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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Canterbury Provincial District]


Lincoln is in the county of Selwyn, and is fourteen miles south by railway from Christchurch, on the Christchurch and Southbridge line. The township has three churches, a public school, a hotel, several stores, and a post and telegraph office. The Canterbury Agricultural College, surrounded by fine plantations, stands about half a mile from the township. The district comprises some of the richest land in the province, and it was one of the first places settled in Canterbury. Messrs Fitzgerald and Cox were its pioneer settlers, and owned the pastoral property long known as the Springs station. The estate was afterwards cut up, and sold to enterprising young colonists, who soon converted the rich swamps into some of the most productive land in the colony. Root crops give very large yields, and mangolds sometimes return as much as eighty tons to the acre. Dairying is extensively carried on in the Lincoln district, which has a number of creameries in convenient positions. The district is intersected by well kept roads, suitable for cycling. The population of Lincoln and its neighbourhood is about 500.

Canterbury Agricultural College, Lincoln.

Canterbury Agricultural College, Lincoln.

Canterbury Agricultural College (W. Lowrie, M.A., B.Sc., Director), Lincoln. The first portion of the land used in connection with this college, was purchased in 1877, and the area has been gradually increased to 785 acres. Work was begun at the college as a teaching institution in the month of July, 1880. The college buildings are of brick, faced with Oamaru stone and roofed with slates. They are in the Elizabethan style of architecture, and can accommodate at least forty-five students each having a separate bedroom. They also include a lecture theatre, class-rooms, studies, chemical and biological laboratories, a veterinary hospital and laboratory, a library, dining hall, hospital room, and all necessary offices and quarters for the director and for the resident teaching staff. The farm buildings and stockyards have been planned to be as complete as possible, yet only with such accommodation as is ordinarily required in this country. All the most modern implements for the tillage of the soil, and the most modern machines for harvesting, securing, and marketing the crops are included in the farm plant. The land has been selected so as to comprise soils of various qualities, from rich swamp to comparatively light and thin soil overlying shingle. A systematic effort is made to conduct the farm on economic principles, and the work in the fields illustrates the teaching of the lecture room. Students are required to take part in the regular daily routine of the farm; indeed, the work of the farm is carried out entirely by students, under skilled supervision, in order that they may acquire a practical knowledge of every kind of farm work, of the use of implements and machinery, the management of stock, and the making of butter and cheese. This practice extends also to work in the garden and orchard, and students are trained in the culture of fruit and vegetables. Field experiments are carried out, especially in testing the different methods of cultivation and rotation; the effect of the different artificial manures on various crops; the suitability and comparative value of new varieties of cereals, fodder plants and roots; and in such other directions as may appear desirable and practicable. Chemistry, biology, land surveying, carpentry, and blacksmithing are also taught to the students. The college farm is noted for its flocks and herds. Its English and Border Leicesters, Lincolns, and Shropshire Downs and Southdowns are all pedigree sheep. There is a fine herd of purebred Shorthorn cattle of the milking strain. Ayrshires, Jerseys, Herefords and Aberdeen Angus are only kept as types for educational purposes. The college is situated near the township and railway station of Lincoln, in one of the most beautiful and healthy districts of the Canterbury Plains, and is about fourteen miles by rail from Christchurch. It is supported by endowments of land, the fees of the students and the profits of the farm, and its object is to afford to those who intend to look to farming for a livelihood an opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the science and practice of agriculture. The course of instruction extends over three years, and embraces agriculture and its allied sciences, and instruction imparted by lectures, and by demonstrations in the laboratories, on the farm, and in the garden and orchard. The year is divided into three sessions or terms. The first session begins on or about the 7th of January, and ends on or about the second Thursday in April; the second session begins on or about the last Wednesday in April, and ends on the last Thursday in July; the third session begins on the third Wednesday in August, and ends on or about the 20th of December. The fee for resident students of the first and second year is £13 6s. 8d. per term (£40 per annum), and for students of the third year £6 13s. 4d. per term (£20 per annum). The diploma of the College is awarded to such students as have been two years or longer in residence, and have satisfied such examiners as the Board of Governors may appoint to conduct the diploma examinations. The following is a list of the subjects page 660 of examination, with the possible number of marks obtainable in the several subjects:—Principles of Agriculture, 300; Practice of Agriculture, 1000: General Chemistry, 80; Practical Chemistry, 180; Agricultural Chemistry, 120; Botany and Practical Botany, 120; Animal Physiology, 100; Entomology, 80; Meteorology, 60; Bee Culture, 40; Mensuration and Mathematics, 140; Applied Mechanics, 100; Surveying and Levelling, 100; Steamand Steam Engine, 80; Bookkeeping, 80; Anatomy, 80; Materia Medica, 100; Veterinary Medicine, 120; Veterinary Surgery, 120. The University of New Zealand grants a certificate and a degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture to any student who follows the prescribed course and passes the necessary examinations. In order to obtain the degree a student must first pass the matriculation examination, thereafter attend two years at a University College, and then study for the two succeeding years at the Agricultural College. A number of scholarships are provided by the Education Boards for competition in any of the public schools of the colony, and the holders of these are entitled to be admitted free as resident students at the Agricultural College. Then the Board of Governors gives four scholarships of £20 each, which are awarded at the option of the Board on the results of the annual examinations; and it also gives two entrance scholarships of £20 each, tenable for one year, to students who matriculate in the University of New Zealand. In regard to the latter, preference is given to students who stand highest in the matriculation examination. Altogether no pains are spared to make the Canterbury Agricultural College justify itself as an institution founded and maintained to impart and spread a knowledge of the science and practice of agriculture.

Mr. J. Bayne, formerly Director of the Canterbury Agricultural College, was born in Braco, Perthshire, Scotland, and was educated at Stanley House School, Bridge of Allan, at Moray House Training College, Edinburgh, and at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Before coming to New Zealand, Mr. Bayne occupied, from 1890 to 1894, the position of Professor of Agricultural Science in the Government Agricultural College near Cairo, Egypt. In addition to having learned agriculture practically, Mr. Bayne had a most distinguished University career. He is Master of Arts of Glasgow University, and a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture of Edinburgh University; for five times he occupied the place of medallist in agricultural science, and held that position twice in equality with another student at Edinburgh University. Mr. Bayne was also first prizeman of the Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland for two successive sessions at Edinburgh University; occupied first place in Agricultural Chemistry in the Heriot-Watt College, and in the School of Medicine, Minto House, Edinburgh; was medallist in Field Engineering; and stood next to the medallist in Agricultural Economics at Edinburgh University, besides gaining other prizes and places of distinction during this academic course. He was appointed Director of the Canterbury Agricultural College in March, 1894, but resigned the position in 1901. Mr. Bayne is now (1903) Instructor in Agriculture at Preston, Lancashire, England.

St. Stephen's Church, as Lincoln, is a handsome little wooden building with a belfry, and has seating accommodation for about 200 persons. Sunday services are held at 11 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. Services are also held on Sunday at St. Mary's Springston, and twice a month at All Saints, Burnham. The Riv. Jasper Smyth, formerly vicar of Akaroa, has charge of the parish.

The Presbyterian Church at Lincoln is a handsome wooden building, with seating accommodation for 200 worshippers, and was erected about 1880, to replace the old church which is now used as a Sunday school. The land was the gift of Mr. Timothy Todd, whose name is connected with the early history of Canterbury. There is a fine American organ in the church. Services are conducted morning and evening every Sunday at Lincoln, and an afternoon service is held at Prebbleton, which forms part, and was originally the centre, of the charge.

The Rev. J. Millar Thomson, Minister-in-Charge of Lincoln and Prebbleton, is a son of Mr. A. Thomson, of Wanganui, and was born in 1872. He received his primary education under his father, studied at Wellington College, and graduated B.A. at the Otago University in 1895, and M.A. in the following year. In 1895 he won a Senior University Scholarship. Mr. Thomson received a call to the Lincoln and Prebbleton charge in 1901.

The Church Of The Blessed Sacrament at Shand's Track, Lincoln, was erected in 1887, to replace the old church built in 1870 and since converted into a school. The ground on which the presbytery stands was the gift of Mr. Patrick Henley, who has been a most generous friend to the church. The parish extends to Burnham, Ellesmere, West Melton, Tai Tapu, Lincoln, Prebbleton, Hornby and Templeton.

The Rev. Father Richards, Priest-in-Charge, was born in South Africa, educated in Spain, and ordained by the Bishop of Havanna at Valladolid in 1893. He came to New Zealand in 1898, and in 1900 became priest of the church of the Blessed Sacrament.

Millen, Robert Lockhead, Butcher and Farmer, Kelvin Grove, Lincoln. Mr. Millen is a son of the late Mr. John Millen, butcher, of Glasgow, and was born in 1855. He followed his father's calling, but, struck with the possibilities of expansion in the frozen meat industry, he was one of the first to start that business in his native town; and, at the age of twenty-three owned six of the largest shops devoted to the sale of frozen meat in Glasgow and other cities. About 1882 he arrived at Sydney, and started a butchering business, which he carried on in several large shops. Owing to an accident, by which his leg was broken, he was compelled to lead a less active life. He therefore disposed of his several butchering businesses, and bought a large hotel, in the management of which he could have more leisure. In 1889 Mr. Millen visited Glasgow, where he again carried on his early calling, for some time. He, however, returned to Sydney, where he conducted a hotel until 1894, when he came to New Zealand. He bought the business of Mr. Philips, of Weedons, and is now the leading butcher in the district. Mr. Millen also farms about seventy acres, on which he has his private residence. Mr. Millen possesses a tenor voice of noticeable power and quality. He was one of the leading tenors in Sydney, and sang in the principal centres in Australia. In connection page 661 with a concert held in Glasgow, he received commendations from the leading musical critics of Scotland. Mr. Millen is a Freemason of old standing, and a member of the Order of Druids. He married a lady of his own name, and has a family of three sons and one daughter.

Bartram and Co., (David William Harry Bartram, and Arthur Charles Bartram), Coal, Grain and Produce Dealers, Ironmongres and Insurance Agents, Lincoln. This firm, which was founded in 1880, first as a coal and timber business, has since become, by the addition of several other branches, a large concern. The extensive premises, which adjoin the railway station, are well adapted for the various uses. The ironmongery branch, together with the agency of Messrs Walter Wood and Co., forms an important part of the firm's business.

Mr. W. H. Bartram, Partner of the firm, is a son of the late Mr. D. W. Bartram, builder and contractor, Lincoln. In conjunction with his brother he founded the firm in 1880, and since then its history has been one of expansion and prosperity. Mr. Bartram has always identified himself with the local affairs of Lincoln. He has been a member of the Lincoln school committee, and its chairman for three years, and has also been a member of the licensing committee. He has always taken a great interest in Druidism, and has gone through the chair in the local lodge, and in the Grand Lodge; and, at the Jubilee of Canterbury in 1900, occupied the position of President of the Order. He is now trustee of the Druids' Lodge, Star of Arglesea. Mr. Bartram is captain of the Lincoln Defence Rifle Club, which was formed in 1901.

Wrigglesworth & Binns, photo.Mr. W. H. Bartram.

Wrigglesworth & Binns, photo.
Mr. W. H. Bartram.

Mr. A. C. Bartram, Partner in the firm, manages the various departments of the business, but takes no part in public affairs. He was secretary for ten years of the Star of Anglesea Lodge of Druids, and was also a member of the school committee for some time.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.Mr. A. C. Bartrum.

Wrigglesworth and Binns, photo.
Mr. A. C. Bartrum.