the New Hebrides, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island.' Pp. 41-53 in Plants and Islands, D. Bramwell (Ed.). Academic Press.

Chapter 11

182. Beadle, Noel C. W. 1981. The Vegetation of Australia. Cambridge Univ. Press.

183. Groves, R. H. (Ed.). 1981. Australian Vegetation. Cambridge Univ. Press.

184. Webb, L. J. 1959. 'A physiognomic classification of Australian rain forests.' Journ. Ecol. 47: 551-70.

185. Harris, Thistle Y. 1970. Alpine Plants of Australia. Angus and Robertson.

186. Johns, R. J. 1982. 'Plant Zonation.' Pp. 309-30 in Biogeography and Ecology in New Guinea. Vol. 1, L. Gressitt (Ed.). Junk.

187. Wardle, P. 1973. 'New Guinea: our tropical counterpart.' Tuatara 20: 113-24,

188. Schmid, Maurice, 1981. Fleurs et Plantes de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Les Editions du Pacifique.

189. Morat, Ph., Veillon, J. -M., and MacKee, H. S. 1986. 'Floristic relationships of New Caledonian rainforest phanerogams.' Telopea 2: 631-79.

190. Morat Ph., Jaffre, T., Veillon, J. M., and MacKee, H. S. 1986. 'Affinités floristiques et considérations sur I'origine des maquis miniers de la Nouvelle-Calé- donie.' Bull. Mus. natn. Hist, nat., Paris, 4e ser., 8, sect. B, Adansonia: 133-82.

191. Godley, E. J. 1960. 'The botany of southern Chile in relation to New Zealand and the Subantarctic' Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B., 152: 457-75.

192. McQueen, D. R. 1976. 'The ecology of Nothofagus and associated vegetation in South America.' Tuatara 22: 38-68.

193. Moore, D. M. 1975. 'The alpine flora of Tierra del Fuego.' Anal. Inst. Bot. Cav. 32: 419-40.

194. Goodspeed, T Harper., 1950. Plant Hunters in the Andes. Robert Hale, London.

195. Wace, N. M. 1965. 'Vascular Plants.' Pp. 201-66 in Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica, van Dye, P. and van Mieghem, J. (Eds.). Junk.

Chapter 12

196. Drake, Hilary and Burrows, C. J. 1980. 'The influx of potential macrofossils into Lady Lake, north Westland, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 18: 257-74.

197. Pocknall, D J. 1980. 'Modern pollen rain and Aranuian vegetation from Lady Lake, north Westland, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 18: 275-84.

198. Kemp, Elizabeth M. 1978. 'Tertiary climatic evolution and vegetation history in the southeast Indian Ocean region.' Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 4: 169-208.

199. Crook, Keith A. W. 1981. 'The break-up of the Australian-Antarctic segment of Gondwanaland.' Pp. 3-14 in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast (Ed.). Junk.

200. Dettmann, Mary, E. 1981. 'The Cretaceous flora.' Pp. 357-75 in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, Allen Keast (Ed.). Junk.

201. The family Araucariaceae is still represented in New Zealand but with only one species, Agathis australis (kauri). Macrofossils of Araucaria have also been discovered, but as pollen of this genus and Agathis is very similar it is unclear when Araucaria became extinct in New Zealand.

202. Martin, Helene, A. 1981. 'The Tertiary flora.' Pp. 393-426 in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, Allen Keast (Ed.). Junk.

203. Smith, J. M. B. (Ed.) 1982. A History of Australasian Vegetation. McGraw-Hill.

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204. Fleming, C. A. 1979. The Geological History of New Zealand and its Life. Auckland University Press.

205. Mildenhall, D. C. and Pocknall, D. T. 1984. 'Palaeobotanical evidence for changes in Miocene and Pliocene climates in New Zealand.' Pp. 159-71 in Late Cainozoic Climates of the Southern Hemisphere, J. C. Vogel (Ed.). Sasqua International Symposium. A. A. Balkema, Netherlands.

206. Pocknall, D. T. and Mildenhall, D. C. 1984. 'Late Oligocene — early Miocene spores and pollen from Southland, New Zealand.' N. Z. Geol. Surv. Paleontol. Bull. 51.

207. Campbell, J. D. 1985. 'Casuarinaceae, Fagaceae, and other plant megafossils from Kaikorai Leaf Beds (Miocene), Kaikorai Valley, Dunedin, New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 311-20.

208. McGlone, M. S. 1985. 'Plant biogeography and the late Cenozoic history of New Zealand.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 23: 723-49.

209. Webb, L. J., Tracey, J. G. and Jessup, L. W. 1986. 'Recent evidence for autochthony of Australian tropical and subtropical rainforest floristic elements.' Telopea 2: 575-89.