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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts]

Commercial, Industrial And Professional

page 86

Commercial, Industrial And Professional.

The commercial history of Nelson dates back to the very early days of the settlement. Nelson had the first newspaper in the Middle Island of New Zealand, and also the colony's first brewery—that of Paolo and Pelham. In 1843 Messrs Hooper and Co. built the second brewery, a much larger one than the first, in the same city. Flax dressing was inaugurated in the colony in McGlashan's mill at Wakapuaka, and Mr. Joseph Webley's woollen mill at Nelson was the first of its kind in New Zealand. The first New Zealand barley was grown in Nelson, and was malted by Hooper and Co. Nelson, too, was the first New Zealand port to own a local steamer. A chamber of commerce existed in Nelson from 1858 to 1864, and from its ashes sprang another stronger body.

A fair index to the state of trade in Nelson from time to time will be found on another page of this volume in the article on the business of the Customhouse; but a word or two concerning the commerce of the colony as a whole will not be out of place in this connection. For the year which ended on the 31st of March, 1905, the total value of exports from New Zealand amounted to £15,531,429, inclusive of specie; and, as for the previous year the value was £15,308,616, this showed a moderate increase of £222,813. The value of the imports for the same period was £13,034,301, against £13,276,366 in the previous year; a decrease of £233,065.

Recent years have been exceptionally favourable to the colony, owing to good seasons and substantially higher prices for produce. In the season of 1904–5, the actual average yields in corn crops were: Wheat, 35.36 bushels per acre; oats, 42.53 bushels; and barley, 38.26 bushels. The total returns for the year were: Wheat, 9,123,673 bushels; oats, 14,553,611 bushels; and barley, 1,128,164 bushels. The wheat harvest was the heaviest in the decade, except for 1898–99, when the gross yield in that grain amounted to 13,073,416 bushels. The yield of wheat per acre in 1904–5 was also larger than in any other year in the period, except 1902–3, when there was an average of 38.37 bushels.

As between the 31st of March, 1900, and the same date in 1905, the value of the butter exported from the colony increased from £693,701 to £1,514,156; but cheese showed a decline from £208,258 to £180,874, and beef from £269,459 to £192,404. On the other hand, the value of exported lamb advanced from £603,722 to £1,123,112; and of mutton, from £1,103,081 to £1,291,005. Returns for the year which ended on the 31st of December, 1904, show that the wool and sheepskins exported were valued at over five millions sterling; an increase of half a million on the value of the corresponding exports for 1903. New Zealand hemp exported during the same period was valued at £710,281, an increase of about £115,000; frozen meat, £2,746,113, a decrease of over £400,000. Kauri gum, grain and tallow also showed decreased values; that is, comparing the returns for 1904 with those for 1903. The gold exported in 1904 was valued at £1,987,501.

New Zealand imports from Australia, Fiji, Bengal, and Ceylon have materially increased of late, but those from Canada show a slight decline. New Zealand buys more largely in the United States than elsewhere, except in England. Of European continental countries, Germany is the colony's largest supplier. Latterly imports from Belgium and Japan have shown a slight decrease. The colony's exports to Australia exceed its imports from that commonwealth; but the exports to Fiji, Bengal, Ceylon, and Canada are considerably lower than the colony's imports from them. A large import trade is carried on with the United States, Germany, Belgium, and Japan, and to these countries the colony's exports are as yet but slight. In fact, New Zealand sends the bulk of its produce to England, which is, therefore, by a long way, the colony's best customer.

Those who are interested in the ethics or essential principles of banking may be pleased to be reminded in this connection of a noteworthy episode in the commercial history of Nelson. In 1847 the Government of New Zealand passed an Act to create a Colonial Bank of Issue, and made the notes a legal tender. The bank was only a bank of issue, and there was no provision for effecting remittances nor for receiving deposits, and the Act prohibited the issue of any other notes payable on demand. This, of course, compelled the Union Bank of Australia—the only bank in the place—to withdraw as speedily as possible every note it had in circulation, and it was not worth its while to continue its branch in Nelson. Business men were thus thrown into a difficult position; there were no means in the place for making remittances and nothing to constitute a medium of circulation except a very moderate and uncertain supply of Government notes and gold. The Government paid all salaries, wages., etc., in its own notes, and all customs duties, etc., were paid by importers in Government notes and gold. There was generally a scramble to get enough notes and gold for Customs purposes, for, in the absence of any other way of making remittances, they were being continually carried away from the place. To relieve this state of affairs Messrs Morrison and Sclanders started the Nelson Bank, and as the Bank of Issue Act pro- page 87 hibited the issue of notes payable on demand, the firm's private notes were made payable twelve months after date. Yet, although not nominally so, the Nelson bank notes were practically payable on demand, in cash or “notes,” or drafts on the Union Bank of Australia; and “notes” were anderstood by everyone to mean the Government legal tender notes. For nearly eight years these Nelson Bank notes answered all the purposes of a circulating medium within the province of Nelson, and little if any other money was ever to be seen; indeed, without them it would scarcely have been possible to carry on business. At first only £1 notes were issued, but when silver became scarce, five shilling notes were issued by special request, by the Nelson Bank, and were much appreciated. Although the notes of the Nelson Bank were not negotiable in the regular way outside Nelson, they found their way to, and were accepted in, many other places, especially in the Wairau. Numbers of them eventually reached Wellington, whence they were sent over to Nelson; and the senders had a cheque for the amount by return of post on the Union Bank of Australia, Wellington. Traders coming to Nelson with cargo had to accept payment in Nelson Bank notes; but on taking these to the bank they received a cheque on the Union Bank of Australia, Wellington. Thus the Nelson Bank of Messrs Morrison and Sclanders proved a great convenience to the public; but when the Bank of Issue Act was repealed the Union Bank was able to issue its own notes, and then the Nelson Bank notes were cancelled as they came in.

Nelson Chamber Of Commerce.

The Nelson Chamber Of Commerce was one of the first institutions of its kind in New Zealand. At present there are about fifty members. The Chamber has its headquarters in the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Company's building. Its readingroom is supplied with the leading newspapers, and meetings are held once a month. Mr. J. H. Cook is chairman; Mr. F. W. Hamilton, vicechairman; Messrs C. King, H. Baigent, C. Y. Fell, T. H. Bannehr, H. R. Duncan, H. M. Field, and H. Edwards constitute the committee; and Mr. J. P. Harris is secretary.

Agents, Auctioneers, Etc.

Bisley Bros. And Co . (E. H. Bisley and A. H. Bisley), Auctioneers, Commission Merchants, and Land, Stock and Station Agents, Hardy Street. Nelson. Australian and London Agents, Messrs Dalgety and Co., Ltd. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Telegraphic address, “Bisley, Nelson.” Code A.B.C. Fourth Edition. This well-known and largely connected firm was established in 1885. The handsome buildings are situated in the busiest section of the town, within one minute's walk from the post office. The stock is valued at many thousands of pounds, and there are always extensive lines of general merchandise, farm requisites, saddlery, harness, ironmongery, pianos, organs, carpets, linoleums, etc. The firm acts as attorneys or trustees, and undertakes the management of large or small estates, and invests money for clients on firstclass security. Its auction mart and storage accommodation are very superior. Sales are held regularly at the rooms, and throughout the Nelson district, and the firm has wellequipped saleyards in different parts of the country. Messrs Bisley Brothers have opened a direct hop trade with India and Africa; this should prove of great commercial benefit to the industry, and the firm deserves success for its enterprise.

Messrs Bisley Bros.' Premises.

Messrs Bisley Bros.' Premises.

page 88

Edwards, Henry, Commission Agent, Wakefield Buildings, Nelson. Mr. Edwards is agent for the South British Insurance Company, and for several English money-lenders, and was for about fifty years connected with the recently wound-up business of Sclanders and Co. He was born in Essex, England, in 1837, left for New Zealand in 1849 by the ship “Mariner,” and landed in Wellington, whence he at once went on to Nelson. Soon after his arrival Mr. Edwards entered the office of the late Mr. Donald Sinclair, solicitor, and remained with him three years, after which he entered the firm of Sclanders and Co. Mr. Edwards bears a high reputation for integrity and business capacity. He is the vice-president of the Nelson Savings Bank, a member and ex-chairman of the Nelson Fire Underwriters' Association; he was president of the Nelson Bowling Club, and is the holder of several large and important private trusts and executorships, as well as treasurer of the Loyal Nelson Lodge of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity. Mr. Edwards has been a member of the Order for nearly fifty years, and has been through all the offices of the Lodge and District, including that of District Provincial Corresponding Secretary, which he held for many years; and his services have been recognised by valuable presentations on three separate occasions. In 1860, Mr. Edwards married a daughter of the late Mr. John Nixon, and has a numerous family.

Mr. H. Edwards.

Mr. H. Edwards.


Roberts, Thomas, Civil Engineer and Architect, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Mr. Roberts was born in 1842, near Yeovil, Somersetshire, England, and is a son of the late Mr. Joseph Roberts, a land agent and agricultural valuer. He received his chief education at the Yeovil and Ilminster grammar schools; and was a pupil of Messrs Hyde, Smith and Lewis, civil engineers, Tavistock Street, London. After following his profession for four years in association with his father at Crewkerne, Somersetshire, he left England for Canterbury, New Zealand, in October, 1870. In the May following he obtained employment in the Canterbury Provincial Engineer's office, and later became Provincial Clerk of Works. In May, 1873, he received the appointment of engineer to the Timaru and Gladstone Board of Works, which had charge of all public works in South Canterbury, with an office in Timaru. From the end of 1875 Mr. Roberts was in private practice, chiefly in the Timaru and Christchurch districts, until 1890, when he joined the staff of the New Zealand Midland Railway Company, and in November of that year he was given charge of the Belgrove section of the company's line. He became Assistant Engineer in the Government Public Works Department, with charge of the Nelson district, in 1895; but is now in private practice as a civil engineer and architect. [After this article was set up Mr. Roberts left Nelson.]

Mr. T. Roberts.

Mr. T. Roberts.

Artists And Photographers.

Brusbwitz, Henry E. L., Portrait and Landscape Photographer, Hardy Street, Nelson. This business was established by Mr. Brusewitz in 1889. The proprietor turns out work which is noticeable for artistic posing and finish, and tourists and others passing through Nelson can depend upon obtaining first-rate views of notable scenery at Mr. Brusewitz's studio. Mr. Brusewitz does a considerable business in retouching, printing, and enlarging the work of amateurs, for whom he also keeps on hand a large stock of photographic materials, chemicals, paper, films, cameras, lenses and every requisite required for the business.

Harris, Miss Emily Cumming, Artist, Nile Street, Nelson. Miss Harris was born at Plymouth, England, and is a daughter of the late Mr. Edwin Harris, one of the first surveyors of Taranaki. She was educated in New Plymouth, but at the time of the Taranaki war was sent to Hobart, and re-joined her parents some years later in Nelson, where she has resided ever since. Miss Harris studied drawing in Hobart, and learned painting from her father, to whose careful instruction she owes her skill, and from whom she inherits her talent. In 1873, Miss Harris forwarded a number of paintings of New Zealand flora to an exhibition held in Nelson and Hokitika, and she gained a silver medal on each occasion. She forwarded a number of paintings to the Intercolonial Exhibition at Sydney in 1879, and received a first award and a medal, and also a first award at Melbourne in the following year. At the Anglo-Colonial Exhibition in London, Miss Harris obtained a general award with other exhibitors, and she has received many awards at Christchurch, Auckland and Wellington for works in oil and water-colour. Miss Harris, in conjunction with the late Mr. Jackson, of Nelson, published a very useful and interesting book, entitled “New Zealand Flowers, Berries and Ferns”; and she has also designed New Zealand floral autograph At-Home books.

Tyree, William, Artist and Photographer, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. This business was established in 1878, and is known throughout the whole colony. The studio is fitted up in the most superb manner, and the waiting and dressing rooms are unequalled by those of any other similar establishment in the Nelson, Westland or Marlborough districts. The building has a frontage of forty feet in Trafalgar Street, and runs back to a depth of 100 feet. Mr. Tyree's work is said to be unsurpassed in the colony, and the specimens to be seen at the studio are finished in a most artistic style. Six professional assistants are constantly employed.

Bakers, etc.

Bradshaw, Thomas William, Baker, Bridge Street, Nelson. This business was established in 1894 by the present proprietor, who is well and favourably known as an experienced tradosman. The oven, which is of modern type, will conveniently hold 250 loaves, and the trade extends throughout the whole of Nelson city, and is gradually increasing in response to the good article supplied to the public. Mr. Bradshaw was born in Lancashire, England, in 1859, and came to New Zealand at an early age with his parents. He learned his trade with Mr. D. Chisholm, served about eight years with Mr. J. Johns, and was three or four years with Messrs Griffin and Sons. Mr. Bradshaw is best known as an enthusiast in the Salvation Army, in which he has filled the office of sergeant-major. As an officer he has travolled over the greater part of the colony. Mr. Bradshaw married a daughter of Mr. D. McCallum, of Long Plain, Takaka.

page 89

Fairey, Frederick George, Baker and Confectioner, Haven Road, Nelson. Established 1886. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Fairey's business has been long in public favour, and he has built up a valuable connection in town and suburbs. A specialty is made of Dr. Ryder's Patent Brown Bread. The oven is capable of holding 160 loaves. Mr. Fairey was born in Richmond, in 1876, and had a thorough training in the trade in the North Island and also in Canterbury. He is a member of the Order of Druids.

Brewers, Maltsters, etc.

Dodson, J. R. And Son , late Hooper and Dodson (Henry R. Duncan, proprietor), Brewers, Bottlers, Maltsters, and Aerated Water Manufacturers, Hardy and Tasman Streets, Nelson. P.O. Box 70. Telephone 13. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. This firm's business is the largest of its kind in Nelson, and was established in 1843. The present buildings are of recent date, imposing in appearance, and give ample room for all departments of the business. During the existence of the firm, a name has been won for a good article. It has been singularly successful in gaining prizes wherever it has exhibited. Messrs Dodson and Son secured an award at the All Nations' Exhibition of Works of Industry in 1886–7; bronze medal at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London, 1886; bronze medal at the Industrial Exhibition at Wellington in 1885; silver medal at Nelson in 1873; and at the Nelson Agricultural Show in 1897–98; and again in 1904, they secured three firstclass certificates for draught ale, and in 1896–97–98, and in 1902–03–04 firsts for bottled ale and porter. As a prize-winner, the firm, therefore, ranks with the most successful brewers in the Australasian colonies. Its bottled ales and stouts have attained a name throughout the colony for excellence of quality, and the “AK” brand is as familiar in hotels all the country over as any other. Messrs Robinson and Perrin, the wellknown Wellington bottlers (who exclusively bottle Messrs Dodson and Son's ale and porter), are rapidly building up a large business. The brewery consists of a twenty-six hogshead plant of the most modern type; and the premises are fitted and equipped on the most modern and approved lines for the expeditions carrying on of the work. Trade is done with Wellington, Wairarapa, Wanganui and Palmerston, whilst on the West Coast of the South Island, and in the Golden Bay districts, Dodson's “AK” ale and porter are more familiar and popular than any other brands. Care and scrupulous cleanliness are maintained throughout the brewery, and the brewing staff consists of practical, trustworthy men, some of whom have had very large experience in all brewery work. Malting is carried on in a very large way, under the immediate supervision of Mr. Duncan. In both islands, “Dodson's Malt” is held in the very highest esteem, for excellence, primeness and uniformity of quality. At the Nelson Agricultural Show in 1898, the firm obtained first prize for malt against all comers. The firm has of late years received many very flattering testimonials from brewers who use its malt, a fact which testifies to the excellence of the manufacture. In 1902, this firm bought the old-established aerated water and cordial manufactory of James Hamilton; the new owners installed the most modern plant, and the factory is now second to none in completeness in the colony. The firm also manufactures the deservedly popular and non-intoxicating hop ale. Nelson's flagship, “Victory,” is the trade mark of all goods turned out at the factory, and the brand is sought after by those who prefer light nonintoxicating drinks. In 1901, Mr. H. R. Duncan, who had formerly been managing partner, bought the business from the executors of J. R. and Henry Dodson. Mr. Duncan's private residence is Wainui House.

Mr. Henry R. Duncan , Proprietor of Dodson's Brewery, is a grandson of the late Mr. J. R. Dodson. He was born in Wellington in 1866. Upon leaving college heentered the Government Life Insurance Department, where he romained eighteen months. Mr. Duncan's first practical experience in brewing was gained at Gisborne, where he was for two years and a-half under Mr. Crawford. He then came to Nelson, and remained with Messrs J. R. Dodson and Son till 1890, when he visited the Old Country to study the systems of brewing as carried on in some of the larger breweries there, and the analytical part of brewing as affecting the purity of materials used in the production of beer and stout. While in Europe Mr. Duncan visited Copenhagon, and for three months studied pure yeast culture under Professor Jorgensen and Dr. Hansen of that city. Mr. Duncan thoroughly understands the whole business of brewing and malting, and personally superintends the work. Again, in 1893, when he made another visit to Europe on business connected with the firm, he made a tour of all the large breweries in England and Germany. Mr. Duncan is a member of the London Institute of Brewing, and holds an “Honours” certificate for brewing and malting from the London City and Guilds Institute—a certificate which probably is not held by any other brewer in the Australasian colonies.

Hogg, George And Co ., Brewers, Bottlers and Maltsters, City Brewery, Collingwood Street, Nelson. The various buildings of the brewery, malthouse, and bottling stores cover more than an acre of ground. The malthouse has a capacity of 300 sacks a month, and large sales are effected throughout the North Island and the West Coast. There is cellar accommodation for 200 hogsheads. The plant comprises 150 hogsheads, and there is a capacious drying oven. The excellent quality of the firm's ales and stouts has enabled them to gain honours wherever they have been exhibited.

Holland, J. H. , Brewer and Winemaker, Waimea Road, Nelson; Vinery and Brewery, Bishopdale, Nelson. This successful business was established many years ago by Mr. J. Chapman, and taken over by the present proprietor in 1898. The grounds, which are alongside the main road, cover over two acres, all in orchard. There are four large glass houses, devoted to vine and cucumber growing. Mr. Holland's vines bear in such profusion that the fruit almost hides the main stems, and he has varieties for winemaking and table use. The orchard has a variety of apple, peach, plum, and cherry trees, and in the season these are literally weighed down with fruit. This applies specially to the apple trees. The glass houses in the nursery contain ventilators page 90 easily manipulated, besides a good supply of water for use in the interior. The encumber house is heated by means of hot water pipes, and considerable care is used in forcing the young plants is in order to get early cucumbers for table use. In the area set apart for vegetables, Mr. Holland grows from 1200 to 1500 cabbages. Asparagus is also raised, and tomatoes, both under glass and in the open, are grown on an extensive scale. Mr. Holland is growing a new dwarf variety of broad beans. The brewery is under the personal supervision of Mr. Holland, who brews only from Nelson hops and barley, and makes an excellent light ale, suitable for the table or invalids. For this ale Mr. Holland has a good demand, not only at Nelson, but from Wellington. The wine cellar contains a variety of winesgrape, parsnip, gooseberry, peach, plum, and tomato, and the bottling house is well stocked with wines, ales and stout. Mr. Holland was born at Wakenfield, Nelson, in 1850, and is a son of Mr. George Holland, one of Nelson's oldest residents. He was educated at Wakefield, and followed sawmilling for nearly twenty years. He and a partner were engaged in the brewing industry for five or six years at Owen's Reefs, Central Buller. Mr. Holland is assisted in his present business by his eldest son.

Baglan Brewery (Joseph Auty Harley, proprietor), Nelson. P.O. Box 41. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. This business was started in 1853 by the late Mr. Charles Harley, and was afterwards conducted by Mr. W. C. Harley (now retired). The firm has won a good name for its products, not only in the province of Nelson, where there is a large demand, but also abroad. It gained awards at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition of 1886; Wellington in 1885; Sydney in 1879; and at the Intercolonial Exhibition of Victoria in 1866–7.

Mr. J. A. Harley ., the Proprietor, is an extensive employer of labour, and grows all the hops required in the business. He is elsewhere referred to as a former Mayor of Nelson.

Builders, Contractors, etc.
Moore, Charles Walter, Builder, Hampden Street West, Nelson. Mr. Moore was born in Birmingham, England, in 1828, and came to Nelson in 1859. He was apprenticed in England to the building trade, and afterwards went to Connecticut, United States of America, where he followed his trade for seven years, during which he was engaged chiefly in stair-building. After arriving in New Zealand he worked as a journeyman for some time, but subsequently started on his own account. A large number of buildings in and around Nelson testify to Mr. Moore's skilful workmanship; for example, the Roman Catholic Orphanage in Manuka Street, the Theatre Royal, Haven Road school, Adams and Kingdon's substantial offices, the residence of the late Mr. C. Bigg-Wither, churches at Richmond and Wakapuaka, and parsonages in Nelson and Richmond, etc. He likewise designed the Nelson Savings Bank. Mr. Moore was married, in 1860, to Mary Anne, daughter of the late Mr. John Davenport, of Warstone,
Messrs J. R. Dodson and Son's Premises.

Messrs J. R. Dodson and Son's Premises.

page 91 Birmingham, England, and has had eleven children, of whom two sons and two daughters are still living.

Stringer, John Alfred, Builder and Contractor, Bridge Street, Nelson. Mr. Stringer is further referred to as a member of the Volunteer Force.

Scott, John (Alfred William Clayden, manager), Builder and Contractor, Timber Yard and Sash and Door Factory, Trafalgar Street North, Nelson.

Mr. Alfred William Clayden , who has charge of the limber yard and sash and door factory for the executors of the late Mr. John Scott, was appointed to his present position on the death of the proprietor in 1897, having been in the firm's service since 1882. The premises are situated in Trafalgar Street North, where a large business is done, and the firm has the most complete wood working machinery in the province. The firm has the contract for the supply of jam-boxes for the Nelson jam factory, and the quantity of white pine used in this manufacture has, in some years, exceeded 200,000 feet.


Balme And Company (William George Wilson and George Henry Bradley), Coachbuilders, corner of Waimea and Hardy Streets, Nelson. This business was begun in the early fifties by Mr. H. Balme, and is one of the oldest coach factories in New Zealand. The present owners entered into possession of the business in December, 1900, and as they are both practical men, they worthily uphold the firm's reputation for taste in design and thoroughness in workmanship. All kinds of vehicles are turned out complete, and the firm has built many coaches for the West Coast trade, and for Cassidy and Co. The firm of Balme and Co. has exhibited with distinguished success at agricultural and pastoral shows throughout the colony, and was awarded first order of merit and a silver medal at Nelson in 1873; first order of merit and a silver medal at Wairarapa and East Coast in 1884; first and third order of merit and silver medal at Wellington, 1885; two second orders of merit at Dunedin, 1889; and three first prizes at the Marlborough Exhibition of 1901. The factory is a wooden building, two stories in height, and contains a large show-room, three workshops, and a blacksmith's shop. Designs and estimates are given for all descriptions of carriages, coaches, and other vehicles, on application.

Mr. William George Wilson , of the firm of Balme and Co., coachbuilders, Nelson, was born in England in 1859. He served an apprenticeship to Messrs Brainsby and Son, coachbuilders, Peterborough, England, and came out to New Zealand in 1884. After being engaged with Balme and Co for a few years, he entered into a partnership with Mr. George Bradley, and took over his business. Mr. Wilson was married in Sydney, New South Wales, to Miss Yates, and has a family of three sons and five daughters.

Mr. George Henry Bradley , of the firm of Balme and Co., was born in Nelson, in 1869, and is the son of Mr. Henry James Bradley. He received his education at Nelson, served his apprenticeship with Gorrie and Sons, and afterwards entered the employment of Balme and Co., with whom he continued for twelve years. In 1900 he and Mr. W. G. Wilson entered into partnership and acquired the business. Mr. Bradley is married, and has two daughters and one son.

Brusewitz, photo. Entrance to Nelson Harbour, Showing Fifeshire Rock.

Brusewitz, photo.
Entrance to Nelson Harbour, Showing Fifeshire Rock.

Decorators, Painters, etc.
Cooke, James Phillip, Oil and Colour Merchant, “Royal Blue House,” Hardy Street, Nelson. Established in 1863. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Examiner page 92
Mr. J. P. Cooke's Premises.

Mr. J. P. Cooke's Premises.

Street. Mr. Cooke imports all stocks, such as oils, colours, glass, mouldings, Windsor and Newton's artists' materials, etc., direct from the Home manufacturers. The business premises have a frontage of forty feet by a depth of sixty feet. Mr. Cooke was born in Gloucester. England, in 1836, and came to New Zealand in 1859. He worked at his trade with Mr. Lewison, of Nelson, for four years, and then started on his own account.

Savage, J. And Son , Oil and Colourmen. Hardy Street, Nelson. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. The late Mr. Savage arrived in Nelson in 1862. He came to New Zealand with a London experience of thirteen years, and established the present business in 1889. The shop and right-of-way has a frontage of 76 feet to Hardy Street, with a depth of 290 feet. The rear of the main building is especially fitted up for the storage of paperhangings, in connection with which the firm is noted for excellent taste in artistic designs. The “Artists' Arcade' adjoins the shop, and extends back 150 feet. It has been tastefully fitted up with pictures from English houses, and is stored with requisites indispensable to the artist. Rooms are partitioned off for tea and refreshments, which can be partaken of at any hour of the day, and this is found to be a great convenience to townspeople and country visitors. The firm gives special attention to picture framing with New Zealand woods, and mouldings imported from English and foreign houses are also kept in stock. No labour is spared to make every department in the establishment interesting and attractive.

Messrs J. Savage and Son's Premises.

Messrs J. Savage and Son's Premises.

Drapers, Clothiers, etc.

Barltrop, H., Draper, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Mr. Barltrop was born in London, and came out to New Zealand in 1842 by the “Indemnity,” when but a lad, and landed in Wellington. He went to Taranaki in 1850, but returned to Wellington a year later. After that he crossed to Nelson and was employed in the milling trade for Dr. Bush, with whom he remained two years. In 1865 Mr. Barltrop entered the employment of the late Mr. Wilkie, whose business he managed for many years. Mr. Barltrop is married, and has twelve children.

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Richards, Ernest, Merchant Tailor, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Private residence, Church Street. A full assorted stock of Scotch and English tweeds is at all times kept on hand, and the style of work turned out speaks for itself. Satisfaction is guaranteed, the garments (especially the coats) being for the greater part hand-sewn. The business has grown into large proportions. Mr. Richards was born in Nelson in 1870, and served a term of apprenticeship with Messrs Dee and Sons of that town. He afterwards gained valuable experience in Wellington in the employment of the late Mr. Reid, a leading and popular tailor, at whose death Mr. Richards entered the establishment of Messrs King and Mins, but shortly afterwards went to Napier and joined Messrs Davis and Evans, with whom he served six years before he returned to Nelson.

Short, W. And Son , Tailors, Hatters and Out fitters, Hardy Street, Nelson.

Fuel Trade.

Burford, James, Coal Merchant, etc., The Port, Nelson. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand, Ltd. Mr. Burford is a wellknown resident and a Justice of the Peace. He is the owner of the smart little steamer “Lady” Barkly,” of forty tons, which runs between Nelson, Motueka, Takaka, and Collingwood, and has been engaged in her present trade since 1867. The “Lady Barkly” starts from the owner's private wharf, and all particulars as to passage and freight can be obtained at the shipping office at the Port.

Furnishing Trade. etc.

Page, G. And Sons (George Page), House Furnishers, Salesmen and General Commission Agents. Hardy Street, Nelson. Established 1898. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Montreal Road, Toi Valley. This business bids fair to become one of the largest in the district. The workshop is replete with the most modern machinery for carrying on a successful and high-class trade. The plant consists of a new six-horse power engine built by Crossley, of Manchester, and of the best saws and tools. Nothing but good work is turned out, and some of the suites are in rich art designs. Everything connected with a thoroughly replete furnishing business is on the premises. One of the firm's specialfies is French polishing. Estimates can be obtained at all times.

Mr. George Page . Senior Partner in the firm, is a native of Staffordshire, England, and came to New Zealand in 1879 by the ship “Arethusa.” In the Old Land he had considerable experience in the iron work and furnishing trade. His first appointment in New Zealand was with Messrs Wilkins and Field, whose employment he left to enter the service of Mr. John James, auctioneer and house furnisher, with whom he romained four years. He subsequently took charge of Messrs Bisley Bros.' furniture-making workshop, and remained in that position fourteen years. On leaving he received a valuable present, and general regret was expressed at his departure after so many years of faithful service. In Nelson Mr. Page is favourably known, and has been at all times a most loyal citizen.

Shone, Alfred, Cabinetmaker, Embalmer and Undertaker, Collingwood Street, Nelson. This business was founded in the year 1862 by Mr. Thomas Shone, father of the present proprietor, and was conducted successfully by him till 1893, when he passed the management over to his two sons. The other son having retired, the business is now carried on solely by Mr. Alfred Shone. All kinds of furniture are made to order on the premises, and all articles are of first class workmanship. Mr. Shone is the only undertaker in Nelson who holds a certificate for embalming. He attended a course of instruction, is fully qualified in all branches of his calling, and has received many testimonials which testify to his success. Mr. Shone was born in Melbourne, Australia, in the year 1859, and arrived in New Zealand with his parents, as an infant. He was educated at the State school in Nelson, and was subsequently apprenticed to his father, with whom he worked for a number of years. As a Forester, Mr. Shone is a Past Chief Ranger of Court Robin Hood; and he was for twenty years a member of the Naval Brigade. Mr. Shone married a daughter of Mr. George Parkes, of Eighty-eight Valley, near Wakefield, and has one son and three daughters.

Tyree, photo. Mr. A. Shone.

Tyree, photo.
Mr. A. Shone.


Central Hotel (Robert A. Storey, proprietor) Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Telephone, 115; bankers, Bank of New Zealand. This fine hotel is one of the largest and most favourably known in the town, and the proprietor is one of the most popular landlords in Nelson. It is centrally situated at the corner of Trafalgar and Bridge Streets, is the nearest hotel to the new Post Office, and offers first-class accommodation and convenience to the travelling public with its comfortably furnished bedrooms, bathrooms, four parlours, and fine dining room, capable of seating fifty guests. There is a well kept table, and constant civility and attention make the place much more homelike and comfortable than the average hotel. The house was originally erected in the early days of Nelson, but has been added to, pulled down, and re-built.

Mr. Robert A. Storey , Proprietor of the Central Hotel, was born in Marlborough, and received his education in Blenheim. For many years he followed the building trade in the Wellington provincial district, and entered into possession page 94
Central Hotel, Nelson.

Central Hotel, Nelson.

of the Central Hotel late in 1904. Mr. Storey has already identified himself with most of the athletic clubs in Nelson, and is also a member of the Defence Rifle Club and the Jockey Club.
Tyree, photo. Mr. R. A. Storey.

Tyree, photo.
Mr. R. A. Storey.

Masonic Hotel , corner of Hardy and Trafalgar Streets, Nelson. P.O. box, 31; Telephone, 38. The Masonic Hotel, which is owned by Mr. Henry Baigent, is situated in the heart of the city a few yards from the Post Office, cab stands, and banks, and ofters every facility to guests, be they commercial men or tourists. The building, which is second to none in Nelson, is of brick, two stories in height, and plastered throughout. It was erected in 1863, by Mr. Field, and was managed for a number of years by Mr. R. Gilmer, who sold out to the present proprietor in January, 1902. On acquiring the property Mr. Baigent added twenty-two bedrooms to the hotel, and put the house on a thoroughly up-to-date footing. The building now has a frontage of 105 feet on Hardy Street, and another of 107 feet on Trafalgar Street, with a wide asphalted balcony around the whole of both frontages. As most of the bedrooms open out on the balconies, fire-escape ladders have been placed in readiness to ensure the safety of the guests. The main entrance is from Hardy Street, through a wide vestibule, decorated with ferns and pot plants; and there is a separate, entrance to the bars. The diningroom, on the ground floor, is capable of seating sixty guests, and is to be enlarged to provide for three extra tables. The commercial bar is stocked with the choicest wines, spirits, ales, and other beverages, and is fitted with a half-circular counter, at the back of which there is a private room connected with the bar by means of two open windows. Mr. Baigent personally attends to the breaking-down of his whisky, and as he has had considerable experience in the art, guests and callers can depend on getting the best liquors in the market. The commercial and smoking-room, at the rear of the bar, is equipped with four American writing desks, lounges and easy chairs, and stocked with stationery, newspapers, books, and magazines. The other rooms on the ground floor include the office, and two private sitting-rooms. Outside, but adjacent to the building, there are storerooms, lavatories, and the kitchen. A wide staircase leads to the first floor, on which there are thirty-four bedrooms, exclusive of those used by the family and hotel staff. All the rooms, single and double, are well furnished, and are scrupulously clean in every particular. The private sitting-rooms and ladies' drawing room are large airy apartments with pile carpets, and furnished in good taste. Practically all the comforts and conveniences of civilisation are found in these well-appointed rooms. There are three bath-rooms and lavatories on the first floor, and the hotel is lighted throughout with incandescent gas. The “Masonie” is the stopping place for Cook's tourists, and offers all the conveniences of a first-class hotel to families, travellers and commercial men. In the short, time that Mr. Baigent has owned the property he has spared no expense in making alterations, additions, and improvements, and has thoroughly renovated the hotel, and brought it to a high standard of perfection. In season, and out of season, the house is generally full, and, owing to Mr. Baigent's capable management, the “Masonic” is recognised as one of the leading hostelries in New Zealand. The domestic arrangements and the comforts of lady guests are attended to by Mrs. Baigent.

Mr. Henry Baigent, Proprictor of the Masonic Hotel, Nelson, was born in Farnham, Surrey, England, in 1852, and received his education in his native town. Mr. Baigent has travelled extensively all over the world; he was for twenty-two years a head steward and purser on the Peninsular and Oriental Company's steamers, and was ten years in the service of the New Zealand Shipping Company. In 1900 he left the sea, and after a two years' holiday, bought the Masonic Hotel, which he has since practically rebuilt, and conducts on up-to-date lines. Mr. Baigent is a Freemason and Oddfellow of many years' standing, and he is an page 95 honorary member of the Nelson Bowling Club. During his travels he selected and bought some valuable oil paintings and other works of art, and these now grace the walls and cosy corners of the Masonic Hotel.

Pier Hotel (Alfred W. Bradley, proprietor), Nelson. This old established hotel is situated within a stone's throw of the Albion wharf. Trams and omnibuses start from the door for the city every half hour. The house has been thoroughly renovated by Mr. Bradley since he has entered into possession. A splendid view of the harbour is obtained from the balcony and upstair windows.

Mr. A. W. Bradley , the Proprietor, was born in London, and came out in the ship “Lady Nugent.” For many years he carried on farming at Stoke until he took over the Pier Hotel. As a rifle shot he has carried off many prizos. Mr. Bradley's hobby is yachting, for which the Nelson harbour is well adapted. He has designed and built several boats, which have become prize-winners.

Trafalgar Hotel (Thomas Newman, proprietor), corner of Bridge and Trafalgar Streets, Nelson. P.O. Box 35. This hotel is a large and commodious building, having a frontage of 120 feet with a depth of 78 feet. It was one of the first in the provincial district of Nelson. There are twenty bedrooms upstairs, and on the ground floor there are three bar-parlours, a dining room capable of seating fifty people, a bar and other rooms, which give ample accommodation for patrons. The present proprietor took the hotel over in 1898, and has done much to increase the popularity of the house.

Mr. Thomas Newman , the Proprietor, was born in England in 1851, and came to New Zealand in 1878. He is a prominent member of the Order of Druids and also of the Freemasons. Before settling in Nelson he kept the Railway Hotel at Richmond.

Iron And Brass Founders.

The Anchor Foundry , Nelson, owes its origin and success to the ingenuity and mechanical skill of its manager, Mr. Alexander Brown, who has for more than thirty years been the ruling power, and now is part owner of it. Mr. Brown served as engineer on the s.s. “Wallaby” and “Kennedy,” of the Anchor Line. In 1866 he came ashore to superintend repairs required by these vessels, and in that way the Anchor foundry came into existence. There most of the vessels of the company have been repaired and lengthened, or converted from paddle into screw steamers, given new boilers and engines, and undergone periodical renovation. Most of the engineering work of the Coast has also been done at the foundry. Twelve boilers have been supplied to the Westport coal companies, besides many other similar contracts. Latterly a specialty has been made of aerialtrams for quartz mining.

Mr. Alexander Brown , Manager and Part Proprietor of the Anchor Foundry, has been a resident of Nelson for very many years, and has witnessed many stirring scenes. He was born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, in 1830, and learned his trade as a mechanical engineer in Glasgow, with Messrs James Gray and Co., under whom he worked for about eight years. In 1854 Mr. Brown was employed on the construction of the “Great Eastern,” and in the following year he became second engineer of a transport bound to the Crimea with troops. The “Lyttelton,” a small vessel of forty-eight tons, designed for the New Zealand river trade, was constructed by the builders of the “Great Eastern,” Scott, Russell and Co., who intended at first to send her out in sections, but she started in August, 1859, with Mr. Brown as engineer. The little vessel had a very eventful and troublesome passage from the time she left the Thames, and put in successively at Cork, Cape de Verdo, Cape Coast Castle, where the captain and crew were stricken with fever, and Mr. Brown, the mate and the cabin boy alone escaped. On the 23rd of November, 1860, she reached Wellington, where for some time she had been given up as lost. After refitting, Mr. Brown took her to Lyttelton. He was present at the “rush” to Gabriel's Gully in 1861, and during those days he ran the “Lyttelton” from Dunedin to Taieri. In 1862 she was bought by a Nelson firm for the trade between Nelson and the Wairau, and formed the nucleus of the Anchor Line of steamers, which played such a prominent part on the West Coast in the sixties. Mr. Brown has been most successful in all the engineering works he has undertaken.

Mr. A. Brown.

Mr. A. Brown.

Mr. Thomas Brown , Junior, eldest son of Mr. Alexander Brown, is sub-manager of the Anchor Foundry, and served his time with his father at the engineering works. When his term was completed he went to the Old Country and entered the firm of Caird and Co., engineers and shipbuilders, of Greenock, for two years. There he gained valuable experience, and on returning to New Zealand, he re-entered his old shop.

Batchelor, H. H. , Mechanical Engineer, Nelson. Mr. Batchelor is a son of the late Mr. T. C. Batchelor, and was born and educated in Nelson. After leaving school he went into a drapery establishment, where he remained for eleven years. At the end of that time he entered the engineering profession, and successfully passed his examination as a mechanical engineer. For some years he was in the employment of the Anchor Steamship Company, and afterwards became part owner of the steamships “Lily” and “Elsie,” trading between Nelson and Motucka. The trade rapidly grew in importance, and a daily service between Nelson and Motucka proved popular with the public and financially satisfactory to the owners. For some years Mr. Batchelor was a prominent football player, and he has represented Nelson in football matches. He took an active interest in volunteering for ten years, and attained the rank of sergeant. Mr. Batchelor is also a prominent Oddfellow. He is now engaged in the management of a large private boardinghouse, which is extensively patronised by tourists and travellers.

Corder, John, Blacksmith, Farrier and General Smith, Bridge Street, Nelson. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Telegrams, “Corder, Nelson.” Established 1897. Mr. Colder took over the business carried on by Mr. Whiting for many years. An excellent connection in all branches of the trade has been established, and the proprietor is well known as a skilful tradesman. Mr. Corder was born at Waimea West, and educated at Spring Grove.

Mr. J. Corder's Premises.

Mr. J. Corder's Premises.

page 96

The Estate Of J. A. Mcartney , Licensed Plumber, Gas-fitter, and Drain Layer, Bridge Street, Nelson. Private residence, Tory Street, The Wood. This business was established in 1893 by the late Mr. J. A. McArtney, who had previously served twenty years with Mr. John McArtney, senior, nine years as manager. The business premises offer every facility for carrying on the work of the establishment, in which all branches of the trade are conducted with distinct success. Mr. McArtney was a Past Grand Master in the Order of Oddfellows, and took an active interest in various local matters. He died about the middle of 1903; and the business is now carried on for his widow, for whom Mr. A. B. Allan is manager.

The Late Mr. J. A. McArtney.

The Late Mr. J. A. McArtney.

Wimsett And Sons , General Smiths and Farriers, Bridge Street, Nelson; Smiths and Farriers, by special appointment, to his Excellency Lord On[gap — reason: illegible]low. This old-established business employs four persons, and keeps two fires constantly going. The founder of the business landed in Canterbury in 1851, by the ship “Canterbury,” and for eighteen months worked for John Anderson and Co. He went to the Nelson district in the latter end of 1852, under an engage nent to Mr. Charles Harley, senior, of Trafalgar Street. Two years afterwards he bought a plant, removed into Bridge Street, and took his son into partnership. Mr. Wimsett, senior, died in 1880, and left his share of the business to his younger son Thomas, and after that the two brothers carried it on under the old style. In 1894 the elder brother died, and left the younger brother sole proprietor. Mr. Thomas Wimsett joined the Nelson Volunteer Fire Brigade at its inception in 1866, and is still a member and officer of that body. He has received the five years' silver medal and bars, and in the year 1895 received the New Zealand Fire Brigade Association's hold star for twenty-five years' service. In 1902 he was unanimously elected captain of the Brigade, and still holds the office, and that of Fire Inspector for the City. Mr. Wimsett has taken a similar interest in volunteering. He has served twenty-eight years in artillery work, and holds the New Zealand long service medal. He rose from the ranks to be Lieutenant of the H. Battery, and when he retired, on account of his business engagements, the officers and members presented him with an illuminated address, and made him an honorary life member of the company.

Mr. T. W. Wimsett.

Mr. T. W. Wimsett.

Ironmongers And Cycle Importers.

Mercer, John C, Cycle Expert and Maker, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. P.O. Box 13. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand, Mr. Mercer is agent for the Humber, Singer, and Rudge Whitworth machines, and also imports direct the celebrated “Remington” cycle and the great American machine, “The Columbia.” A great number of machines are displayed in the showroom, and the workshop has ample page 97 space and facilities for the mechanical operations. The “New Zealand Humber” is Mr. Mercer's special line; and is a combination of many machines. Duplicate parts of all kinds are kept in stock. Mr. Mercer has been established for about twenty years, and is the official repairer to the New Zealand Cyclists' Touring Club.

Tunnicliffe, H.S. , Cycle Importer and Repairer, Bridge Street, Nelson. This business, established in 1900, was at one time known as the Anglo-New Zealand Cycle Company, but has since passed into Mr. Tunnieliffe's hands. His premises are well stocked with new machines—the Elite, National, Tribune, Rapid, Anglo-Special, and others. A specialty is made of repairing, which is carried on in a workshop attached to the premises, and that important department is under the personal supervision of Mr. Tunnicliffe himself. Mr. Tunnicliffe was born in Nelson, in 1870, and educated at the State schools of the town. He belongs to the Order of Druids; is a prominent member of the Nelson Athletic and Cycling Club, and when he was a competitor he was fairly successful as a racing cyclist, having won many races. He did most of his racing on an Anglo-Special. Mr. Tunnicliffe married a daughter of Mr. J. F. Nock, an old colonist of Christchurch and Palmerston North, and has two daughters.

Tyree, photo. Mr. H. S. Tunnicliffe.

Tyree, photo.
Mr. H. S. Tunnicliffe.

The Wilkins And Field Hardware Company, Limited , Hardware Merchants, Wholesale and Retail Ironmongers, Hardy Street, Nelson. This extensive firm was originally founded at Westport in 1866 by Mr. Thomas Field, who was joined in Nelson by Mr. W. C. Wilkins in 1880, when the style was changed to Wilkins and Field. Mr. Wilkins retired from the business on account of ill-health in 1883, and is now a resident of Invercargill. The business was converted into a Limited Company in 1902; capital, £30,000. The premises are large and amongst the best in Nelson; they have a frontage of 50 feet to Hardy Street, and a depth of 300feet. The building is constructed of wood and iron, and fitted with heavy plate-glass show windows. These contain, in addition to other goods, an excellent display of electroplated ware, of which the firm has the heaviest stock in the whole of the Nelson district.

Premises of The Wilkins and Field Hardware Co., Ltd.

Premises of The Wilkins and Field Hardware Co., Ltd.

Mr. Thomas Field , Founder of the firm of Wilkins and Field, is a very old colonist. He emigrated from Ireland to Sydney with his parents in 1845, and came to New Zealand in 1862.

Leather Trade.

Dickson, P. J., Saddler and Harness Maker and Direct Importer, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Collars of all descriptions are manufactured, and waterproof ponchos and aprons are specialties of Mr. Dickson's business.

Meat Trade.
Fairey Brothers (Frederick W. Fairey and Kaspar Rowald Fairey), Live Stock Importers, Wholesale and Retail Butchers, Bridge Street, Nelson. Established 1895. The premises of this firm are fitted up with one of the most complete plants in New Zealand, including the latest machinery. The business is conducted on cash principles, and is large and constantly increasing. Six bullocks and sixty head of sheep, in addition to calves, pigs, and poultry, are killed each week for consumption. Being cash purchasers, Messrs Fairey Brothers are in a position to go into local and outside markets, and secure none but the primest beef and mutton for their customers. A specialty is made of small goods. Six
Messrs Fairey Bros.' Premises.

Messrs Fairey Bros.' Premises.

page 98 employees, who board on the premises, are constantly at work. Everything about the place is kept scrupulously clean, and the strictest attention is paid to details. The shop is a twostorey building, with a frontage of 31 feet, and the section has a depth of 160 feet.

Mr. Frederick W. Fairey , the Senior Partner, was born at Nelson in 1869. After leaving school he followed the butchering trade, in which he subsequently started on his own account in conjunction with his brother. Mr. Fairey has been a member of the Ancient Order of Druids for many years. He was also elected a member of the Nelson City Council in September, 1899. Mr. Fairey is a keen sports man, and takes great interest in football.

Mr. Kaspar Rowald Fairey , of the firm of Fairey Brothers, was born at Nelson in the year 1871. He worked for others for some years before entering business on his own account. Mr. Fairey is a member of the local Court of Foresters, and has been an enthusiastic footballer.

Wilkie And Co . (Samuel F. Bolton. Charles Cook, and Edward Boyce), Wholesale and Retail Family Butchers, Nile Street East, Nelson. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. This business was founded by Mr. Alex. Wilkie, in 1885, and taken over by the present proprietors in 1896. The premises are freehold, and present a most inviting appearance. A meat Otto gas engine drives the large sausage machine in a most efficient manner. An exceedingly large quantity of meat can be put through hourly, and it is treated only in such a manner as small goods should be. Ali small goods, including German sausages and saveloys, are regularly made on the premises. But it is in the primest of meats that the firm does the business which is most extensive in town and country. The firm's carts (at all times well kept, and easily distinguished) are kept going as far as Richmond. Messrs Wilkie and Co. do not pretend to sell for less than other butchers, but sell only the primest of meats at most reasonable prices. As they kill a large number of stock weekly, customers can rely on having their orders attended to promptly, and on being supplied with what they order. The whole of the meat is thoroughly inspected by an expert before being brought from the slaughter yards at Stoke, to the shop in Nile Street. Mr. S. F. Bolton is the business manager of the firm. Mr. Charles Cook looks after the selling department, and the manufacture of small goods, for which he has obtained a first-class reputation. He has been associated with the butchering trade since his youth. Mr. Edward Boyce does nearly all the buying, and to obtain suitable stock for the firm, he travels throughout the province, and is considered one of the ablest judges in the district of cattle and sheep.

Merchants, Etc.
Buxton E. And Co . (Frank W. Hamilton, Managing Director), Hop and General Merchants, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. P. O. Box 53. Telephone—Shop, 4; Warehouse, H. Cable and telegraphic address, “Buxton, Nelson.” Code A.B.C. 4th edition and “A.I,” Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Agents for Ransomes, Simms and Jeffries, Ltd. (agricultural implement makers); Cameron and Co. (liquid sheep dips), W. Cooper. Son and Nephew (powder sheep dipa), Gear and Co. (artificial manures), New National Sewing Machine Company, Victoria Insurance Company, North British and Mercantile Insurance Company. The business premises of this firm are the finest and most commodious in Nelson. The shop and warohouse, covering 15,600 feet of floor space, is twostoried, and affords room for a very large stock. At the back of, and adjoining the shop and warehouse, is the iron yard, which covers about 7000 feet. The hop store in Bridge Street has a frontage of fifty feet. with a depth of one hundred and thirty feet
Messrs Wilkie and Co.'s Premises.

Messrs Wilkie and Co.'s Premises.

and the bond and free store, also in Bridge Street, covers 1000 feet of floor space, and is two stories high. This large and well appointed business is replete with a full stock of general merchandise, groceries, crockery, glassware, drapery, carpets, linoleums, mats, English, Continental and American hardware, farm and station requirements, coach builders' and wheelwrights' requisites, etc. All these lines are imported direct from the great manufacturers in America and Europe. During the season the firm handles a large proportion of the hops of the provincial district of Nelson. The business was established in 1854, and for many years was carried on' by the founders. In 1881, the late Mr. Francis Hamilton bought the business, and conducted it till he died; but his sons had for some years been associated with him in its management, and they still carry on the business.

Cock, J. H. And Co . (Joseph Henry Cock), Warehousemen and General Merchants, Bridge Street, Nelson. P.O. Box 48; telephone 5. Cable address, “Cock, Nelson,” Code, A.B.C. and Agars. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Church Hill, Trafalgar Street. Agents for A. L. Elder and Co., London, Shaw, Savill and Co., P. and O. Company, Liverpool Underwriters' Association, Liverpool and London and Globe, British and Foreign Fire and Marine Insurance Companies; managing owners of the Anchor Steamship Company, This firm's business was established in 1841, and was carried on for many years under the style of N. Edwards and Co. In 1878, shortly after the death of Mr. John Symous, the last partner of the firm of Edwards and Co., the business was taken over and carried on by Mr. Cock, his son-in-law.

B. Franzen and Co. (Edwin Smallbone, proprietor), Merchants, Ship Chandlers, Sailmakers, and Universal Providers, The Port, Nelson. Telephone, 73. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. Established 1861. Agent for Washbourne and Sons' Hematite Paints and Knife Powder. This business was acquired by the present proprietor in June, 1899. The building is of wood and iron, two stories in height, and is divided into store rooms, a shop, and a sailmaking room, all on the ground floor; the upper portion is used as a dwellinghouse. The premises are about 100 feet square; and the firm's wharf, capable of accommodating at one time three vessels of from sixty to seventy tons, is close to the building. The firm carries a large stock in all departments, and can supply anything from a needle to an anchor. By importing most of its goods direct the firm does not require to provide for the middleman's profit in its prices; and by means of the advantage it is thus able to extend to customers, and by courtesy and attention, the firm has built up an extensive and valuable connection.

Neale And Haddow (J. W. Neale; T. Neale, manager), Seed, Grain and Produce page 99 Merehants, Vanguard Street, Nelson. P.O. Box 1. Telephone 65. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1865. Private residence, Waimea Road, Nelson. This firm's well-known and flourishing business formerly had its site in Collingwood Street, but in 1886 trade had increased to such an extent that it was found necessary to obtain more accommodation, and a removal was made to the spacious premises at the corner of Hardy and Gloucester Streets.
Mr. J. W. Neale.

Mr. J. W. Neale.

The yards are an acre in extent, and contain a railway siding, hydraulic press for hops and wool, chaff-cutting machinos and crushing mills for all kinds of grain. There are 17,000 square feet of floor space, which in the hop season is always well stocked with bales of hops. The yard is always well stocked with firewood, and with coal direct from the mines. The firm employs eight men.

Mr. Thomas Neale , the Manager of the firm, is a son of the proprietor, Mr. J. w. Neale, and was born in Nelson. In 1891 Mr. Haddow retired from the business, when Mr. Neale, senior, became sole partner, but he, too, had to relinquish active work in 1892, through failing health. Mr. Thomas Neale then assumed full charge, and with energy and tact he has increased the business to its present large proportions.

Nurserymen And Fruiterers.

Jennens, Jesse, Fruiterer and Greengrocer, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Mr. Jennens established his business in 1896, and has formed a large connection throughout the town. In his admirably kept gardens, of five acres, in The Wood, there is a large stock of fruit trees, the very flourishing condition of which testifies to the care bestowed upon them by Mr. Jensens.

Printers, Stationers, Etc.

Betts, Alfred George, Printer and Manufacturing Stationer, Harly Street, Nelson. This business has a plant equal to the requirements of a large city. The trade carried on is principally a jobbing one, and the fact that such firms as Kirkpatrick and Co., Griffin and Sons, Haddow and Pettit entrust Mr. Betts with their printing, speaks well for the quality of the work. The machinery is worked by a Crossley Otto gas engine, and the arrangements and fittings reflect great eredit upon the proprietor. The College Governors entrust Mr. Betts with the whole of their work, and “The Nelsonian” shows how well he deserves their patronage. Mr. Betts was born in Nelson, and learned his trade in the larger cities of New Zealand with Messrs Whitcombe and Tombs, Ltd, and other well-known firms. He is well known in local sporting and athletic clubs, and his business extends throughout the whole of the provincial district.

Jackson And Co , Booksellers and Stationers, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. This business was established by the late Mr. H. D. Jackson, in 1871. and after his death, in 1893, it was carried on by Mr. R. B. Jackson, inder the style of H. D. Jackson. In July, 1904, Mr. R. B. Jackson admitted his brother, Mr. A, E, Jackson, into partnership, and then the name was changed to Jackson and Co.

Storekeepers, Grocers, Etc.
Pettit, Thomas, Grocer and Provision Merchant, “The Brick Store,” Waimea Road, Nelson. Mr. Pettit keeps a well-assorted stock of groceries of the highest quality, and does a good steady trade throughout the town and district. As an exporter of fruit and general produce, Mr. Pettit has done much to encourage the interests of the farmers. He
Mr. T. Pettit.

Mr. T. Pettit.

has taken a very prominent part in the affairs of the Baptist Church, with which he has been connected for over a quarter of a century, as superintendent of the Sunday school, trustee and treasurer of the church committee. Mr. Pettit is a strong advocate of the cause of temperance, and has been a Rechabite for nearly thirty years.
page 100

Snodgrass, Robert, Grocer and General Merchant, Hardy, Collingwood and Morrison Streets, Nelson. Cable address, “Caledonia.” Code, A.B.C. No. 1. Telephone 41. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Private residence, Selwyn Place. Mr. Snodgrass possesses one of the largest and most important businesses in Nelson. His premises, which are conspicuous, were erected about fourteen years ago. The warehouse in Hardy and Morrison Streets is also a fine commodious new building, filled with large stocks of china, glass, earthenware, brushware, basketware, cutlery, fancy goods, tobacconists' goods, etc. Mr. Snodgrass is a direct importer of all the various lines from manufacturers in Europe, America and Japan, and is thus enabled to place his goods before his numerous customers at reasonable prices. He was born in Scotland, in 1838, apprenticed in Liverpool to the drapery trade, and afterwards conducted business on his own account successfully for twenty-four years. In 1880 he came to New Zealand, and straightway entered into business in Nelson as a general storekeeper. Thirteen years later he built the premises known as “Caledonia House,” to which he removed, and seven years ago he erected the extensive wholesale warehouse called “Staffordshire House,” Mr. Snodgrass's three sons are heads of various departments in the business.

Mr. R. Snodgrass' Premises.

Mr. R. Snodgrass' Premises.

Mr. R. Snodgrass' Premises: Another View.

Mr. R. Snodgrass' Premises: Another View.

Wells, Edwin, Grocer, and Produce Merchant, Waimea Street, Nelson. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Wells's extensive business was originally established by Mr. John Newberry, and was taken over by Mr. Wells in 1894. The premises are conveniently situated, and contain heavy stocks of general merchandise. Mr. Wells handles large quantities of produce during the season, and keeps four expresses in constant daily use. He visits the whole of the country districts personally in order to buy his own produce, and superintend his business connections. Seven hands and five horses are kept busily employed, and Mr. Wells is in a position to supply his customers with anything in the market. He also does an extensive fruit trade, and is a direct buyer and shipper of Nelson fruits. Mr. Wells has had a large experience in the grocery trade, and was for eight years with Mr. Newberry. He was born in the Isle of Wight, in 1854, and educated in his native town. Mr. Wells is a prominent Druid, and is married and has three children.

Soap Manufacture.

Haddow and Pettit (William Haddow and Thomas Pettit), Soap Manufacturers, Waimea Street, Nelson. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. P.O. Box 50. This firm, which carries on an extensive business, and is the only one of its kind in the province of Nelson, was established in 1876, by Mr. William Phillips, and taken over by the present firm in 1896. The buildings are of large dimensions, and the machinery includes a five-horse power engine of modern type, a large boiler and a boiling pan, sixteen feet in depth and nearly seven feet wide. The firm manufactures all kinds of soap, from the cheaper varieties to the highest class, and its “Lavender” brand commands a very extensive sale. The celebrated registered “Hydroline” soap has a ready market in almost all parts of New Zealand, from Auckland to the Bluff. It is a soap invented by Mr. W. McLeod, late of Dunedin; and for all classes of work, nousehold or other, it stands pre-eminent. So large is the sale of the hydroline soap that it is only with the greatest difficulty the firm can cope with the demand from all parts of the colony. The article is put up in neat and attractive packages. Mr. Thomas Pettit is referred to elsewhere under a separate business heading; and on another page there is an article about Mr. William Haddow as a former member of the Nelson City Council.

The Jam Industry.
Kirkpatrick, S. And Co ., Manufacturers of Jams, Jellies, Preserved Meats, Fruits, Sauces and all-Hermetically Sealed Goods, corner of Vanguard and Gloucester Streets, Nelson. Wellington branch, Farish Street. P.O. Box 81. Telegraphie address, “Kirkpatrick, Nelson.” Cable address, “Manifesto.” Code, Private (forwarded on application) and A.I Code. Telephone 54. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. Trade Mark, “K.” Jam Factory, Nelson. Agencies: Carr, Johnston and Co., Fort Street, Auckland; H. Quane and Co., Christehurch; and J. M. Brown, Don Street, Invercargill. This business was established in 1881, by the present proprietor. It is the most important industry in the province of Nelson, and is the largest of its kind in New Zealand. Its jams, jellies and preserves are known throughout the colony, where the big “K” is a household word, and should any boy in New Zealand who can read, be asked what “K” stands for, his immediate answer would be “good jam.” From end to end of the colony placarded on large hoardings, railway station fences, the covers of countless books, and in every conceivable place, is the mystic symbol “K” It seems that these products have quite met the public taste and favour, and little of anything else in the way of jam is consumed in the colony. The “K” brand is universally used and asked for, and by the energy and enterprise of the proprietor, is kept in the forefront of New Zealand industries. The buildings of the firm cover about 30,000 feet, and are of the best selected seasoned timber. In appearance they are very commanding, the firm's trade mark, a big letter “K,” being prominently displayed. The frontage extends for 308 feet in Vanguard Street and over 298 feet along Gloucester Street. There are seven acres of freehold land, three acres of which have been set apart for the buildings, yards, and the requirements of the gigantic business. The main or principal building, measures 190 by 80 feet, and contains commodious public and private offices, luxuriously fitted up regardless of expense. All the counters are of imported New South Wales cedar, and the various desks of choice native woods, are magnificently finished with French polish. Windows set in massive and elaborate sashes give an almost perfect light, and distribute an air of cheerfulness seldom seen in the counting and clerical apartments of large firms. Gas is laid on throughout, and the office fittings are of the latest incandescent lamp system of lighting, with pale sea green shades set in asbestos and brass fittings. The floors are all covered with linoleum, rich in design and attractive in appearance, and it is almost impossible to realise the enormous industry which is daily being carried on. In addition to the ordinary counter, there is also a smaller one, nicely polished, which is used by the firm's employees when business brings them in contact with the clerical staff. So thorough indeed has Mr. Kirkpatrick been in endeavouring to be ahead of the times, that it can safely be said that no better equipped offices are to be found in any page 101 part of the colony, and the proprietor deserves a word of praise for his care in studying the convenience and comfort of those who are fortunate enough to be in his employment. In looking through the factory one is struck with the extreme cleanliness of every portion of it. Plenty of water is provided by a high pressure supply, and steam is used throughout for cleansing purposes. The whole process is carried on under the personal supervision of Mr. Kirkpatrick, who has had considerable experience in England and America, and points with pride to the good done to the province by the industry, both with respect to the amount of labour employed in the factory and also the assistance given to the development of the fruit trade in Nelson and the surrounding districts. The fruit is first received in a large room from a platform, permanently fixed at the receiving doors. It is then weighed on a “Howe” weighing machine. This machine is said to be one of the largest in the colony, is capable of weighing up to 3,640lba, and was imported from America direct. The tell-tale on the weigh-bridge immediately faces a small window cut into the office, at which a clerk sits and records the weight in his book without leaving his desk. During the fruit season, tons and tons of fruit find their way into the factory from all parts of the fertile valleys of the province, by steamer, rail and vehicle. After the fruit is checked, entered and examined, it is next passed on to the tables by means of large wooden tubs. It is an interesting sight to see between thirty and forty girls, neatly dreased, and in harmony with the general cleanliness of the whole establishment, picking and sorting the fruit with a quickness, which to the uninitiated must seem incredible. A happy feeling evidently exists between the girls and their employer, to judge by the contented faces the visitor sees around him. The great trouble the firm has to contend with, however, is the difficulty in procuring enough girls for this branch of the work in the busy season, and overtime has often to be allowed, in order to keep pace with the demands of the business. In the centre of this room there are numerous pillars, three ply thick, measuring 12 by 10 inches and over 30 feet high, while the distance apart, lengthways from pillar to pillar, covers 13 feet 6 inches. In fact, the building has been so constructed, that, if absolutely necessary, a second floor could he erected at a minimum coat. From this room the way leads to the preserving room. Amongst the employees, the preserving department is usually known as the “Kitchen,” and measures 110 by 50 feet. The plant includes a very modern marmalade maker, with a chipping-machine of twenty knives attached. There is also a large machine for making potted meats and a machine fitted with cylinders. The engine was built by Scott Bros., of Christchurch, and took first prize at the Wellington exhibition. This machine is fitted with different gauges, and is used for stoning fruit. Of course, all fruit is not stoned, as Mr. Kirkpatrick says that some fruits are better put up intact without stoning, and experience has taught the firm that different fruits require different treatment. The preserving-room is well ventilated, and is lighted by twenty large windows, each measuring 7½ feet by 4½ feet The machines are all driven by steam power, and the five large preserving-pans used are also heated by a system of steampiping. Part of the floor is graded in order to allow of the refuse getting away easily when the daily cleaning-down takes place. In the course of treatment the fruit finds its way to the filling tables, whence it is conveyed by trucks. Here it is weighed, tinned and soldered. The soldering is conducted on a principle of Mr. Kirkpatrick's, by which it is an utter impossibility for any soldering or liquid to get near the contents of the tin. A large staff of tinsmiths is busily employed week in and week out making tins, in which to place the different specialties and delicacies, known to the world by the big letter “K.” At the commencement of each season a quarter of a million of empty tins are piled tier upon tier, to be filled and despatched from end to end of the Australian colonies. “K” goods are selling goods, popular alike in the home of the landed proprietor and ordinary workman. The
Messrs Kiekpatrick and Co.'s Premises.

Messrs Kiekpatrick and Co.'s Premises.

page 102
Showing the Main Entrance from Gloucéster Street.

Showing the Main Entrance from Gloucéster Street.

southern portion of the preserving-room has a concrete floor 25 feet by 40 feet, fitted with two large troughs, one of which contains a solution worked with steam-pipes to take off any acid or grease that might have adhered to the tins; the other contains cold water, in which the tins are finally washed. It will thus be seen that every care is used to have the tins, bottles and jars into which “K” goods are put, scrupulously clean. Cases by the thousands are stored in the large main room of the factory. In the front part of the building is the lacquering room, which contains several tables and dishes necessary for the carrying out of this branch of the work. Here it is that the work of labelling and packing goods for export takes place and goes on daily with wonderful expertness. The glass jars, on being hermetically sealed and labelled, are carefully cased and then taken to a second room in Vanguard Street. These jars were originally imported from Great Britain and the Continent of Enrope. The boiler and engine house is a detached building, constructed of corragated iron; the floor is laid down with concrete, and the boiler, built by Luke and Sous, Wellington, eontains fifty-one tubes set in brick and cased in asbestos. Every particle of heat is retained and the asbestos acts as an excellent preventive against fire, being an acknowledged non-conductor. The boiler is of powerful dimensions, and is responsible for the driving power of the whole establishment. In addition to the storing capacity already referred to, there is yet another detached building 30 by 19 feet, where the goods after being cased and branded are stored. So great is the demand for “K” goods that another building 30 by 30 feet has had to be erected, and is used exclusively for storage. For the convenience of the employees the firm has fitted up in a very complete style a large dining-room, where the girls and men take lunch. The factory grounds are well cared for and the paths are nicely gravelled: To visitors the factory of S. Kirkpatrick and Co. offers a pleasant hour's interesting recreation. They are cordially shown over the premises at any time; in fact, the firm is only too pleased to explain the working of its flourishing business to anyone, or, as Mr. Kirkpatrick declares; “We like people to look around and see the fruit undergo the many processes before being placed on the breakfast table; in fact, if people only knew how careful we are in selecting fruits, they would at once see how much more wholesome ‘K’ made jama are than the usual homemade article, from which much of the flavour of the natural fruit is allowed to escape up the kitchen chimney.” The methodical working of the business is an object lesson. Everything works like a watch. Numerous doors give exit and entrance in the buildings, and everything is contrived with a view to expedition and despatch in every department of the business. Drainage and sanitation have been made perfect at heavy coat, and the ventilation is equally good. There is no smell, and the refuse gets away into the main drains. To dilate upon the quality of the firm's goods is unnecessary. Kirkpatrick “K” jams, like all the firm's manufactured goods, are of the highest quality and excelled by no other brand in the markets of the world. The name “Kirkpatrick, Nelson,” is synonymous with a good article, and as the management courts the fullest inquiry at all times from those desirous of watching the process the fruit undergoes, it speaks volumes for the faith the firm has in its manufactures, which are so largely used throughout Australasia. Nelson has just cause to be proud of such an industry, especially when it is stated that honours have been gained at English, Continental and Colonial Exhibitions. At the Indian and Colonial Exhibition held in London, this firm's goods secured an award; they also won a gold medal at Greymouth, silver medals at the New Zealand International Exhibition in 1882; at Wellington in 1885; Melbourne Centennial, 1888; honourable mention at the Paris Universal Exposition; also eighteen firsts, twenty-seven seconds, and other mentions at the New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition in 1889–90.
The Firm's Coffee And Spice Department.
In the year 1899 the firm added to its already extensive operations by buying the cld established busingess of J. Anderson and Son, coffee and spice merchants, Wellington. The plant was
The Kitchen Where “K” Jan is Made.

The Kitchen Where “K” Jan is Made.

page 103 removed to Nelson, and erected in a large wing added to the Vanguard Street side of the jam faetory; and there, under an experienced foreman, the manufacture of spices, ete., is carried on in all its branches. Messrs Kirkpatrick and Co., in order to be abreast of the times, are constantly adding new machinery to this department, and at present (1905) it is complete with up-to-date disintegrators for spice and pepper grinding, improved coffee roasters, and special grinding machines for wheatmeal, ginger, etc., patent sugar mills for icing and castor sugar, and the latest mixing sifting, and blending machines for the various spices, baking powder, egg and custard powder, etc., from the best English and American houses. The machinery is all driven by a powerful Marshall steam engine. The greatest care is exercised in the manufacture of the numerous articles, and, as only the highest grade of raw material is used, Messrs Kirkpatrick and Co. guarantee the absolute purity of all their goods. This, very naturally, is an important factor in the success of the firm. The goods manufactured or packed in the coffee and spice department consist of coffees, peppers, baking powder, cayenne pepper, spices of all deseriptions (ground or whole) including mixed spice, cinnamon, carraways, cloves, mace, nutmegs, coriander, cassia, allspice, curry powder, egg and custard powders, poultry tonic, wheatena, wheatmeal, ground rice, pea flour and meal, linseed, arrowroot, sausage flour and spice, icing and castor sugar, desiccated cocoanut, hops, bird seeds, table vinegars, starch glaze, colsry salt, gravy browning, dried herbs, cream of tartar, bi-carbonate of soda, citric, boracie and tartaric acids, carbonated ammonia, and pichling spice. These goods are all packed under the “K” brand, which is a guarantee of their quality and purity. New lines are constantly being added, as the scope of the department is farreaching; and no doubt the success that has attended the firm's efforts in the Jam and Preserving Department will be fully maintained in connection with the manufacture of coffees and spices.
The Packing Department.

The Packing Department.

The Fish Department.
In November, 1904, Messrs Kirkpatriek and Co., with their characteristic enterprise, purchased the promises and plant of the Nelson Fish Company, and entered into the business of fish dealers and refrigerators. The works occupy an ideal site for such a business, as they are situated on the foreshores of Nelson harbour, and abut on Burford's wharf. Deep water extends to the very doors of the fish room, and the fishermen are thus able to deliver their fish right out of their loats into the receiving-room. A large number of boats are engaged in supplying the necessary fish, but the firm has great difficulty in obtaining sufficient, so greal has been the demand from its customers. The fish is brought to the doors and at once placed in the cool chambers, so that it is kept perfeetly fresh and sweet. The premises contain three large insulated cool chambers, kept at a low temperature, and each chamber is capable of holding some tons of fish. Tons of ice are made in the commodious ice chest, and in the summer time a large business is done in supplying the trade and private customers with jce; a boon which enables the careful housewife to keep food stuffs sweet and wholesome in the hottest weather. The refrigerating process in use at the works is a Hercules direct expansion plant, and the power is supplied by a twelve horse-power Tangye gas engine. The ammonia is pumped into refrigerator pipes at a temperature of 28 degrees, and issues into the comdenser at a temperature of about 190 degrees; great heat being thas generated in the development of intense cold. After being
Taken from the Hill at the Rear, Showing Yanguard Street in the Foreground.

Taken from the Hill at the Rear, Showing Yanguard Street in the Foreground.

page 104 thoroughly chilled or frozen, as the case may be, fish is shipped to the West Coast and clsewhere; and as it is packed in special cases insulated with pumice, it necessarily reaches its destination in good order. Smoked fish is a specialty, as the manager of the department is a thorough expert in that connection; and the firm has already quite a reputation for the excellent quality of its sinoked fish. As the smoke-house is a separate building, this fact reduces the chance of fire, though the risk is very remote, as the walls are brick to the hcight of several feet. Scrupulous cleanliness is observed everywhere all through the works. The whole interior is painted white with patent sanitary paints; and altogether, the works are in keeping with the firm's reputation for doing all its business in a thorough and up-to-date manner.

Mr. Samuel Kirkpatrick , who was elected a member of the Nelson City Council in 1898, is a native of Newry, County Down, Ireland, and was educated at the Newry School and also at Walton College, Liverpool. After leaving College, he joined a firm of large wholesale provision and tea merchants, with whom he remained over five years. He then emigrated to America, where he engaged in the wholesale tea business, first at Philadelphia and afterwards at Pittsburg. In 1876 he went to California, where he was engaged in the fruit preserving industry, and acquired extensive practical knowledge, which he uses to much advantage as the head of the well-known firm of S. Kirkpatrick and Co., whose products, bearing the big “K” trade mark, are as familiar as household words throughout all of the Australasian colonies. Mr. Kirkpatrick first emigrated to New Zealand in 1879, and landed in Auckland. He shortly afterwards went to Dunedin, where he was for some time previous to leaving for the Old Country. In 1881 he again crossed the line, and brought with him to New Zealand a complete plant for canning purposes. He commenced business in Bridge Street, Nelson, where success awaited him; so much so, in fact, that he was compelled to build his present large factory, which is equalled by no other in the Australasian colonies. Mr. Kirkpatrick is always ready to assist any movement for the welfare of the district. Mr. “Kirk,” as he is familiarly named, is extremely popular with all sections of the community, and is undoubtedly one of the largest employers of labour in the district, which has benefitted so immensely by his enterprise.

Wheel Traffic.

Gay, John, City Livery Stables, Trafalgar Street North, Nelson. Bankers, the Union Bank of Australia. Private residence, New Street. Established in 1866. The stables are extremely well appointed and contain fifteen stalls and ten loose boxes. Every description of vehicle is kept on the premises. Mr. Gay's drivers are experienced men, and can be relied on by travellers or tourists visiting the province. Mr. Gay was born in Nelson in 1844. He has been associated with horses from his earliest days, and is well and favourably known throughout the whole of Nelson, Marlborough and the West Coast. Mr. Gay was for fifteen years a member of the Nelson Volunteer Fire Brigade, and is an Oddfellow and a Druid.

Mr. J. Gay's Premises.

Mr. J. Gay's Premises.

Grant Bros . (James W. Grant and Alexander Grant), Royal Express, General Carriers, and Forwarding Agents, Wakefield Buildings, Hardy Street, and Vanguard Street, opposite Messrs Neale and Haddow's, Nelson. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. This well known, and prosperous business was es-
Messrs Grant Bros.' Premises.

Messrs Grant Bros.' Premises.

page 105 tablished in the year 1875 by Mr. Robert Grant, and is now conducted by his two sons, James and Alexander. Messrs Grant Bros, are well known to all Nelsonians and the travelling public generally. By conducting their business on sound commercial principles, they have achieved a well-merited success, and rank second to none in their line of business at Nelson. They have a stock replete with all modern conveniences, and are able to cope with a fast increasing trade. Special conveyances for picnic parties are supplied at very reasonable charges, and the proprietors intend to make this branch of their business a specialty. General carrying of every description is undertaken, and by keeping a staff of experienced men, all orders entrusted to the firm are attended to with cure and despatch.

Revell, Charles , Carter, Collingwood Street, Nelson. Mr. Revell was born in Taranaki in 1860, and in 1878 he was apprenticed to a blacksmith. After a few years in that occupation, he took to farming in 1883. His stables are situated in Collingwood Street, and are known as the Hotel Stables. They contain four stalls, two loose boxes, a chaff-house, two cartsheds and a loft. The entire building has a frontage of sixty feet. Mr. Revell does a steadily increasing business.

Watch And Jewellery Trade.

Brown And Kerr (William Brown and Louis Kerr), Watchmakers and Jewellers, Trafalgar and Hardy Streets, Nelson, Branches at Motueka, Takaka and Collingwood. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia, Ltd. This firm's business is one of the oldest of its kind in Nelson, and was taken over in 1884 by Messrs Brown and Kerr, who were the first to enter upon the manufacture of jewellery in the city. The public appreciated their enterprise, and consequently many persons are directly or indirectly engaged by them. The retail shop in Trafalgar Street is in charge of Mr. Kerr, and is fully stocked with attractive lines of jewellery and watches, of which a fine display is made in the handsome plateglass windows. The goods are of a high-class order, and from all the best known makers. The firm sells at low rates, and fixes prices to suit the times.

Mr. William Brown , the Senior Partner, has had a wide experience in some of the best shops in England and Scotland. He is a native of Edinburgh, and after leaving school in 1849 he was apprenticed to his father, a well-known jeweller in Glasgow. In 1863 he arrived in Otago, and soon obtained employment, first in Dunedin, and afterwards at Queenstown. He went to the West Coast in 1865, and set up in business, which he carried on with success until 1879, when he removed to Nelson and established himself in Bridge Street. In 1885 Mr. Brown entered into partnership with Mr. Kerr.

Mr. Louis Kerr , the Junior Partner, was born in Nelson, and is the son of one of the original settlers. He served his apprenticeship to the trade with Mr. A. Hunter, of Bridge Street.

Moyes, William, Watchmake and Jewéller, Trafalgar Street, Nelson. Bankers, National Bank of New Zealand. This business was established in 1876 by the late Thomas Muncaster, by whom it was carried on till his death in 1888, when it was acquired by the present proprietor. The spacious shop is centrally situated, and the windows are tastefully arranged with choice and valuable watches, clocks, rings of all descriptions, plated wire, and other necessary adjuncts of the business. The interior presents an attractive appearance; the ample space at the proprietor's disposal being stocked with the most modern productions of the trade. A specialty is made of wedding, presentation, and other favours, and the enterprise of Mr. Moyes in this direction is thoroughly appreciated by the public of Nelson and the surrounding districts. Mr. Moyes is a skilled craftsman, and his assistants are men of experience.

Mr. William Moyes , Junior, is a native of Glasgow, where he was born in 1858. After receiving a sound commercial education he was apprentieed to the watchmaking business. Mr. Moyes takes an intelligent interest in all matters appertalning to the welfare of Nelson. Ho is a Past Master of the Masonic Order, and P Z of the Royal Arch; also a prominent Oddfellow, having served as Past Provincial Grand Master of the Nelson District, Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity, and is Treasurer of Loyal Howard Lodge.

Fruit Culture.

Mr. J. C. Blackmore , the wellknown Government Pomologist, whose official district includes the famous fruit growing province of Nelson, is noted for his thorough knowledge of fruit and fruit culture. He was born in Devonshire, England, and from his earliest days he showed a decided taste for all branches of pomology. He made a close study of seeds, and of the various branches, of floriculture, and when he arrived in New Zealand in 1872, he at once set to work at his favourite occupation, in which be has become an acknowledged expert. He first took up the work of landscape gardening, and was subsequently managing several of the principal nurseries in Auckland and Christchnrch, including that of Messrs Mason Bros. He specially applied himself to the study of noxious pests and methods for their complete destruction, and his practical experience in this connection has proved a boon to fruitgrowers. His reputation in the matter is such that he is constantly receiving from all parts of the world requests for in formation on the subject. Besides delivering lectures, Mr. Blackmore gives lessons of practical value to orchardist by visiting them personally and ascertaining the condition of their orchards, as well as the general requirements of their districts as fruit-growing centres. Sometimes a particular orchard is treated to show what should be done in the case of all the rest, and no pains are spared to place the growers in possession of the fullest and most trustworthy information. Mr. Blackmore is ever ready to assist novices in fruit culture by paying a personal visit to their places, and giving advice as to the most suitable soils, and as to the varieties of fruit that thrive best in certain localities. Mr. Blackmore's headquarters are in Christchurch, where correspondents can at all times address him, with the certainty of receiving replies as early as the nature of his duties will permit; but as the whole of the Middle Island is under his charge, he is necessarily a good deal away from his headquarters.

Interior of Mr. W. Moyes' Shop.

Interior of Mr. W. Moyes' Shop.