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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Taranaki, Hawke's Bay & Wellington Provincial Districts]



Wairoa is situated in the county of the same name, eighty miles north-east from Napier by road, and forty miles by sea. The town is built on the western bank of the Wairoa river, which is navigable for small craft. The surrounding country is chiefly native land of a rough and broken nature, but provides good grazing for stock. There is a weekly mail by steamer, and also a telegraph station, and post, money order, and savings bank offices. The “Wairoa Guardian” is the local paper. There is a weekly coach service between Napier and Wairoa, leaving Napier on Tuesdays, and Wairoa on Thursdays, and also a bi-weekly coach service to Gisborne. The river Wairoa separates the township from North Clyde, and is spanned by a large iron and steel cylinder bridge, having a draw span in the centre. The river is very deep in places, and navigable for many miles for small steamers and light craft. Wairoa posses a library, three churches—Anglican, Presbyterian and Catholic—two public halls, a court-house, a school, a Caledonian Society, a Foresters' Lodge, and racing, cycling, and bowling clubs. The Morere Hot Springs are situated near Wairoa, and are well worth a visit.

Clyde Town Board . The population of the town district is 750, and the capital value of property is £60,000, on which there is a general rate of ¾d in the pound. The unimproved value is £28,000. Members of the Board for the year 1905–6 are: Messrs J. Corkill (chairman), J. Mullins, P. Wilson, V. Winter, and Dr. Somerville. Town Clerk, etc., Mr. J. W. Sargisson. The Board meets on the first Monday in each month, and is elected biennially.

Mr. Joseph Corkill, Chairman of the Clyde Town Board, member of the Wairoa Harbour Board, and formerly its chairman, is one of the most progressive and energetic men in the district. He was a warm supporter of the river improvement scheme, and it is mainly due to his efforts that active steps were taken in the matter. He was born in the Isle of Man, where he was educated, and was apprenticed for three years to a joiner and cabinet-maker. He left his native land for New Zealand in 1884, and for some time worked as a journeyman in Dunedin. After removing to the North Island he worked at New Plymouth for Mr. Fowler, builder, and afterwards with Messrs Weir and Sellar, of Hastings, and with most of the large builders in Napier. He afterwards went to Wairoa, and established himself in business as a cabinet-maker, ironmonger, etc., in conjunction with Mr. P. Wilson, who retired from the firm in 1889. Mr. Corkill takes a lively interest in all public matters. He is band-master of the Wairoa Band, which he organised many years ago. Mr. Corkill is married; and has two children.

Wairoa Bridge.

Wairoa Bridge.

Wairoa Harbour Board . This Board manages the affairs of the port of Wairoa at Clyde, in the county of Wairoa. There is communication with Napier, forty miles distant, by means of small steamers. The depth of water is from seven to nine feet at high tide, and the board's revenue is derived from pilotage, port charges, and a harbour improvement rate. Over 3,000 bales of wool are shipped from Wairoa during the season, and the s.s. “Tangaroa” makes frequent trips to and from Napier. The present members of the Board are: Messrs A. Sinclair (chairman), W. Moloney, J. Corkill, G. Britnell, T. J. Tunks, A. Knight, and John Davey. Secretary, Mr. J. Scott. Pilot, Mr. David Jones. Some years ago the Board had a Bill passed through Parliament to enable it to borrow £5,000 for river conservation page 423 works, and the loan was duly sanetioned by a poll of ratepayers, with only five votes against it. Thereupon the money was raised at five per cent, and tenders were called for the works, the expenditure on which was limited to £5,000. The Government also gave a subsidy of £2,000, making a total expenditure of £7,000. Unfortunately the benefit derived from these works was not in accordance with expectations. Proposals were subsequently put before the rate payers for a further loan of £25,000, which proposals were rejected by a small majority.

Mr. William Moloney, J.P., member of the Wairoa Harbour Board, was for several years a member of the Wairoa County Council, was chairman of the council when the Wairoa bridge was completed, and in his official capacity declared it open for traffic in the year 1887. He has also been chairman of the Harbour Board, and was a member of the old Town Board and other public bodies. He was born in Queen's County, Ireland, in 1840, is the son of Mr. James Moloney, and was educated and brought up to farming in his native county. Mr. Moloney left the Old Land in 1860 for Melbourne, and spent four years on the New South Wales gold-field, and two years on the Otago and Westland fields. He settled in Wairoa in the year 1866, on a farm near his present holding, and had the misfortune to be turned off in 1869 by Te Kooti. He then joined the Wairoa Rifles, and was present at the Lake Waikare-Moana skirmishes. In 1872 Mr. Moloney started business as a storekeeper in Wairoa, where he has been very successful. He has taken an active interest in public and social matters generally, and was one of the founders of the Roman Catholic Church in Wairoa.

Mr. T. J. Tunks, member of the Wairoa Harbour Board, resides in Frasertown, and was one of the first to take up land in the Waikare-Moana district. He was born in Warwickshire, England, in the early “fifties,” came to New Zealand with his parents by the ship “Northumberland,” in the year 1861, and was educated at Prince Albert College. In 1870 he left Auckland for Wairoa, and after spending five years in commercial pursuits, he acquired property at Waikare-Moana. As county councillor, chairman of school, licensing, library, and church committees, etc., Mr. Tunks has taken an active part in public matters, and is highly esteemed throughout the district.

The Wairoa County Council was incorporated under the Counties Act in the year 1876, with Mr. George Burton as its first chairman. The council meets at Clyde, the county town, on the second Friday in each month, and members are elected triennially. The boundaries are: on the north by a line from the Paritu Bluff to the mouth of the Ruakituri river, and from the Ruakituri to its source; on the west by the Whakatane and East Taupo counties; on the south by the Taupo road and the Pakuratahi block; and on the east by the sea coast. The Wairoa County has an area of 1,887 square miles; a population of 1,773; the capital value is £1,384,645; unimproved value, £915,554; total area of land under cultivation, 330,904 acres; cattle, 12,435; sheep, 536,913; rates collected, £3,494; licenses, tolls, rents, and other sources, £263; rates, ¾d in the pound, with special rates in various parts of the county. The members of the council are: Messrs Alexander Sinclair (chairman), C. C. P. Brandon, W. T. Briggs, George Britnell, E. R. Dampney, Joseph Powdrell, D. E. O'Neil, R. B. Sim, and William Tait; Clerk, etc., Mr. William F. Shaw.

Mr. George Britnell, member of the Wairoa County Council, is also a member of the Wairoa Harbour Board. He was formerly chairman of the Clyde Town Board, held that position for some time, and did much for the advancement of the Wairoa district. He was born in Buckinghamshire, England, went to Australia in 1864 with his parents, and for some years resided in Victoria. Brought up to commercial pursuits, Mr. Britnell eventually started business in Creswick, Victoria, which he carried on successfully for many years. In 1899 he came to New Zealand, and took up land in the Taranaki district, where he remained until commencing business in Wairoa in 1893. After settling in Wairoa Mr. Britnell married one of the oldest residents in the district, a lady who had not only lived there, but had been in business in the place throughout the troublous times of page 424 the Maori war on the East Coast. Mrs. Britnell's thorough knowledge of the Maori language is of great assistance to her husband in connection with his business.

Councillor Joseph Powdrell has been a member of the Wairoa County Council almost since its inception, and was for several years its chairman. He was born in Cheshire, England, and is the third son of the late Mr. Thomas Powdrell, of Barhill Farm. Mr. Powdrell was educated at Malpas Grammar School, and came to New Zealand in 1861, at the age of twenty years, by the ship “Indiana.” He acquired a farm at Kereru, remained there for six years, and then settled in Wairoa on an excellent farm of 2,353 acres of freehold land, now known as Turiroa station, and stocked with 200 head of cattle, about twenty horses, and 3,500 crossbred sheep. Mr. Powdrell has been a member of the Wairoa Harbour Board, and of the Wairoa Hospital Committee, is vice-president of the Wairoa Rifle Club, and has been a Justice of the Peace since 1888.

Councillor J. Powirell.

Councillor J. Powirell.

Mr. John Hunter Brown, formerly a member of the Wairoa County Council, was born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in the year 1852, and is the eldest son of Mr. Adam Brown, of Bennan. Thornhill. He was educated at Marlborough College, was engaged for some time in scientific farming in Ross-shire and Inverness-shire, and in 1880 came to New Zealand. In the following year Mr. Brown purchased “Whakaki,” a fine property of 14,000 acres, all sown in English grass, on which are depastured 18,000 cross-bred sheep and 500 head of cattle. He also owns a special stud farm of 140 acres, where he runs a stud flock of Lincoln sheep, besides horses and cattle. Mr. Brown has on several occasions been elected to the Wairoa Harbour Board, and is a member of the school committee, the Gisborne Hunt Club, and the Hawke's Bay Agricultural and Pastoral Society. He married a daughter of the late Mr. John Hunter, C.E., of London, and has one son and one daughter.

Mr. Thomas Carroll, sometime a member of the Wairoa County Council, was born in Mahia in the year 1851, educated at public schools, and brought up to pastoral life. At Taupo he had four years' experience under Mr. Bold, of the Telegraph Department, and for a while he worked on the estate of the late Mr. William Heslop, of Puketapu. In the year 1880 he acquired the Huramua station, a property of upwards of 2,000 acres. Mr. Carroll was a member of the Wairoa Harbour Board for a number of years, and was also secretary and vice-president of the Wairoa Jockey Club. He died in February, 1905.

Mr. Farquhar McRae, formerly a member of the Wairoa County Council, resides at “Springhill,” a run of 4,600 acres, stocked with 5,000 cross-bred sheep, 200 head of cattle, and twenty horses. He also owns a property of 655 acres, situated near Eltham, Taranaki, which is leased to dairy farmers. Mr. McRae was born in the year 1855, in Ross-shire, Scotland, where he was educated and brought up to farming. He came to New Zealand in 1882, and for seven years managed a sheep run for Mr. Hunter Brown. He then took a trip to Australia, and on his return speculated successfully in property; he next visited Europe, and on his return to New Zealand purchased his present property. He takes a general interest in public and social matters.

Mr. Stephen George Stacey, formerly a member of the Wairoa County Council and Wairoa Harbour Board, was born in Tasmania. He came to New Zealand in the year 1864, landing at Napier, and is a son of the late Mr. Stephen Stacey, a well-known military settler. He began business as a butcher at Frasertown, in 1883, and was subsequently joined by his brother, the business now being carried on under the style of Stacey Brothers. Mr. Stacey has done much in public matters; and while a member of the Wairoa County Council and Harbour Board strongly supported the scheme for improving the river. He is a member of the Frasertown School Committee, and has been connected with the Church of England for many years. Mr. Stacey married, in 1890, a daughter of the late Mr. Gosnell, a well-known and respected settler.

page 425

The Wairoa Hospital is situated at Clyde, the county town of Wairoa, and is of particular service to an extensive district, which, on account of its distance from Napier and Gisborne, would otherwise be without public provision for the proper treatment of accidents and other cases of human suffering. The new building was opened on the 8th of March, 1905, and is a large one-storeyed wooden building, situated on an elevated site at the back of the township, facing the Napier road. There are four wards in the hospital, containing over twenty beds, also an operating room, a waiting room, a sitting room, and a library; the whole premises are lit with acetylene gas. Mr. Joseph Stone acts as custodian, and Mrs. Stone is matron.

The Wairoa District School is a very old wooden building, divided into three class rooms. The classes include infants, besides the usual standards. The number of scholars on the roll is 171, and the average attendance is 140. The head-master is Mr. John Bowie, B.A., who is assisted by Miss H. M. Samson, and two pupil teachers.

Mr. John Bowie, B.A., Headmaster of the Wairoa District School, was born in Otago in December, 1871, and was educated at the Tokomairiro High School and the Otago Boys' High School. After serving as a pupil teacher at Kaitangata, he studied at the Otago University, where he took the first section of his B.A. degree, and completed his degree as an extra mural student of Canterbury College, whilst teaching at Hastings, Hawke's Bay. After four years as second assistant master at the Hastings High School, he was appointed head-master at Mataman, and promoted to his present charge in July, 1904. Mr. Bowie married a daughter of Mr. A. T. Box, of Matamau, in 1901, and has one son and two daughters.

Bunting, photo.Mr. J. Bowie.

Bunting, photo.
Mr. J. Bowie.

St. Peter's Catholic Church, Wairoa. This is one of the oldest churches in Wairoa, and was erected with money collected during the lifetime of Father Regnier. The building is of wood, and has seating accommodation for 100 persons. A good choir is led by Mr. Cosgrove, and Mrs. Cosgrove and Miss Douglas act as organists.

Father Lepretre, Priest-in-charge of the Roman Catholic Parish at Wairoa, has a large district, and holds services at frequent intervals at Frasertown, Paki-paki, Tamaki, and Tiniroto. He was born in Brittany, France, and was educated at Nantes, Chateaubriant, and Ancenis. He then went to Dundalk, in Ireland, where he joined the Society of Mary, and was ordained sub-deacon at Armagh in the year 1881. He returned to France where he was prefect for two years at St. Joseph's College, Montlucon, and then went to Barcelona, in Spain. After completing his studies in theology, he was ordained priest at Lyons, France, in 1884, and came to New Zealand in the same year. Father Lepretre was first stationed at Jerusalem, near Wanganui, where he learned the Maori language, and was afterwards in charge of the Hawke's Bay and Wairarapa Maori districts. He built the Maori Church at Te Ore Ore, near Masterton, and removed to Wairoa as first resident priest in 1894, and built the presbytery there.

Father Lepretre.

Father Lepretre.

Wairoa Brass Band (Mr. Joseph Corkill, band-master), Wairoa. This band has a creditable musical record, but it has something else as well in its list of achievements. It is probably the only band in the colony with a record ride to its credit. In behalf of himself and his fellow-April, 1896, Mr. Swan (then Mayor of Napier) invited the band to attend and assist at Napier in a demonstration in aid of the Brunner Relief Fund. The invitation was cordially responded to by Mr. Corkill, on behalf of himself and his fellow-bandsmen, but when the time arrived to take steamer from Wairoa to Napier, the Wairoa bar was in what was then its too frequent condition of impassableness. The visit to Napier had, therefore, to be abandoned, or undertaken on horseback overland, a distance of seventy-five miles. In view of all the circumstances, Mr. Corkill and his corps of instrumentalists determined to face the latter alternative, and they set out in the evening to accomplish their long journey by night. The novelty of the undertaking and the object in view inspirited the party, and as there was bright moonlight to help them on their way, they anticipated no page 426 serious difficulties. These, however, soon presented themselves in divers shapes. For instance, the big drum received its mortal quietus from a hook on the pack saddle to which it was fastened, and various other misadventures took place in connection with the choice of tracks, one by the beach, and one inland. Creeks were found to be in flood, and the bandsmen had to get off their horses and lead them up craggy hillsides and along the edges of beetling precipices. “Are you going up there?” said the drummer to a fellow bandsman, as the latter with his horse faced a precipitous ridge. “If you are, I am not; I am going home.” and home he went. The others, however, pushed on to their journey's end, where they were coridially welcomed by the Mayor of Napier, sumptously entertained in many ways, and presented with a purse of money to help defray the expenses of what is still talked of in Hawke's Bay as “Corkill's Ride.”

Wairoa Brass Band.

Wairoa Brass Band.

The “Wairoa Guardian” was established about thirty years ago, and has a rapidly increasing circulation in Wairoa. Frasertown, Turiroa, Waikare-Moana, Maru Maru, Nuhaka, Morere, Mahia, Mohaka, Waikare, and Petane, and is a splendid medium for advertising throughout the district.

Mr. William Timperley, proprietor of the “Wairoa Guardian,” is a native of Darwen, Lancashire, England, where he was educated, and trained in the leading offices in Darwen and Manchester. He came to New Zealand in the year 1886, and settled in Wairoa in 1895. In addition to the newspaper and printing business, Mr. Timperley has a high-class stationery department, and receives shipments of all the latest books, music, etc., by every steamer. Photographs and paintings of the beautiful Wairoa scenery are also obtainable at his establishment.

Somerville, John, M.B., M.S. (Edin.), Physican and Surgeon, Wairoa, Hawke's Bay.

Coker, William, Aerated Water and Cordial Manufacturer, Wairoa. This business was established several years ago by Mr. Samuel Boyd, and acquired by the present proprietor in 1901. The output comprises hop ale, orange champagne, kola champagne, lemonade, ginger ale, ginger beer, and soda water; also such cordials as raspberry, cloves, peppermint, lime juice squash, and pine apple syrup. A most up-to-date plant of machinery has been installed, including a Bennett and Foster's soda water machine, a Ryland's bottle rack and turnover, a Shipman's engine, and a brewing furnace capable of treating sixty galons. The premises are large and well adapted for the requirements of the business, and are situated on the north side of the Wairoa river. The proprietor supplies all the licensed houses in the district extending from Maru Maru to Mohaka, and his aerated waters and cordials are also in great demand by the residents of Wairoa and the surrounding country. Mr. Coker was born in Napier in the year 1878, and was educated at the local district school. Subsequently for a number of years he was employed as steward on the s.s. “Tangaroa,” and the s.s. “Te Kapu,” running between Napier and Wairoa. Mr. Coker is a member of the Napier Lodge of Oddfellows. He married a daughter of Mr. T. B. Bax, of Wairoa, in February, 1903.

The Wairoa Dairy Factory Co-Operative Company's plant is at present (1906) leased to Mr. T. McGregor, of Gisborne. Mr. Hector McGregor, a son of the lessee, is acting as manager. The factory was opened on the 12th of October, 1903, and is a wooden building containing boiler and engine rooms, a separator and churning room, and two chilling chambers. An up-to-date plant has been installed, including a twelve horse-power Niven's boiler, an eight horse-power Brown and May engine, a ton and a-half British Linde freezer, a 440 gallon Alpha-Laval separator, a Sabroe cream elevator, Anderson's pasteuriser, Holben and Kirk's vats and weighing cans, and a six hundredweight Topliss churn. The floor is of concrete throughout, and the place is kept scrupulously neat and clean. About 600 gallons of milk and 50 gallons of cream are received per day throughout the season. The factory closes down from the end of May to the beginning of September.

Mr. Hector McGregor, manager of the Wairoa Dairy Factory, was born in Christchurch in the year 1883, and was educated in Stratford, Taranaki. Subsequently he gained an insight in the dairying industry at his father's factory, “Kia Ora,” Gisborne, and was appointed to his present position on the 1st of March, 1905. In Gisborne, Mr. McGregor was page 427 an active member of a leading football club, and is largely interested in all outdoor sports.

Bax, Thomas Buttlar, Hairdresser, Wairoa. Mr. Bax was born in the year 1850, in London, England, where he was educated. For nineteen years he was at sea, trading between the Colonies, India, and the Old Country. He came to New Zealand in 1879, as first mate of the barque “Nancy,” and decided to settle in the Colony. Having had considerable experience in hospital work in India, Mr. Bax obtained a position in the Wellington Hospital, and afterwards joined the staff of the Blenheim Hospital. He then went to Hawke's Bay, and kept several hotels in the district, and was eventually appointed warder in the Wairoa Hospital. He subsequently resigned that position, and established himself in business at Wairoa as a hair-dresser, and has since conducted a successful business. Mr. Bax is well-known throughout the colonies as a professional club-swinger, and in 1897 he defeated the Queensland champion, J. Griffiths. Mr. Bax is married, and has one son and two daughters.

Mr. T. B. Bax.

Mr. T. B. Bax.

Ferry Hotel (Peter Crarer, proprietor). Wairoa, This well-known hostelry is situated on the bank of the Wairoa River, and is within a few minutes' walk of the township. The “Ferry” is probably the oldest hotel in the district. It contains sixteen rooms, exclusive of dining, sitting, and drawing rooms, and is comfortably furnished throughout. The house is conveniently situated on the main road to the lake, where fine shooting, boating, etc., may be obtained.

Mr. Peter Crarer, proprietor of the Ferry Hotel, is a native of Perthshire, Scotland, and came to New Zealand with his parents in the ship “Rangoon,” in the year 1863, landing at Napier. He was educated at Waipukurau, and was afterwards for some time farming with his father. He first commenced hotel-keeping at Tahoraiti, near Dannevirke, where he had the Tamaki Hotel for four years, and eventually took over the Ferry Hotel. Mr. Crarer takes a great interest in all local matters, and is well known and respected in the district.

Wairoa Hotel (Arthur Poyzer, proprietor), Wairoa. This fine hotel was established by the present proprietor in 1877. Situated close to the wharf, it is convenient for travellers and visitors to Wairoa, and Mr. Poyzer has a good connection with the travelling public and settlers in the district. The Wairoa Hotel, which is beautifully furnished, contains twenty-five rooms, including a large dining-room, a sitting-room, billiard-room, etc. From the balcony a fine view of the surrounding country is obtained, and as the house is directly opposite the river, shooting and boating are within easy reach of those seeking pleasure in that direction.

Mr. Arthur Poyzer, proprietor of the Wairoa Hotel, is a native of Leicestershire, England, and was educated in his native town. He came to New Zealand in the year 1863, landed in Auckland by the ship “Gertrude,” and was for some time in the employment of Sir George Grey and Bishop Selwyn. He then settled in Hampden, for two years kept the Tikokino Hotel, and afterwards established the Wairoa Hotel. Mr. Poyzer has devoted a good deal of time to public matters, and was for many years chairman of the harbour and town boards. He has also been connected with the school committee, and has done much for the welfare of the district. Mr. Poyzer is married, and has two sons and four daughters.

Johansen, Olaf, Plumber, Painter, and Paperhanger, Wairoa. The business was established by Mr. Johansen in the year 1878. Most of the plumbing and painting work in the district has been carried out by him. A large stock of tinware and material necessary for carrying on a good business is kept on the premises. Mr. Johansen is a native of Norway, and came to New Zealand with his parents in 1873, in the ship “Hovding,” landing at Napier. He learned his trade with Mr. Nash, of Waipawa, and was also with Mr. Abrahams of that town for seven years. In 1878 Mr. Johansen removed to Wairoa, and shortly afterwards established his present business. As a member of the Order of page 428 Foresters he has held office as S.C.R., and has been through all the chairs. Mr. Johansen is married, and has one son and one daughter.

Pothan, Richard Joseph . Blacksmith and Wheelwright, Wairoa. Mr. Pothan was born in Canterbury, and was educated in Hokitika. He first worked in Christchurch, and then in Ahaura, on the West Coast. He was subsequently in business with his brother at Taradale, before settling in Wairoa, where he has since conducted a successful business.

Lees and Mountfort (T. R. Lees and H. B. Mountfort), General Merchants, Stock and Station Agents, Wool and Produce Brokers, Wholesale Wine and Spirit Merchants, Auctioneers, and Land and Estate Agents. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand, Wairoa; P.O. Box, 28. Agents for Sun fire Office, Australian Alliance Assurance Company (fire and marine), Norwich and London Accident Insurance Association, and Citizen's Life Assurance Company, Ltd. Agents for Cooper's sheep dip, Tiratu Saw-milling Company, Horton's nurseries, New Zealand Portland Cement Company, Gardner's oil engines, Cooper's sheep-shearing machines, Cooper and Duncan's colonial drills, ploughs, harrows, etc., Noxon mowers, rakes and harrows, Andrews and Beaven's chaffcutters, etc., Donald's wire-strainers, Donald's woolpress. Perfect separators. Perfect churns, cans, etc., Plano harvesting machinery, and Wilkinson's S.F. ploughs and scoeps. This rising business was opened in July, 1905, and the returns have been beyond all expectations. The building is situated just over the Wairoa Bridge, on the north side, and is a large sixty feet by sixty feet store, with splendid office accommodation. A half acre of ground has recently been purchased on the Wairoa side of the river, on which it is intended to erect a large bulk store. The firm's saleyards cover an area of two acres, and can accommodate 500 head of cattle and 3,000 sheep. Sales are held fortnightly at Wairoa, and monthly at Nuhaka. It is the only business of its kind in the district, and is complete in every detail. Lees and Mountfort are extensive purchasers of station clips, and agricultural produce of all kinds.

Mr. T. R. Lees, of the firm of Lees and Mountfort, was born near Birmingham, England, in the year 1872, and was educated at the Wolverhampton grammar school. He arrived in New Zealand in 1892, and for many years was engaged by the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Company, in Christchurch, Napier, and Dannevirke.

Mr. H. B. Mountfort, of the firm of Lees and Mountfort, was born in Christchurch, in 1872, and is a son of Mr. C. W. Mountfort, a well known surveyor and civil engineer and an old resident of Christchurch. Mr. Mountfort was educated at the Napier High School, and was subsequently on the staff of Messrs Murray, Roberts and Co. for eighteen years.

Wairoa Livery and Bait Stables (Hawke's Bay Motor Company, Limited, proprietors; Peter Cram, manager), Wairoa. These well-known stables were established by Mr. Peter Cram, and subsequently taken over by the present company, Mr. Cram's services being retained as manager. The stables contain ten stalls and two loose boxes, with an accommodation paddock for fifty horses. Traps and saddle-horses can always be obtained by the travelling public. The company's coaches carry most of the passengers overland to Napier and Gisborne.

Mr. Peter Cram, manager of the Wairoa Livery and Bait Stables, was born in Scotland, and came to New Zealand at nine years of age, in the ship “Timaru.” For many years he was farming on the Henley estate, near Dunedin, and eventually settled at Wairoa. Mr. Cram is married and has two children.

Mr. P. Cram.

Mr. P. Cram.

Goldstone, William, Sheep-farmer, Frasertown and Riverslea, Wairoa. Mr. Goldstone was born in Suffolk. England, and is a son of the late Mr. James Goldstone, formerly in the Guards. He was educated at New-market, Cambridge, and entered the 12th Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales' Own) in the year 1851. Shortly afterwards he went to South Africa to take part in the Kaffir war, under Sir Harry Smith, and saw about eight months' active service there and in Basutoland. At the battle of Berrier the troops under Sir George Cathcart were formed in a square for eight hours, repeatedly charged by the enemy, who were finally repulsed, and page 429 the force marched to Williamstown in British Kaffraria. A portion of the troops were cut off whilst coming through a narrow pass, and a number were shot. Captain (afterwards Sir George) Whitmore, of the Cape Mounted Rifles, took part in that affair. Shortly afterwards, Mr. Goldstone's regiment was ordered to India, where it arrived in 1854, and a few months later proceeded to the Crimea. The regiment landed at Suez, marched through to Cairo, and down the Nile to Alexandria, which formed a curious coincidence, that was brought to their memory by one of the inhabitants. The same regiment, then known as the 12th Light Dragoons, had marched down the banks of the river exactly fifty years previously, under Sir Ralph Abercrombie. The 12th were present at many engagements, and formed part of the famous Light Brigade. After the fall of Sebastopol, the regiment was ordered to Upatoria, and next to Upper Scutaria. Peace being proclaimed, the 12th were ordered back to India, but, through the influence of Sir George Paget they were taken to England first. In 1856 the Lancers landed at Madras, and proceeded to Bungalore, just as Nana Sahib's great mutiny broke out. In 1857 the 12th formed part of General Whitlock's brigade, and proceeded to the Kanool district, which was in a most disturbed state. Some native troops, who formed part of the column, mutined on the march; the ringleaders were flogged in the presence of the disaffected men, and the revolt was quelled to a great extent. The 12th Lancers afterwards went to the Hyderabad and Deccan districts. Mr. Goldstone's troops was stationed till 1860 at Trimingalli, a cavalry station four miles from Secunderabad. In 1860 he embarked with his regiment for England, where he joined the 4th Dragoon Guards, remaining with the regiment till 1873, when he retired from the army with the rank of sergeant. He came to New Zealand by the ship “Douglas,” and joined the Armed Constabulary, in which he served for five years. He retired from the force to enter into business in Frasertown, and carried it on successfully for several years. Mr. Goldstone has also acquired two valuable properties, one of which is a sheep farm. He holds the Kaffir medal for 1851–52–53, the Crimean and Turkish medals with clasps, and the long service and good conduct medals. Mr. Goldstone married previous to his departure for New Zealand, and has three sons and four daughters.

Kiwi Estate (Messrs Chambers Brothers, proprietors; Mr. Murdoch Mackay, manager), Wairoa. This well-known station consists of about 18,000 acres of first-class sheep country; about 24,000 cross-bred sheep and 800 head of cattle are grazed on the property, which is one of the finest in the Wairoa district. Twelve persons are constantly employed, and, in the shearing season, as many as twenty shearers are engaged. Mr. Mackay has had considerable experience in sheep farming, and under his care the estate has been brought to its present state of perfection.

Mr. Murdoch Mackay, manager of the Kiwi Estate, was born in Hawke's Bay, and brought up to pastoral pursuits on Mr. McHardy's run at Blackhead. He was afterwards with Mr. Johnston of Tamumu. He then managed the Putere station for Messrs Murray, Roberts and Company for twelve years, and took up his present position in the year 1895. Mr. Mackay is married, and has four sons and one daughter.

Moeangiangi Station is situated on the East Coast, between Napier and Wairoa, and consists of 5,000 acres of freehold and 5,000 acres of leasehold native lands. It was taken up in the “sixties” by Messrs Gordon and Finlayson, but passed into the possession of the McKinnon family, and was subsequently taken over by Mr. Donald McKinnon. The stock includes 12,000 cross-bred sheep and 100 head of cattle, and about 200 bales of wool are annually sent to market.

Mr. Donald McKinnon, proprietor of Moeangiangi station, is the third son of Mr. John McKinnon, and was born in the year 1863, at Arapawanui. Educated at the Napier Grammar School, he was brought up to station life, and managed his father's station for a few years before removing to Moeangiangi.