The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts]
It may be noted here that—as showing how they had prospered in their new home, and how little the hard conditions under which they had to live had interfered with their capacity for recreation—the Nelson country settlers organised a ploughing match and an agricultural show for the first anniversary of the settlement—the 1st of February, 1843. A race meeting and a regatta were also held on the same gala occasion.
In the early days, perhaps even more than now, there was only one royal road to success—that of untiring industry and adaptability; and by following it, the man of brawn succeeded just as well as the man of brain, or inherited fortune. In every colonial settlement, and not less in Nelson than in others, many a successful settler is a self-made man; a man, who, by honourable industry, has risen from poverty to wealth—from a humble origin to public and social eminence. Nelson, too, was the school in which many of the ablest statesmen of New Zealand were educated into exceptional knowledge and skill in colonial politics; and in this connection, the settlement proved a wise and worthy alma mater to such men as Sir Edward Stafford, Sir Frederick Weld, Sir Francis Bell, Sir William Fox, Sir David Monro, Alfred Domett, Alfred Saunders, Archbishop Redwood, and many others who have achieved colonial fame.
Mr. H. J. L. Augarde, sometime of Nelson, was a native of London, England, and came out to. New Zealand by the ship “Stanley,” in 1852, accompanied by his wife and eight children. Mr. Augarde first took up land in Quail Valley, Nelson, and farmed there for many years, but subsequently removed into the town. where he started in business as an auctioneer. He then went to Wellington, but afterwards returned to Nelson, where he remained up to the time of his death in September, 1891. Mr. Augarde was twice married, and, of a family of seventeen, one son and five daughters survive. Mr. Augarde is credited with having introduced the retriever dog into New Zealand. In the early days he took sheep overland from Nelson to Canterbury, and on one occasion was snowed up for five days, and had the misfortune to lose half of his right foot and three fingers of his right hand by a frost bite. Mr. Augarde was a shrewd business man, and was highly respected by all who knew him.
Mr. William Akersten arrived in Nelson in 1855 by the “Queen of the South, from Sydney, his only fellow passenger being Mr. Alex. Kerr, of the Union Bank. The mission of Mr. Akersten was to act as attorney for Messrs James Henry and Co., of Mel- page 108 bourne, and the Tasmanian Insurance Company, in the matter affecting one of the firm's ships, the “Aden,” which had put into Nelson with her wooi heated. Mr. Akersten returned to Melbourne, but having determined to settle in New Zealand at the instance of Messrs Healy and Co., he bought the “Maid of Alicant,” brought cargo and passengers to Nelson, and he and his family settled at the Port. Mr. Akersten had had considerable shipping experience, as he had been a masterrigger and stevedore in London, and a shipmaster and owner in Melbourne. After serving his apprenticeship to the sea he was in Hobart in 1838, when Sir John Franklin was Governor, and he was afterwards engaged in the colonial trade. From his first landing in Nelson he set himself to improve the Port, and took up the study of civil engineering At that time the vessels all loaded and unloaded in the stream, and his first work was to design and build a wharf for Captain Nicholson. It was called the Napier wharf, and afforded accommodation for vessels drawing eight feet of water. Mr. Akersten had charge of an old vessel named the “Admiral Napier,” and he ingeniously converted it into a warehouse. The Government wharf was designed and built by him, besides many other wharves, jetties and bridges. He then became superintendent of public works and engineer of the new harbour works, and had charge of the roads between the West Coast and Nelson. Mr. Akersten was elected to the Nelson City Council on the 23rd of July, 1886, and resigned in November, 1903. He died some time afterwards.
The Late Mr. W. Akersten.
Sir Francis Dillon Bell was first connected with New Zealand as secretary to the New Zealand Company. He arrived in Nelson in 1848 to succeed Mr. Fox as Attorney-General of the Southern Province. In 1849 he was member of the Legislative Council for the South Island, but resigned in 1850 on account of a difference with the Colonial Office. In 1851, when the New Zealand Company resigned its charter, Mr. Bell was appointed Commissioner of Crown Lands for Wellington district, and thenceforward ceased to be directly associated with Nelson. He sat for Wairarapa and Hawke's Bay in the Wellington Provincial Council in 18546, and became a member of the Legislative Council in 1856. He was member for the Hutt in the colony's first Parliament, and Colonial Treasurer in the short-lived Bell-Sewell Ministry of 1856. In 1860–1 he represented Wallace (Otago) in Parliament, and was Colonial Treasurer in the Domett Ministry of 1862–3. From 1863 to 1869 he represented Mataura; and, on his return from England in 1871, he was reelected for Mataura, was appointed Speaker of the House of Representatives, and held that office till 1875, In 1877 he was made a member of the Legislative Council, and from 1880 to 1890 he was Agent-General for the colony in London. He was knighted in 1881, and it may be said that his is one of the longest and most distinguished public careers recorded in colonial annals. Sir Francis, who died on the 15th of July, 1898, is further referred to at pages 112–113 of the Wellington volume of this work.
The Late Sir Francis Dillon Bell.
Mr. John S. Browning was born in Norfolk, England, in 1831, and followed the sea during his early years. In 1857 he joined the Public Works Department in Canterbury, under Mr. E. Dobson, Provincial Engineer, as assistant surveyor and draughtsman. When the Public Works Department was broken up in 1862, he joined the Survey Department in Canterbury as assistant surveyor, under Mr. T. Cass, chief surveyor. A Royal Commission was appointed in 1863 for the purpose of “Enquiring into the wharfage accommodation of Lyttelton harbour, and offering any further suggestions which might be thought desirable”; and Mr. Browning gave evidence before the Commission and submitted plans, which were finally carried out with but slight modifications in Lyttelton harbour as it now exists. (See the printed report and plans of the Commission of 1863.) In 1864–5 Mr. Browning was employed in exploring the mountain passes between Canterbury and the West Coast. When that work was completed, he was appointed District and Mining Surveyor, and entrusted by the Provincial Government with the responsibility of initiating the Survey Department on the West Coast at Hokitika, in the midst of the rush of population to the goldfields. Mr. Browning was appointed Chief Surveyor at Nelson in March, 1876. On the introduction of a general system of survey throughout New Zealand, consequent on the abolition of the provinces, he assisted in the preliminary astronomical work in the Nelson district, in addition to his other duties, as the Government was shorthanded in geodesical surveyors. In 1891 Mr. Browning was appointed Commissioner of Crown Lands, and he held that office in conjunction with the Chief Surveyorship, until April, 1897, when he was retired by the Government, after thirty-nine years of continuous service. Mr. Browning is a Past Master in Freomasonry, and is attached to the Victory Lodge in Nelson. He now (1905) resides at Tomes Road, Papanui, Christchurch.
Mr. J. S. Browning.
Mr. William Cresswell was born in Hampshire, England, in the year 1835. When a boy he came with his father to New Zealand, and arrived at Nelson in 1842, by the ship “Mary Ann.” Shortly after landing his father died, and was buried on Fifeshire Island; it was the first burial in the new settlement. After serving his apprenticeship at the tinsmithing trade, young Cresswell worked as a journeyman till the year 1869, when he decided to start farming. He bought a fine property of 125 acres in the Lower Moutere Valley. It was all good agricultural land and well watered, and he worked it with considerable success till his death in the year 1897. This property is now farmed by Mr. Cresswell's a sons. Mr. Cresswell was a man of sound principles and strong determination, and as an advocate of temperance, he threw his whole heart and soul into his work, and even went so far as to refuse to grow either barley or hops for market purposes. In the belief that those products would ultimately contribute to the liquor traffic, he preferred to sacrifice money instead of his principles. Several pamphlets owed their origin to Mr. Cresswell's pen, and two of them may be mentioned here, namely, “A Brief Enquiry into the Truth of the Principle of Abstinence,” and “The Testimony of the Word of God against Intoxicating Liquors.” Mr. Cresswell was for many years chairman of the Lower Moutere school committee, chairman of the library committee, and secretary of the public hall committee. He was also a lay reader in the Wesleyan Church, and was universally liked and respected. Mr. Cresswell left a widow and a family of four sons and three daughters. Miss Cresswell is mistress of the Dovedale school.
Captain Henry Clouston, sometime of Nelson, landed in New Zealand by the ship “Nugent,” in 1847. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1820, and died at Nelson on the 12th of August, 1898. His father owned and lived on a large sugar plantation, called the Mount St. Oliver Estate, in Jamaica. Captain Clouston had been educated with a view to his entering the Presbyterian ministry, but after studying a short time he decided to go to sea. He was first mate of a vessel trading to the Mediterranean, when the master of the vessel was drowned, and the duty of sailing the ship from Alexandria to England devolved upon him. Mr. Clouston obtained his captain's certificate at the age of twenty, and upon returning from a voyage to China, his uncle bought him a sailing vessel, with which he was engaged in the Sydney-China tea trade till 1847, when he came to New Zealand with the Hon. J. T. Peacock's father. He traded between Port Cooper (Lyttelton), Nelson and Sydney in the “Comet,” “Gazette,” and Taranaki,” taking produce to Sydney and bringing back horses. Captain Clouston was the first to take the steamer “Sturt” over the Buller bar. He was often engaged by the Government, as an expert, to take soundings at the bars of the Colony, and opened up a number of ports. He gave up the command of his ship in 1868. Captain Clouston acted as governor of the Nelson gaol for four years, and had charge of the Maungatapu murderers from the time of their capture till their execution. He was Government Meteorological Observer for many years, and filled the office of Inspector of Weights and Measures. Upon relinquishing public duties, he purchased seventy-five acres of land in the Maitai, where he resided till his death. He took a prominent part in church matters, and was an elder of the Presbyterian Church. Captain Clouston enjoyed excellent health till shortly before his death. He left a family of six sons and six daughters.
The Late Mr. J. S. Edelsten.
Mr. B. Franzen was born in SchleswigHolstein, in 1833. He arrived in Nelson in the barque “Ardeneraig,” in 1862, and returned Home the same year, but came back to Nelson again in 1863, and commenced business at the Port as a sailmaker and ship-chandler. Mr. Franzen took a keen interest in the welfare of the town, displayed much enterprise, and invested a large amount of money in the Champion Copper Mine and other mines in the district. He was naturalised as a British subject, made a Justice of the Peace, and was ever ready to assist in the cause of coarity. Mr. Franzen died in 1897, and his widow carried on the business until she sold it to Mr. E. Smallbone.
Mrs Mari Wilhelmina Fairey , mother of Messrs Fairey Brothers, was born in Nelson in 1843, and has ever since resided in the district. She received a liberal education, at a private school carried on by Mrs Caldwell. Mrs Fairey remembers when hardly anything was to be seen on the site of Nelson, except toi toi, flax, bush and malodorous mud flats, varied here and there with a few cob and mud houses. She was well acquainted with the late Sir William Fox, with Mr. Alfred Saunders (known as the Nestor of New Zealand politics) and many other Nelson pioneers. Mrs Fairey is an excellent German scholar, thoroughly versed in the his. tory of the Fatherland; she is also an ardent admirer of the works of Dickens, Thackeray, Scott and the British poets. When young, she took great interest in music, and she was for some years a prominent official in the Independent Order of Good Templars. Her husband was born in Brighton, England, where his father carried on a large drapery business. He came to New Zealand in 1867, and died in Australia, where his brother, a Congregational minister, now resides.
Mrs M. W. Fairey.
Mr. Frederick Schumacher was the father of Mrs Fairey, Bridge Street, Nelson. He was a native of Germany, and left Hamburg in the ship “St. Paul,” which reached Nelson in the early part of 1842. Upon landing Mr. Schumacher at once entered the police force, in which he served for four years and a half. He then started in business in Nile Street East, on the site now occupied by the Central School, and in a short time acquired property within the town limits and at Wakapuaka. Naturally he took considerable interest in the German settlement, which had been established at Ranzan, where his daughter, Mrs Fairey, first saw the light; in fact, she can claim the honour of being the first child born of German parontage in New Zealand. Mr. Schumacher was an exemplary colonist, and held in high esteem by all who knew him. He died in 1886. Mrs Schumacher, who predeceased her husband about seventeen years, was of a charitable disposition, and ever ready to lend a helping hand in cases of distress. She had a very vivid memory of events which happened in the early part of the nineteenth century, and had seen Napoleon with 11,000 troops passing through her native village.
Mr. T. Fathers.
Mr. Thomas Field , whose name will long be remembered as that of one of Nelson's earliest successful colonists, was born at Quarry Hill, near Tunbridge Wells, Kent, on the 4th of June, 1816. In his earlier days he followed farming work, but that not being to his taste, he, when twenty-five years of age, obtained employment from Messrs Overton and Son, brewers, Croydon. These gentlemen, recognising his steady perseverance and strict attention to duty, soon appointed him brewer; a position he held for nine years. He next joined Messrs Crowley Bros. (also of Croydon) and remained with them as head brower for a period of five years. Intent on improving his position, he then emigrated to New Zealand, and arrived in Nelson by the ship “Gipsy” on the 26th of November, 1854. In the year 1857 he started a brewery on a small scale for himself in Collingwood Street, and by his indomitable perseverance and untiring energy he soon overcame all difficulties and built up one of the largest brewing businesses in Nelson. Mr. Field retired from business in 1871. In public affairs, he always took a keen and active interest. He was a member of the Board of Works (afterwards the City Council) at the time of the opening of the city water works, and on more than one occasion he fitted out at his own expense parties to prospect the surrounding districts for gold and other minerals. Mr. Field died at his residence, “Seven Oaks,” on the 15th of February, 1899, at the age of eighty-three, leaving a widow, one son (Mr. George E. Field, of “Fairbrook,” Belgrove) and three daughters— Mrs Burford, Mrs Thomas Usher, junior, and Miss Field. At the time of Mr. Field's death his widow was in her eighty-fourth year, and much sympathy was felt for her in her bereavement after fifty-six years of married life.
The Late Mr. T. Field.
The Late Sir W. Fox.
Mr. Edward Green was born at Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire, England, in the the year 1818. He was apprenticed to the tailoring trade, and when he arrived in New Zealand in 1842, by the ship “Lord-Auckland, he continued in the trade on his own account for a few years. Mr. Green had amongst his fellow passengers on the “Lord Auckland,” such well-known early colonists as Mr. Charles Harley, Mr. Hammond, and Sir David Monro. Mr. Green was the first layman to preach the Gospel in Nelson, and was always a willing helper in any good work. The well-known Upcot estate, Marlborough, held by him for thirty-three years, and the Sands estate, Nelson, were among his possessions. As a business man, Mr. Green never mortgaged or borrowed money, and even went so far as to refuse an offer of £10,000 to enable him to buy the Starborough estate. His principle was, that he preferred to miss an opportunity to make money rather than incur any liability he could not discharge on the spot. Mr. Green was married on the 14th of August, 1845, to Miss Isabella Smith, of Dundee, Scotland, and they celebrated their golden wedding in 1895. Their family of four sons and five daughters, are all prosperously settled in New Zealand. Mr. Green died in 1896.
Mr. Francis Hamilton , sometime proprietor of the businesss of E. Buxton and Co., Nelson, was of Scottish descent, and spent his early years in the United States of America. He was educated at Rochester, Western New York, and was engaged principally in farming till twenty years of age, when he went to Scotland, where he remained only a few months, and then left for New Zealand. He landed in Dunedin on the 1st of January, 1862, as the representative of a large English company, but entered into business for himself in the following year at Invercargill, where he dealt in American goods, such as machines, stoves, lamps, kerosene, etc. This continued till 1865, when, at the time of the influx of miners to the West Coast, consequent upon the discovery of gold, Mr. Hamilton commenced business in Greymouth with Mr. Nichol, and traded under the style of Hamilton and Nichol. This connection lasted till 1871, when the partnership was dissolved. In the same year Mr. Hamilton became associated in business with a gentleman of his own name, the firm being known as F. and J. Hamilton. This combination lasted for ten years, until he bought the business of E. Buxton and Co. In Greymouth Mr. Hamilton was a member of the Borough Council for many years, and filled the mayoral chair in 1877–8. He was also chairman of the school committee, and at one time chairman of the Central Board of Education for Westland. Mr. Hamilton also took a lively interest in politics and all matters pertaining to the prosperity of the district. Upon severing his connection with Greymouth a number of the office-bearers of St. John's Church presented him with a beautiful illuminated address, expressing regret at his departure. Four years previously the borough councillors of Greymouth had presented him with a similar memento of esteem and goodwill, accompanied with a silver cradle. For twelve years he was associated with the volunteer corps of New Zealand, first as lieutenaut at Invercargill, and afterwards as captain at Greymouth. After taking up his residence in Nelson, the ties of a large mercantile house hindered him from taking an active part in local politics. Mr. Hamilton died on the 21st of January, 1901; aged sixty years.
The Late Mr. F. Hamilton.
Mr. George Harwood arrived in Nelson by the ship “Little London,” in April, 1812. After a short sojourn in Nelson and in the Waimea district, he went to Motueka and set up in business as a shoemaker. At that time Motueka was densely populated by Maoris, and there were, therefore, distinct elements of danger associated with settling in the place. In fact, when Mr. Harwood with his family and fellow passengers arrived in Nelson the whole settlement was pervaded with apprehensions on account of the natives, and he was one of those who were appointed to guard against a surprise visit by the redoubtable To Rauparaha, then the terror of Cook Strait. As a matter of fact, it was in June of the very next year, 1843, that To Rauparaha and his party perpetrated the notorious Wairau massacre, which horrified the colony, and caused some of the settlers to leave New Zealand. Therefore, settling in those days in a district peopled with Maoris was a serious matter. Nevertheless, Mr. Harwood resided in Motueka till 1855; when, wishing to try farming, he removed to Motupipi, Golden Bay, where he dwelt till 1888, when, at the age of seventy-two, his death was caused by a fall from his horse.
Mr. William John Herrick , sometime of Lower Moutere, was one of the pioneers of Nelson, where he arrived by the illfated “Fifeshire” on the 1st of February, 1842. After residing in the Spring Grove district till 1863, the family moved to Motueka and settled at Lower Moutere, where Mr. Herrick subsequently acquired about 700 acres of land. As in the case of his first residence in New Zealand, Mr. Herrick had himself to carve out a home in the bush, and to contend with the difficulties associated with settling on swampy land. Mr. Herrick was born in London in 1825, and followed the calling of a linen draper, in Regent Street, up to the time of his departure from the Old Country. He died early in 1892, when he left a widow, seven sons, and four daughters to mourn him as a loving husband and affectionate father. Mr. Herrick was a public spirited colonist, and was most generous in all his dealings. His widow resides on the homestead at Lower Moutere, where the property is managed by one of the younger sons. Mrs Herrick herself is a very old colonist, as she arrived at Nelson by the ship “Clifford” on the 24th of May, 1842.
The Late Mr. W. J. Herrick.
Mrs W. J. Herrick.
Mr. Thomas Hooper was long well known throughout the province of Nelson as the senior partner in the firm of Hooper and Dodson. He was born in Gloucestershire, England, on the 17th of February, 1883, and when nine years of age came with his parents to Nelson in the ship “Thomas Harrison,” At the completion of his educational course he started hopgrowing, which he carried on so successfully that he became the senior partner in the firm of Hooper and Dodson, brewers. Owing to continued ill-health, he subsequently sold his interest in the business to Mr. Dodson, and retired into private life in 1883. Mr. Hooper died on the 10th of April, 1898. He was married to Miss Mary Crooke, and had nine children.
Mr. William Holdaway was born in Hampshire, England, in 1829, and came to Nelson by the ship “Mary Ann,” in 1842. As one of the early settlers, he experienced the usual hardships of a pioneer's life, and at one time was compelled to eat fern roots for subsistence. He carried on farming for many years at Richmond, where he owned twenty-five acres of land and rented other sections. Mr. Holdaway died on the 4th of May, 1897, in consequence of influenza and complications resulting therefrom. He took no part in public affairs, but he was an Oddfellow of many years' standing. Mr. Holdaway left a family of four sons and one daughter.
Mr. Henry Douglas Jackson was born a Leeds, Yorkshire, England, in 1827. He left London with his father, Mr. Benjamin Jackson, in 1842, in the barque “Phœbe,” and arrived at Nelson in 1843. His first place of residence was the Waimea, where he engaged in farming operations. Having helped his father through the worst of the hard times, he went to Auckland, where he remained a couple of years, and on the discovery of the Victorian goldfields, he went to Australia and worked at Bendigo for three years. On returning to Nelson, he married a daughter of Mr. Lightband, an old settler. For a time Mr. Jackson was on the staff of the “Nelson Examiner,” and, after a visit to Sydney, he commenced business in Nelson as a bookseller and stationer, and met with great success. He was appointed Provincial Auditor, and was manager of the Nelson Savings Bank for thirty years prior to his death in 1893. Mr. Jackson also purchased a large area of land at Stanley Brook, and cleared and worked it. He was for many years a member of the town school committee, most of the time as its chairman, and was also a member of the licensing committee and a Justice of the Peace. Mr. Jackson showed a great interest in mining matters, and on one occasion he visited England for the purpose of floating the Champion Copper Mining Company, but though he did not obtain any profit for himself, his desire to develop the mining resources of New Zealand secured the respect and esteem of all who knew him.
Mr. H. D. Jackson.
Mr. David Jennings , with his wife and two children, left Gravesend, England, in the ship “Mary” (Captain Grant, and arrived at Wakatu, (now Nelson), in February, 1849. Shortly after his arrival Mr. Jennings joined a party going by sea to Waitohi (now Picton); from Picton he and Mr. Courtnay walked to Beaver (now Blenheim); and thence, by the Top House route, back to Nelson. Then he went across Blind Bay to Lower Moutere, and took a house, called the Moutere House, which had been built by Messrs Morse, Murray, and Rodgers, but was then owned by Mr. Charles Christie. The nearest neighbour was four miles away. Mr. Jennings lived at Lower Moutere for three years, and raised cattle and carried on farming. In 1852 he removed to the village of Motueka, but still continued to raise cattle and follow farming. Mr. Jennings bought about 200 acres of land on the west bank of the Motueka river, at Pangototara, in 1855, and built a house to which he and his family removed; and it was on that property that he lived until he died, on the 10th of December, 1877, Mr. Jennings was a solicitor by profession, and took the part of an educated, active-minded man in all the work of colonisation. He was instrumental in obtaining a post office at Motueka; was a member of the local Road Board; for many years chairman of the Riwaka school committee, and was also for many years the committee's representative on the Central Board of Education, which sat once a month in Nelson. He was much interested in the building and management of schools under the Nelson Education Act, and in building bridges and in other road work under the Provincial Road Board Act. His children greatly profited by the system of education he helped to establish, and three of his sons became teachers under it. Mr. Jennings left six sons and five daughters. Of his surviving sons, one is a dentist at Oamaru, one a surveyor at Karamea, on the West Coast, one a Church of England minister and teacher of Maori at Gisborne, and one a Church of England minister at Hawera. In May, 1905, his direct descendants numbered fifty souls.
Mr. David Johnston came to New Zealand in 1841, with his young wife and child, in the ship “Lady Nugent.” On landing the passengers were harrassed by the natives, who were causing no small amount of anxiety amongst the European settlers. The present town of Wellington was just commenced when Mr. Johnston arrived in New Zealand. It had been decided to build the future city at Petone, but owing to flood, fire and earthquakes, and the harbour facilities not being sufficient, the idea was abandoned for the site where Wellington now stands. Mr. Johnston was born at Portsmouth, England, in 1819. His father was head of the Gun Carriage section of the Ordnance Department. Mr. Johnston previous to leaving England for New Zealand was mostly engaged in clerical work and in studying naval gunnery and civil engineering. During the first seven years of his residence in the Colony he turned his attention to almost any class of work required in the successful settlement of a new country. He, however, principally followed the building trade, and erected some of the first houses in Wellington. About 1847 the Maoris were so troublesome, that the Government decided to page 115 make a road through the Horokiwi Valley (where an engagement had taken place, between the troops and the natives) to the West Coast, under the supervision of Captain Russell, of the 58th Regiment, (afterwards Colonel Russell), father of Sir William Russell, the wellknown politician. Early in 1848, Mr. Johnston was appointed clerk of the North Military Road, under Captain Russell, and undertook the engineering part in the construction of bridges, along the line, which was satisfactorily carried out, and the road completed in three years. On the completion of the work in 1851, he joined the Customs Department at Wellington, where, after several years of faithful service, he was promoted from second landing waiter to chief landing waiter at Nelson. In 1858, when the Collingwood gold “rush” was at its height, the custom-house at Collingwood was established, and Mr. Johnston was there for three years as subcollector. Returning to Nelson in 1861, he occupied the position of acting-collector for Captain Rough, then absent on leave, and during that period the “Delaware” was wrecked at Wakapuaka, where Mrs Martin (Huria Matenga) figured so prominently as to gain for herself the name of New Zealand's “Grace Darling.” Mr. Johnston was on duty at the wreck in his capacity of collector and receiver of wrecks. In 1863 he was appointed to take charge of the Customs at Havelock, where he was also postmaster. He was placed on the Commission of the Peace in 1856, was transferred to Greymouth in 1866, and returned finally to Nelson in 1868. In 1873 he was for a few months Collector of Customs at Christchurch. Mr. Johnston always took a great interest in developing the mineral resources of the Colony. He introduced and initiated the hematite paint industry from the iron ore obtained at Para Para, near Collingwood. In 1880, after thirty-three years of faithful service, Mr. Johnston retired from the department, leaving behind him a record that has never been excelled in New Zealand, for honesty, civility and integrity. He afterwards lived in retirement at his residence at Port Nelson, where he amused himself principally in painting in oil and water colours. Mr. Johnston was beloved alike by old and young. He died on the 26th of May, 1900.
Mr. C. Jones.
Mr. Charles King was born in 1836 in Suffolk, England. After receiving a fair business education in the town of his birth, he decided to learn the trade of baker and confectioner, and did so in the city of London. In the year 1856, hearing good accounts of New Zealand, he resolved to emigrate, and came out in the ship “Oliver Lang,” Captain Mundle. After he had been a few months in Wellington, news came of the finding of gold in Collingwood district, and Mr. King determined to try his luck there. While he was doing very well, he met with an accident, which caused him to be an inmate of the Nelson Hospital for sixteen weeks. After that he commenced to work at his own trade in Nelson, and with energy and perseverance he soon possessed a large and lucrative business, which he carried on for twenty-five years. He then sold out and took over the Windsor Castle Hotel, where he remained for fifteen years, and earned a good name. Mr. King has been connected with the Freemasons, Oddfellows, and Foresters. He was one of the first to join the volunteers; he spent about twenty-two years with them, and fairly earned the long-service medal. He has been similarly identified with the Nelson Fire Brigade, in which he held the position of lieutenant for many years, and was also second fire inspector for the city. Mr. King has a family of three sons and four daughters. Mr. George King is in business in Christchurch, Mr. C. King is a music-teacher in Wellington, and Mr. John King is a sheepfarmer at Croixelles. The daughters are all married and comfortable.
Mr. C. King.
Mrs C. King.
Mr. Robert Levien , who was the Founder of the firm of Levien Brothers, was born in London in 1834, and arrived in Victoria as a child with his parents. There his father engaged in farming, and in due time young Levien set up on his own account on a farm at Geelong, where he did a great deal of hard work. The news of the discovery of the Otago goldfields attracted him to New Zealand in 1861, and at Gabriel's Gully and several other places he carried on the business of a storekeeper. Having made a considerable amount of money, he went in 1884 to Nelson, where his uncle, Mr. Josoph Levien, had been settled for some time. He erected a free and bonded store at the Port, where Franzen's store afterwards stood, and speedily acquired, and always maintained the reputation of being an energetic and upright merchant and citizen. About 1883 he left the Port and transferred his business to Bridge Street. In 1872 he entered the City Council, in which he held a seat for about ten years, and conscientiously served the ratepayers. Mr. Levien was for many years a member of the Nelson Hospital and Charitable Aid Board. His death took place on the 2nd of November, 1893, when he left a widow with one daughter and six sons.
The Late Mr. R. Levien.
Mr. Donald Mcgregor was born at Wick, Caithness-shire, Scotland, in 1824, and was for many years engaged as a rope spinner and twine manufacturer. He came out to New Zealand in the end of 1850, but soon left for the newly discovered diggings in New South Wales. Thence he migrated to Victoria, where he encountered the various ups and downs incidental to a digger's life on the goldfields, but was fairly successful at Ballarat. Mr. McGregor came back to Nelson in 1855, and was placed in charge of a gang of men by the Dun Mountain Copper Company. He afterwards, along with two mates, spent several months in prospecting at Collingwood, and helped materially to open the country and develop the goldfields. He found gold in many places, and ultimately discovered the Quartz Ranges. He had also a share in two good claims on State river. On leaving the diggings he was employed by the Nelson Provincial Government in cutting bridle roads in the back country, page 117 and in exploring among the wooded ranges for passes for road lines. In 1864 he took up a small cattle run of some 3000 acres on the Mangles, a tributary of the Buller, where he bred some of the finest cattle ever seen on the West Coast. Mr. McGregor represented the Central Buller and Lyell in the Nelson Provincial Council at the time the Provinces were abolished. He was a member and chairman of the Hampden Road Board for years, also member of the Hampden Hcensing committee, and took a warm interest in all matters affecting the well-being of the district. After living about twentyeight years in the back country he sold out and came to live in town, and in the evening of life he enjoys a well-earned repose.
Mr. Lachlan Mclean was much esteemed as a colonist, and was well known in financial circles in Nelson. He was born in Scotland in 1834, and at the age of fourteen he took to a seafaring life. For about a quarter of a century Mr. McLean was master of sailing vessels engaged in the trade between India and the Mother Country. Owing to failing health he retired from the sea in 1887, and latterly he was financially interested in vessels in which he had formerly traded. Through his frugality and foresight Mr. McLean was able to pass his old age in comfort, and in freedom from monetary care, He died in December, 1900.
Mr. Henry Moore , who is a retired builder and contractor, conducted a large business for many years in Nelson. He was born in Birmingham, came to Nelson at the age of seventeen, and built up a successful business, from which he retired in 1892. Mr. Moore's residence, “Ashton,” is one of the most beautiful homes in the city. It stands on eight acres of tastefully laid out grounds, which are planted with many rare trees, imported from different parts of the world. Amongst them there is a copper-beech, fifty years old. Another tree, called the “Crown of Thorns,” was imported from Jerusalem, and is perhaps the only one of its kind in New Zealand.
Mr. H. Moore's Residence.
Mr. B. H. Moller.
Mr. Thomas Marsden was one of Nelson's oldest colonists, and was one of the original Nelson land purchasers from the New Zealand Company, in 1842. He was born at Hensingham, Cumberland, England, on file 1st of March, 1810, and was the only son of Mr. James Marsden, of Hathersage, in Derbyshire. He arrived in Nelson by the ship “Prince of Wales,” in 1842, accompanied by Mrs Marsden, and resided for six years in the infant town, which he left in 1848, and settled down at Stoke on his property of 930 acres, 400 of which are still held by his son, Mr. James Wilfred Marsden. Owing to the financial and other difficulties which beset the New Zealand Company, Mr. Marsden, along with other land purchasers, did not get his Crown grant till 1852. Mr. Marsden was also the owner of land near Blenheim, Marlborough, but eventually sold it. He resided upon his Stoke property from 1848 till 1876, and during that time greatly improved it by building, clearing and planting. For about three years he was a member of the Provincial Council of Nelson, and was also a loya, supporter of the Church of England, to which he gave the section of land upon which the pretty stone church at Stoke now stands. Mr. Marsden's death took place under somewhat peculiar circumstances. Accompanied by Mrs Marsdon and his infant grandson, he set out early one morning for Nelson, and when nearing the railway crossing at Jenkins' Hill, a passing train frightened the horse; whereupon the carriage was upset, and all its occupants were thrown out. Mr. Marsden got up apparently little the worse, and, accompanied by Mrs Marsden, carried his grandson about a quarter of a mile to Bishopdale. There, while still holding the child, he was seized with faintness, and asking a lad who was standing by to “take the child,” he sank down and expired. He was sixty-six years of age, and left a family of one son and two daughters.
The Late Mr. T. Marsden.
Mr. William Mickell was one of the New Zealand Company's expedition party, and landed at Nelson on the 1st of February, 1842, by the “Whitby.” He was born in Bannockburn, Scotland, brought up to the trade of a carpet weaver, and followed that occupation in various parts of Scotland and Ireland. After arriving in New Zealand, he was engaged as a sawyer for some years. Subsequently he erected a flour mill in Atua Valley, where he ground grain with a stone fifteen inches in diameter. In 1857 he erected a larger flour mill at Brooklyn, and worked it till his death, which occurred in 1887, from failure of the heart's action. Mr. Mickell was highly respected for his hospitality and free sociable qualities he was fond of amusements, and was especially beloved by children. At election times, particularly in the old Provincial Government days, he was always active, as an enthusiastic advocate of the Liberal cause. Mr. Mickell left a family of four sons and two daughters.
The Late Mr. W. Mickell.
Mr. Samuel Gaskell Robinson was born in Birmingham, England, in the year 1840. He is the oldest and only surviving son of the late Mr. J. P. Robinson, for many years Superintendent of Nelson, who arrived in New Zealand with his family in 1842, by the ship “Phoebe.” Mr. Robinson was educated in Nelson and Auckland. After a short time spent in the service of the Provincial Government, he was for a number of years in the employment of the Intercolonial Royal Mail Steamship Company as purser, on the s.s. “Lord Ashley,” and “Prince Alfred.” Mr. Robinson subsequently settled at Takaka, and was appointed Clerk of the Collingwood County Council, and Secretary to the Takaka Road Board, a position he held for over twenty years. He was also Government Valuer for the Takaka riding of the Golden Bay district for fifteen years; was harbour master at Waitapu, from 1878 up to the time he left Takaka to reside in Nelson; and for four years was proprietor and publisher of the “Takaka News. In the year 1901 Mr. Robinson retired from active life and settled in Nelson. As a Freemason he is a Past Master of the Golden Bay Lodge, No. 2149, English Constitution, and is also a member of the Takaka Lodge of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity.
Mr. Thomas Scott was the husband of Mrs Scott, the well-known teacher. He arrived in Nelson in November, 1875, and was engaged by the late Bishop Suter as his secretary. He remained in that position for nearly four years, when, owing to the increase in Mrs Scott's private school, he resigned his secretaryship in order to assist in her school as lecturer and teacher of drawing, etc. Mr. Scott was largely instrumental in founding Good Templary in England. He was the ver first to be initiated, and he at once devoted all his energies to establish the Order through the length and breadth of the land. He was grand secretary from the beginning of the Order in 1868 till the end of 1873, when the Order had increased to the enormous number of 3100 lodges, a number never equalled before or since in any Grand Lodge in the world. Mr. Scott still continued his connection with the Order, but as a matter of course, gave place to younger members to carry on the work. He was born in Ireland, of Scotch parents, in the year 1821. One who wrote his life in 1872 summed up his character in the expression “solid worth.” Mr. Scott died in the Cathedral at Nelson, while the organist was playing a dead march before evening service. On turning to look at Mr. Scott, the organist noticed that his appearance was unusual, and it was found that he was dead in his seat. The service was omitted that night. Mr. Scott was loved and respected by all who knew him.
The Late Mr. T. Scott.
Mr. John Park Salisbury was born in Lancaster, England, in 1833, and was educated for the legal profession. He came to Australia in 1852, in the ship “Bloomer,” and was for a short time goldmining and sheep driving in New South Wales and Victoria. In 1853 he came to New Zealand, and walked along the coast from New Plymouth to Wellington, where he met his brother. Mr. Salisbury then went to Motueka, and purchased 600 acres of land; he also opened up the country to the Baton in conjunction with his brother. In 1863 he found a tableland, which was afterwards called “Salisbury's Open,” where he rented 6000 acres, and subsequently 200 acres at Pokororo. He died of heart failure on the 26th of June, 1893, and left a family of six sons and two daughters.
The Late Mr. J. P. Salisbury.
Mr. John Tinline.
Mr. George Thompson , who is an Old Colonist and retired tradesman, residing in Waimea Street, Nelson, was born at Newcastleon-Tyne, England, in 1833, and landed in Melbourne in 1857. From Melbourne he went to the goldfields, where he resided for several years; but then crossed over to New Zealand, and settled in Nelson in 1867. At that time the water works were being carried on, and Mr. Thompson entered into business as a publican, establishing the Victoria Hotel, near the present Saltwater Bridge. After a few years of successful business Mr. Thompson leased the Wakatu Hotel, which was a fine building standing on the present site of the Bank of New South Wales in Bridge Street. Seven years later he sold out at a satisfactory figure, and went to Richmond, where he became host of the Star and Garter Hotel, which he conducted with success until he returned to Nelson, and took over the Post Boy Hotel, near the railway station, whence he retired from business in the enjoyment of the goodwill of his fallow colonists. Mr. Thompson was a member of the old Board of Works, which was afterwards merged into the City Council. Both Mr. and Mrs Thompson are held in general esteem by the community.
Mr. Henry Warren , long well-known in Nelson as a butcher, was born in Suffolk, England, came out to Melbourne in the ship “Royal Charter,” and crossed over to New Zealand in the early sixties, during the Otago gold “rush.” In 1862 he removed to Nelson, where, as a partner with Mr. T. Hudson, he started business in Trafalgar Street. After a short period the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Warren continued on his own account, and met with a large measure of support. Owing to continued ill-health, Mr. Warren retired from business in 1878, and paid a twelve months' visit to the Old Land. In sporting matters he was very prominent, and owned several racehorses, amongst them, the champion, “Chanticleer.” Mr. Warren was a Freemason, Oddfellow and Forester. For some time previous to his death, which took place in 1896, he was a great sufferer, but he bore his affliction with patience and fortitude, He was married to the second daughter of the late Mr. William Ball, builder, who was also an old and respected colonist. Mrs Warren is still (1905) a resident of Nelson.
The Late Mr. H. Warren And Mrs Warren.
Captain Arthur Wakefield, brother of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, was one of the most notable figures among the founders of the colony. He was born in 1808, had been in the navy from the age of ten, and served in every quarter of the world. He was at one time aide-de-camp to Admiral Cockburn, and distinguished himself on many occasions by his personal bravery. He had considerable skill in gunnery and in shipbuilding, and he was an accomplished linguist. His honesty, courage, strong sense of duty and sound judgment endeared him to all the early settlers. He was one of the vietims of the Wairau massacre, on the 17th of June, 1843, and is further referred to in that connection at pages 12 and 13 of this volume.
Captain T. Whitwell, one of the pioneers in the West Coast shipping trade, arrived in Victoria, in 1851, and after a few years spent in gold mining, became connected with the shipping trade between Australia and New Zealand. In 1856 he married and made his home in Nelson, and for many years afterwards was engaged in the West Coast trade, in command of vessels of the Anchor Shipping Company. Captain Whitwell spent his old age quietly in Nelson, and was a popular member of the local Bowling Club, which he represented in many ten naments. He died in October, 1904, leaving a family of seven sons and four daughters.
Mr. William Wilkie was born at Kirriemuir, Scotland. He landed in page 121 1842 in the primitive days of Nelson, and by steady perseverence built up a flourishing business. Mr. Wilkie took a great interest in political matters, and was universally esteemed as a sterling colonist. His death took place on the 1st of January, 1891.
Mr. Richard Wallis , sometime of Lower Moutere, was popular amongst the early colonists of Nelson. He was born in England, and he and his wife came to New Zealand early in the forties. From 1850 till 1866 he resided at Richmond, but then removed to Moutere, where he very soon found a field for his labours. There he carried on good work and founded an orphanage, which the Government recognised as a useful institution and readily granted him a subsidy. He sometimes had as many as forty or fifty children in the orphanage. When the Whakarewa orphanage was founded by the Anglican Church, Mr. Wallis handed over his charges to the church, and made the large building into a homestead for himself. Mr. Wallis died in 1882, and left a widow, three sons and five daughters.
The Late Mr. R. Wallis.