The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Canterbury Provincial District]
Lincoln is in the county of Selwyn, and is fourteen miles south by railway from Christchurch, on the Christchurch and Southbridge line. The township has three churches, a public school, a hotel, several stores, and a post and telegraph office. The Canterbury Agricultural College, surrounded by fine plantations, stands about half a mile from the township. The district comprises some of the richest land in the province, and it was one of the first places settled in Canterbury. Messrs Fitzgerald and Cox were its pioneer settlers, and owned the pastoral property long known as the Springs station. The estate was afterwards cut up, and sold to enterprising young colonists, who soon converted the rich swamps into some of the most productive land in the colony. Root crops give very large yields, and mangolds sometimes return as much as eighty tons to the acre. Dairying is extensively carried on in the Lincoln district, which has a number of creameries in convenient positions. The district is intersected by well kept roads, suitable for cycling. The population of Lincoln and its neighbourhood is about 500.
Canterbury Agricultural College (W. Lowrie, M.A., B.Sc., Director), Lincoln. The first portion of the land used in connection with this college, was purchased in 1877, and the area has been gradually increased to 785 acres. Work was begun at the college as a teaching institution in the month of July, 1880. The college buildings are of brick, faced with Oamaru stone and roofed with slates. They are in the Elizabethan style of architecture, and can accommodate at least forty-five students each having a separate bedroom. They also include a lecture theatre, class-rooms, studies, chemical and biological laboratories, a veterinary hospital and laboratory, a library, dining hall, hospital room, and all necessary offices and quarters for the director and for the resident teaching staff. The farm buildings and stockyards have been planned to be as complete as possible, yet only with such accommodation as is ordinarily required in this country. All the most modern implements for the tillage of the soil, and the most modern machines for harvesting, securing, and marketing the crops are included in the farm plant. The land has been selected so as to comprise soils of various qualities, from rich swamp to comparatively light and thin soil overlying shingle. A systematic effort is made to conduct the farm on economic principles, and the work in the fields illustrates the teaching of the lecture room. Students are required to take part in the regular daily routine of the farm; indeed, the work of the farm is carried out entirely by students, under skilled supervision, in order that they may acquire a practical knowledge of every kind of farm work, of the use of implements and machinery, the management of stock, and the making of butter and cheese. This practice extends also to work in the garden and orchard, and students are trained in the culture of fruit and vegetables. Field experiments are carried out, especially in testing the different methods of cultivation and rotation; the effect of the different artificial manures on various crops; the suitability and comparative value of new varieties of cereals, fodder plants and roots; and in such other directions as may appear desirable and practicable. Chemistry, biology, land surveying, carpentry, and blacksmithing are also taught to the students. The college farm is noted for its flocks and herds. Its English and Border Leicesters, Lincolns, and Shropshire Downs and Southdowns are all pedigree sheep. There is a fine herd of purebred Shorthorn cattle of the milking strain. Ayrshires, Jerseys, Herefords and Aberdeen Angus are only kept as types for educational purposes. The college is situated near the township and railway station of Lincoln, in one of the most beautiful and healthy districts of the Canterbury Plains, and is about fourteen miles by rail from Christchurch. It is supported by endowments of land, the fees of the students and the profits of the farm, and its object is to afford to those who intend to look to farming for a livelihood an opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the science and practice of agriculture. The course of instruction extends over three years, and embraces agriculture and its allied sciences, and instruction imparted by lectures, and by demonstrations in the laboratories, on the farm, and in the garden and orchard. The year is divided into three sessions or terms. The first session begins on or about the 7th of January, and ends on or about the second Thursday in April; the second session begins on or about the last Wednesday in April, and ends on the last Thursday in July; the third session begins on the third Wednesday in August, and ends on or about the 20th of December. The fee for resident students of the first and second year is £13 6s. 8d. per term (£40 per annum), and for students of the third year £6 13s. 4d. per term (£20 per annum). The diploma of the College is awarded to such students as have been two years or longer in residence, and have satisfied such examiners as the Board of Governors may appoint to conduct the diploma examinations. The following is a list of the subjects page 660 of examination, with the possible number of marks obtainable in the several subjects:—Principles of Agriculture, 300; Practice of Agriculture, 1000: General Chemistry, 80; Practical Chemistry, 180; Agricultural Chemistry, 120; Botany and Practical Botany, 120; Animal Physiology, 100; Entomology, 80; Meteorology, 60; Bee Culture, 40; Mensuration and Mathematics, 140; Applied Mechanics, 100; Surveying and Levelling, 100; Steamand Steam Engine, 80; Bookkeeping, 80; Anatomy, 80; Materia Medica, 100; Veterinary Medicine, 120; Veterinary Surgery, 120. The University of New Zealand grants a certificate and a degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture to any student who follows the prescribed course and passes the necessary examinations. In order to obtain the degree a student must first pass the matriculation examination, thereafter attend two years at a University College, and then study for the two succeeding years at the Agricultural College. A number of scholarships are provided by the Education Boards for competition in any of the public schools of the colony, and the holders of these are entitled to be admitted free as resident students at the Agricultural College. Then the Board of Governors gives four scholarships of £20 each, which are awarded at the option of the Board on the results of the annual examinations; and it also gives two entrance scholarships of £20 each, tenable for one year, to students who matriculate in the University of New Zealand. In regard to the latter, preference is given to students who stand highest in the matriculation examination. Altogether no pains are spared to make the Canterbury Agricultural College justify itself as an institution founded and maintained to impart and spread a knowledge of the science and practice of agriculture.
Mr. J. Bayne, formerly Director of the Canterbury Agricultural College, was born in Braco, Perthshire, Scotland, and was educated at Stanley House School, Bridge of Allan, at Moray House Training College, Edinburgh, and at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Before coming to New Zealand, Mr. Bayne occupied, from 1890 to 1894, the position of Professor of Agricultural Science in the Government Agricultural College near Cairo, Egypt. In addition to having learned agriculture practically, Mr. Bayne had a most distinguished University career. He is Master of Arts of Glasgow University, and a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture of Edinburgh University; for five times he occupied the place of medallist in agricultural science, and held that position twice in equality with another student at Edinburgh University. Mr. Bayne was also first prizeman of the Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland for two successive sessions at Edinburgh University; occupied first place in Agricultural Chemistry in the Heriot-Watt College, and in the School of Medicine, Minto House, Edinburgh; was medallist in Field Engineering; and stood next to the medallist in Agricultural Economics at Edinburgh University, besides gaining other prizes and places of distinction during this academic course. He was appointed Director of the Canterbury Agricultural College in March, 1894, but resigned the position in 1901. Mr. Bayne is now (1903) Instructor in Agriculture at Preston, Lancashire, England.
St. Stephen's Church, as Lincoln, is a handsome little wooden building with a belfry, and has seating accommodation for about 200 persons. Sunday services are held at 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. Services are also held on Sunday at St. Mary's Springston, and twice a month at All Saints, Burnham. The Riv. Jasper Smyth, formerly vicar of Akaroa, has charge of the parish.
The Presbyterian Church at Lincoln is a handsome wooden building, with seating accommodation for 200 worshippers, and was erected about 1880, to replace the old church which is now used as a Sunday school. The land was the gift of Mr. Timothy Todd, whose name is connected with the early history of Canterbury. There is a fine American organ in the church. Services are conducted morning and evening every Sunday at Lincoln, and an afternoon service is held at Prebbleton, which forms part, and was originally the centre, of the charge.
The Rev. J. Millar Thomson, Minister-in-Charge of Lincoln and Prebbleton, is a son of Mr. A. Thomson, of Wanganui, and was born in 1872. He received his primary education under his father, studied at Wellington College, and graduated B.A. at the Otago University in 1895, and M.A. in the following year. In 1895 he won a Senior University Scholarship. Mr. Thomson received a call to the Lincoln and Prebbleton charge in 1901.
The Church Of The Blessed Sacrament at Shand's Track, Lincoln, was erected in 1887, to replace the old church built in 1870 and since converted into a school. The ground on which the presbytery stands was the gift of Mr. Patrick Henley, who has been a most generous friend to the church. The parish extends to Burnham, Ellesmere, West Melton, Tai Tapu, Lincoln, Prebbleton, Hornby and Templeton.
The Rev. Father Richards, Priest-in-Charge, was born in South Africa, educated in Spain, and ordained by the Bishop of Havanna at Valladolid in 1893. He came to New Zealand in 1898, and in 1900 became priest of the church of the Blessed Sacrament.
Mr. R. L. Millen.
Bartram and Co., (David William Harry Bartram, and Arthur Charles Bartram), Coal, Grain and Produce Dealers, Ironmongres and Insurance Agents, Lincoln. This firm, which was founded in 1880, first as a coal and timber business, has since become, by the addition of several other branches, a large concern. The extensive premises, which adjoin the railway station, are well adapted for the various uses. The ironmongery branch, together with the agency of Messrs Walter Wood and Co., forms an important part of the firm's business.
Mr. W. H. Bartram, Partner of the firm, is a son of the late Mr. D. W. Bartram, builder and contractor, Lincoln. In conjunction with his brother he founded the firm in 1880, and since then its history has been one of expansion and prosperity. Mr. Bartram has always identified himself with the local affairs of Lincoln. He has been a member of the Lincoln school committee, and its chairman for three years, and has also been a member of the licensing committee. He has always taken a great interest in Druidism, and has gone through the chair in the local lodge, and in the Grand Lodge; and, at the Jubilee of Canterbury in 1900, occupied the position of President of the Order. He is now trustee of the Druids' Lodge, Star of Arglesea. Mr. Bartram is captain of the Lincoln Defence Rifle Club, which was formed in 1901.
Wrigglesworth & Binns, photo.
Mr. W. H. Bartram.
Mr. A. C. Bartram, Partner in the firm, manages the various departments of the business, but takes no part in public affairs. He was secretary for ten years of the Star of Anglesea Lodge of Druids, and was also a member of the school committee for some time.
Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.
Mr. A. C. Bartrum.
Mr. P. Henley.
Lockhead, Robert William, “The Springs,” Lincoln. Mr. Lockhead is a son of Mr. John Lockhead, of Leeston, and was born at Lockhead Farm, Leeston. He was educated at Leeston, and acquired a practical knowledge of farming under his father and uncle. “The Springs,” which consists of 314 acres, was originally part of The Springs station, owned by Messrs Cox and Fitzgerald, who so named the place on account of the springs of water abounding on the property. The land has now been thoroughly reclaimed from its original swampy condition. The homestead passed through the hands of successive owners, until 1894, when it was bought by Mr. Lockhead, from Mr. J. P. Mosshead. Mr. O'Callaghan, one of the intermediate owners, replaced the old building by a handsome mansion. However, offices still in a good state of preservation, show the endurance of the early mud buildings used by the pioneer settlers. Mr. Lockhead is a member of the Farmers' Union, and also of the Canterbury Agricultural and Pastoral Association. He married the eldest daughter of Mr. Forsyth, one of the early settlers of Paihama, and has one son and one daughter.
Mr. and Mrs R. W. Lockhead and Family.
Murray, Frederick Charles, Farmer, Walsingham Farm, Lincoln. Mr. Murray was born in Dublin, in 1843, and with his father, the late Mr. John Murray, of Lincoln Road, Christchurch, arrived at Lyttelton, in the ship “Labuan,” in 1851. He began to farm at Lincoln on his present estate, which now consists of 1200 acres of rich, fertile land, with a fine house and all the necessary buildings of a high class farm. Mr. Murray carries on a successful system of mixed farming, and is the owner of one of the finest stud flocks of Leicesters in Canterbury, descendants of the celebrated stud flock of Mr. Every MacLean, of Auckland. His herd of Shorthorn cattle claims an equally distinguished descent. He has always taken a prominent part in all local affairs connected with his district, and has been a member of the Springs Road Board for many years. Mr. Murray has been a member of the Canterbury Agricultural and Pastoral Association, and has been a most successful prize-taker with sheep and cattle at Christchurch and Timaru. He is also a member of the Farmers' Union, and one of the directors of the Addington Saleyards Company. Mr. Murray married Miss Roberts, and of a family of seven children, four sons and two daughters are alive.
Mr. F. C. Murray and Daughter.
Mr. R. Rainey.
Sharp, John, Farmer, “Newlands,” Lincoln. Mr. Sharp was born in Perthshire, Scotland, in 1839, and was brought up to a farming life. In 1863 he came to New Zealand by the ship “Evening Star,” and went to the West Coast goldfields in the following year. After a brief stay there he recrossed the ranges and took up 264 acres of heavy swamp land, covered with raupo and flax. He drained, cleared, and fenced his property, and carried on dairying while dairy produce brought profitable prices. Mr. Sharp gradually extended his area to 800 acres, and went extensively into cultivation and cropping. In good seasons, he obtained as much as seventy bushels of wheat, and over one hundred bushels of oats per acre. Root crops grew to perfection, and he sometimes had twenty tons of potatoes per acre, and mangolds and turnips in proportion. Mr. Sharp keeps English Leicesters, and has a large number of sheep and lambs annually available for the export trade. The improvements on “Newlands” comprise seven artesian wells, varying from 16 to 196 feet, a good two-storey dwellinghouse, outbuildings, a garden, an orchard, plantations, and well-cultivated and conveniently-divided fields. Mr. Sharp has served on the local road board, school committee, and Agricultural and Pastoral Association. He was married, in 1864, to Miss Spence, and has two sons and eight daughters.
Mr. J. Sharp.
Smith, George A., Broom Farm, Lincoln. Mr. Smith was born at Bridport, Dorsetshire, England, in 1839, and as a boy served as a naval apprentice. He saw service in the Crimea and Baltic, and on the declaration of peace, in 1855, was presented with the Baltic medal. Mr. Smith left the navy to join the merchant service, in which he remained for two years on the steamer “Berrit,” trading between England, Greece and Russia. He came to New Zealand in the fifties by the ship “Acasta,” landing at Wellington; and was employed for two years at Otaki by Archdeacon Hadfield, afterwards Primate of New Zealand. After his arrival in Canterbury he was employed at the Springs station, by Messrs Cox and Fitzgerald, and was, later on, at the Longbeach station, then owned by the same gentlemen. On the purchase of Longbeach station by the late Mr. John Grigg, Mr. Smith became stockman there for three years. He then returned to Lincoln, and took possession of a farm of about thirty-seven acres, which he had bought before, and increased his area to 300 acres, which joins the Lincoln Agricultural College; he also bought about 300 acres at Landbrooks, now occupied by his sons, 245 acres at Rolleston, 800 acres at Aylesbury, and 175 acres of Mr. William Pannett's farm. Mr. Smith owned the first reaping machine in the district. He has never taken much interest in local affairs, but has been a member of the Lincoln school committee, and has been associated with the welfare of the Lincoln Presbyterian church since its foundation. Mr. Smith is a member of the Farmers' Union, and a shareholder of the Farmers' Co-operative Association. page 664 He married Miss Munro, of Caithness, Scotland. His wife died in 1895, leaving a family of five sons and five daughters, of whom one son and two daughters are married.
Standish and Preece, photo
Mr. G. A. Smith.
The late Mrs G. A. Smith.
Stoddart, William, Farmer, Lincoln. Mr. Stoddart was born in County Cavan, Ireland, in 1834, and was brought up to farming. He emigrated to America in 1852, and lived for number of years with a cousin in the west of Canada. In 1859 he returned to Ireland, and came to New Zealand in 1860, in the ship “Commodore Perry.” Shortly after his arrival he began to deal in cattle, horses and sheep, and carried on the business for many years, with Christchurch as his place of residence. He also bought land in different parts of the district, and sold it again when he saw a suitable opportunity. One of his purchases was made at Tai Tapu, and consisted of a 640-acre farm, which he sold to advantage. Mr. Stoddart visited his native country in 1874, but soon returned to his farm of 130 acres near Lincoln, where he keeps a good herd of dairy cattle. Shortly after his return from England, he purchased 454 acres at Longbeach, where his sons have ever since resided. Some years ago he bred and exhibited some magnificent Clydesdale horses, which carried all before them. Mr. Stoddart has always taken a keen interest in church affairs. In 1853 he was married to Ann, second daughter of the late Mr. Robert Edgeworth, County Cavan, Ireland, who bore him five sons and two daughters, of whom two sons and one daughter are still living. After his first wife's death he married, in 1868, Harriet, second daughter of the late Mr. Samuel Nelson, of Seaforde, County Down, Ireland, and one son has been born of this marriage.
Mr. W. Stoddart.
Mr. William Pearson, sometime of Lincoln, was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1838, and arrived in Lyttelton by the ship “Cashmere” in 1859. He went to the Springs station, then owned by Messrs Cox and Fitzgerald, and, under Mr. Fitzgerald, helped to survey land around Christchurch. Later on he went with Mr. Cox to the Mount Somers station, which had been taken up by that gentleman. On the subdivision and sale of the Springs estate Mr. Pearson sold some land which he had bought at Rolleston, and purchased the property on which his family still reside. The land was then in its wild native state, partly covered by water, and overgrown with flax and other wild growths; now it is a fine productive farm. Mr. Pearson always took an interest in the affairs of the church, and was churchwarden for several years. After an illness of eleven months he died in 1886, leaving a widow, four sons, and one daughter. The eldest son, Mr. John Pearson, now fills a position in the Central Dairy Company, Mr. Robert W. Pearson is engaged in farming, and Messrs George and Herbert Pearson reside on the family estate. Mr. George Pearson posseses mechanical skill of a high order, and has patented a well-sinking apparatus, which gives promise of signal success. Mrs Pearson, who is a native of Tipperary, Ireland, came to New Zealand by the ship “Zealandia,” in 1862, when she was a fellow passenger with Mr. C. P. Cox, in whose family she remained until her marriage with Mr. Pearson in 1865.