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Forest Vines to Snow Tussocks: The Story of New Zealand Plants

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

100. Cockayne, L. 1912. 'Observations concerning evolution, derived from ecological studies in New Zealand.' Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. 44: 1-50.

101. Cockayne, L. 1899. 'An enquiry into the seedling forms of New Zealand phanerogams and their development. Part II.' Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. 31: 361-98.

102. A partly comparable situation exists in south-west Madagascar,103 where in arid, but foggy, coastal sites there is an abundance of twiggy, densely interlaced, small-leaved shrubs belonging to genera from a number of different families. Some of the shrubs are spiny and some have zig-zag branching and short shoots as in New Zealand. The small-leaved shrubs of Madagascar are not related to those of New Zealand but probably derive from tree and shrub relatives with much larger leaves in the tropical rain forests.

103. Koechlin J., Guillaumet J-L and Morat, Ph. 1974. Flore et Vegetation de Madagascar. Vaduz: Cramer.

104. Greenwood and Atkinson distinguish 'scrub' and 'shrubland' thus: '… scrub is distinguished from forest by having most stems less than 10 cm d. b. h. Shrubland is distinguished from scrub by having a woody cover of less than 80 per cent.'

105. Allan, H. H. 1924. 'On the hybridity of Coprosma cunninghamii. ' N. Z. Journ. Sci. Tech. 6: 310-18.

106. Went, F. W. 1971. 'Parallel evolution.' Taxon 20: 197-226.

107. Diels, L. 1897. 'Vegetations Biologie von Neu-See-land.' Bot. Jahrb. 22: 202-300.

108. Wardle, P. 1963. 'Evolution and distribution of the New Zealand flora as affected by Quarternary climates.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 1: 3-17.

109. Godley, E. J. 1979. 'Leonard Cockayne and evolution.' N. Z. Journ. Bot. 17: 197-215.

110. McGlone, M. S. and Webb, C. J. 1981. 'Selective forces influencing the evolution of divaricating plants.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 4: 20-28.

111. Muehlenbeckia astonii and a few divaricate species of Olearia are deciduous.

112. Cain, S. A., Castro, G. M. de O. et al. 1956. 'Applications of some phytosociological techniques to Brazilian rain forest. Part III. Life-form and leaf size classes.' Amer. Journ. Bot. 43: 928-41.

113. Moas were flightless birds, some species of which were larger than emus or ostriches. They became extinct a few centuries before the arrival of Europeans.

114. Burrows, C. J. 1980. 'Some empirical information on the diet of moas.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 125-30.

115. Atkinson, I. A. E., and Greenwood, R. M. 1980. 'Divaricating plants and moa browsing: a reply.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 165-66.

116. Lowry, J. B. 1980. 'Evolution of divaricating plants in New Zealand in relation to moa browsing.' N. Z. Journ. Ecol. 3: 165.