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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Auckland Provincial District]


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Rotorua, also called Ohinemutu, on the shores of the large lake of Rotorua, is the most celebrated sanatorium of the Southern Hemisphere, as well as its greatest wonderland. There is a mixture of Maori and European civilisation, the Government township being at Rotorua and the native settlement at Ohinemutu. A large and handsome runanga, or meeting house, with all the characteristics and grotesque carvings of Maori architecture, is one of the attractions of Ohinemutu. Bath houses connected with the various sulphur and mineral springs, and a fine hospital or sanatorium, have been put up by the Government. Every arrangement is made for the comfort and convenience of invalids or visitors. There is communication by rail from Auckland, also by steamer to Tauranga, and thence back forty miles by a coach road, which passes through the Oropi bush and some picturesque mountain scenery. A considerable number of natives reside in the neighbourhood, and there is a Government school, which is largely attended by their children. There are several large and well conducted hotels. The district abounds in notable localities, trips, and scenes, such as Wai-o-tapu Valley, about twenty miles from Ohinemutu; the drive to Bungalow, ascending the slopes of Pareheru, en route to see the district destroyed by the eruption of Tarawera, in 1886; boiling pools, mud pools, volcanoes, teapots, green, blue and multi-coloured miniature lakes, the multi-coloured hill, Maungakakaramea; and sulphur fumaroles, alum cliffs, incipient terraces, etc. Tarawera Lake and Mountain, via Wairoa, are distant about ten miles by land to Wairoa, then by boat across Lake Tarawera. One long whole day is required if Tarawera is to be ascended and the craters seen. The sites of
Lake Rotorua, Showing Mokoia Island.

Lake Rotorua, Showing Mokoia Island.

page 800 the village of Ariki, and the pink and white terraces, are pointed out by the guide. The ascent of Tarawera well repays the toil, as the view is fine, and the actual craters which did the mischief can be inspected. The lakes trip includes Lakes Rotorua, Rotoiti, and Rotoma. Camping out requisites, provisions, and boats for a party of four, cost about £1 per day. There is good shooting for sportsmen. Mokoia Island lies in the centre of Lake Rotorua, and is the scene of the finest romance in Maori story. In Maori legend, Hinemoa, swimming from Owhata near the old mission station of Te Ngae, landed on this island to meet her lover. It also was the scene of some of Hongi's slaughterous and cannibalistic exploits. In visiting Te Ngae, Tikitere, and Whakarewarewa, it is best, instead of making a separate trip, to have a buggy sent round to Te Ngae, and sail thither from Mokoia Island—a pleasant half hour's journey. From Te Ngae the buggy is taken to Tikitere, celebrated for its wonderful boiling pools (excellent for chronic rheumatism), whence a short walk leads to Lake Rotoiti. On the homeward drive Whakarewarewa is visited. There are fine new baths here, and a comfortable hotel, a Maori village, boiling springs, terrace formations, and geysers. Sodom, Gomorrah, Bainbridge's Grave, Sulphur Point, and other shorter excursions can be made in half a day, or the places themselves can be visited when returning from Whakarewarewa. It should be added that wonderful progress has been made in the Rotorua district within recent years. The original settlement, which clustered round Pukeroa Hill on the banks of the lake, and was known as Ohinemutu, dates from about 1870. Since then the flat land near the baths and sanatorium has been laid out in fine streets and squares, known as Rotorua proper, which contains the principal hotels, business premises and residences in the district. The railway line was opened to Rotorua in December, 1894, and since then there has been a marked increase in the traffic. A train arrives daily from Auckland, and is run as an express to Rotorua on three days in the week, and similarly from Rotorua on the alternate days. The splendid reserve of fifty acres, known as Pukeroa Hill, has been laid out by the Government with the object of making it a popular resort for tourists. The township of Rotorua is lighted by electricity, which is also used for the purpose of working the sewerage station.

The Rotorua Town Board is the local governing body of a special town district under the Thermal Springs District Act of 1881. Its first meeting was held on the 23rd of April, 1883. Members for 1900: Mr. S. T. Brent (acting chairman), Dr. G. G. Kenny, Captain A. C. Turner, and Messrs G. A. Empson and H. Kirk. The district under the jurisdiction of the board is bounded by Lake Rotorua on the north, the Utuhia stream on the west, the Puarenga stream on the east, and Whakarewarewa on the south. The board has control of all public works in regard to streets, of which there are about eight or nine miles, all at least one chain and a half wide; and the principal roadway. Fenton Street, is a chain and a half and 6 feet in the clear, in addition to footpaths of 30 feet each.

Mr. Benjamin Simpson Penney, Clerk to the Rotorua Town Board, was born in 1856 at Hazel Grove near Stockport, England, and arrived with his parents in Auckland, in 1862, by the ship “Violet.” He was brought up to commercial life. For about twenty-five years Mr. Penney resided in the Nelson and Marlborough districts, and was for a number of years in business at Blenheim as a fancy goods dealer. In October, 1895, he settled in Rotorua, and was appointed clerk to the board and clerk of works in 1898. As a Freemason, Mr. Penney is a member of Lodge Unanimity, Blenheim. He was married, in 1881, to a daughter of the late Mr. W. Brent, of Nelson, and sister to Mr. S. T. Brent, of Rotorua, and has two sons and five daughters.

Baths and Government Departments.
The Government Sanatorium And Baths at Rotorua are under the control of a resident medical officer. The sanatorium building was erected in 1890. It is of wood, with a shingle roof, stands on concrete foundations, and has twenty-one beds, nine for females and twelve for males. There are separate sitting rooms for the sexes, the staff, and the medical officer. The Sanatorium is not a hospital in the ordinary acceptation of the term, but is a resort for convalescents. The accommodation is far too small for the large number who desire to take advantage of it, and it is probable that more room will be provided in the near future. The baths which are prescribed by the medical officer are situated in three different spots. Nearest to the Sanatorium is the celebrated Blue Bath, so named from the colour of its water. This is a warm swimming bath, 62 feet by 21 feet, built in stone and concrete, and containing 30,000 gallons of water maintained at a temperature of 90 degrees. The bath is devoted entirely to the use of the male sex. There is also a cold shower and a very powerful hot douche. In connection with the Blue Bath, and under the same roof, is the famous sulphur vapour bath, which is available for both sexes. The Pavilion Bath House, a short distance away, contains a number of baths supplied with the Priest and Rachel waters. The water in the Priest Bath is of an acid nature, while that in the Rachel bath is highly alkalised. The pavilion containing these baths is but a few feet from the edge of the lake. The Priest water is said to have been discovered in 1878 when Father Mahony,
Sanatorium, Rotorua.

Sanatorium, Rotorua.

page 801 of Tauranga, came to Rotorua for treatment for rheumatism. A tent was pitched for him alongside the spring, and a hole having been dug in the ground, the priest bathed in its water, and camped at the side until he obtained complete relief from his rheumatism. Hence this bath has since been know as the Priest's Bath or Te Pupunitanga. The Pavilion Baths are under the charge of two male and two female attendants, and there are private and public baths for both sexes, supplied from different waters. Within the walls of the same building there is a ladies public swimming bath—a magnificent concrete basin, supplied with Rachel water. The new Duchess Bath, built specially for their Royal Highnesses, the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York, forms now one of the centres of attraction at Rotorua. It was formally opened by the Royal visitors on the 14th of June, 1901. About ten minutes' walk outside the Sanatorium grounds, is the most powerful bath in Rotorua, known as the Postmaster. Mr. Isbister, an official of the Postal Department, visited Rotorua on leave about 1892. He pitched a tent close to a bath which had been dug in the open by some local residents, and derived so much benefit from bathing in its waters, that the bath has since been known by its present designation. There are numerous other baths, such as the Painkiller. Coffee-pot, and others. The Sanatorium grounds are beautifully kept, and considerable sums of money have been spent in making footpaths, and in planting ornamental trees and flower borders. There are several hot pools and basins in the grounds, into one of which two intermittent geysers have been induced to play through artificial orifices.
Sanatorium Gardens, Rotorua.

Sanatorium Gardens, Rotorua.

George Geils Kenny, M.B., Resident Medical Officer in charge of the Rotorua Sanatorium and Baths, was specially appointed by the Government to give the necessary advice concerning the thermal waters to all who visit Rotorua. He is the second son of the late Colonel Kenny of the 13th Madras Native Light Infantry, and was born in India, in 1853. Dr. Kenny was educated at Windermere College, Westmorland, and Glasgow University, where he graduated M.B. and C.M. in 1883. He came out to Wellington as medical officer of the s.s. “Tainui” in 1885, and after a few months in charge of the Wellington Hospital, established himself in private practice at Devonport, Auckland. Later on he started the Waikato District Hospital, and was for twelve years Surgeon Superintendent of that institution, for which he earned a widely appreciated reputation for good work and discipline. Dr. Kenny was appointed to his present position in 1899.

Mr. William Kirwen Purcell, Mechanician at the Rotorua Baths, was born in 1847, in Athlone, Ireland. In the same year he was brought by his parents to Auckland by the ship “Ramilies.” The family settled in Onehunga, where Mr. Purcell was brought up as a carpenter and worked at his trade for a number of years. In 1863 he joined the Waikato Militia, in which he served throughout the campaign and gained the New Zealand war medal. Mr. Purcell was a passenger by the third boat which went to the Thames after its opening as a goldfield, and he remained there till 1878. He settled in the Rotorua district in 1879, and has been employed in connection with the baths since 1882. Mr. Purcell is a vice-president of the local library, and has been chairman of the local school committee. During his residence at the Thames, Mr. Purcell served for about three years as a member of the Thames Scottish Volunteers. He was married, in 1885, to a daughter of Mr. James Boyd, of Katikati, and has four sons and three daughters.

Mr. Thomas Edward Pearson, Landscape Gardener in charge of the Rotorua Government Domain, was born in 1857 at Prestbury, Cheshire, England, where his father was a nurseryman and landscape gardener under Mr. John Shaw, of Shale, Cheshire. After gaining experience at Philadelphia, America, for eighteen months Mr. Pearson returned to England, and worked for a time on a part of Lord Vernon's estate “Barrowfield,” where he had fifty men under his management, and was engaged in laying out a place for the late Mr. William Turner, a large cotton manufacturer. In 1885 Mr. Pearson went out to Tasmania under engagement to the Government, as foreman in charge of the grounds at Hobart, where he had twenty men under his supervision. Subsequently he commenced work on his own account as a landscape gardener, and at the same time had Government work, and was very successful. On returning to England in 1893, he followed his calling for five years in the Old Land, and then came out to New Zealand under engagement to Mr. R. H. Rhodes, of Canterbury. He afterwards visited Hobart, and on returning to Wellington was appointed to his present position, and has been in charge at Rotorua since 1898.

Ginders, Alfred, M.D., L.R.C.P. (Edin.), F.F.P.S. (Glas.), Physician, and sometime Resident Medical Officer of the Government Sanatorium, Rotorua. Dr. Ginders was born at Sandon, Staffordshire, England, in 1831, and was the son of Mr. Jeremiah Ginders, formerly agent to the Earl of Shrewsbury. He was educated at a private school in Stafford, and at Ashbourne Grammar School, Derbyshire; he entered Glasgow University in 1862, took his F.F.P.S., and subsequently page 802 his degree of L.R.C.P. at Edinburgh. In 1874 he gained his M.D. at St. Andrew's, Glasgow. Dr. Ginders practised at Surinam. Dutch Guiana, during 1866–7 and afterwards at Normanton, Yorkshire, until May, 1878, when he left for Auckland and settled at Tauranga, where he practised up to 1884. The late Hon. John Ballance then appointed him to the position of Resident Medical Officer at Rotorua, where he designed and carried out most beneficial plans for the convenience, comfort, and skilful treatment of the numerous patients attending the wonderful sanatorium of Rotorua. Dr. Ginders was made a J.P. in 1889, became a member of the Rotorua Town Board on arrival in the district, and was one of the chief promoters of the improved sanitary arrangement of the township. He was a Freemason, having been initiated in 1866 in Commercial Lodge of Glasgow, S.C., at an emergency meeting prior to his leaving Scotland for Dutch Guiana. Dr. Ginders died in the early part of November, 1898.

The late Dr. Ginders.

The late Dr. Ginders.

Malfroy, Jean Michel Camille, late Resident Engineer of the Government Sanatorium, Rotorua. Mr. Malfroy was born at Lons-le-Saunier, Department of Jura. France, in 1839, and was the son of Jean Baptiste Malfroy, a respected miller, of that town. The subject of this notice came to Victoria with his father in the early fifties, and worked with varying fortunes at Bendigo and Ballarat, and other mining localities. Still bent on gold-seeking, he arrived on the West Coast of New Zealand in the sixties. There he imbibed a taste for local politics, and was for some time mayor of Ross, being associated with the present Premier of the Colony. In 1886, immediately after the eruption of Tarawera, Mr. Malfroy was appointed Resident Engineer of the Rotorua district, and in that capacity had to report upon the changes which might take place in the hot springs and geysers. Those at Whakarewarewa attracted his greatest attention, and he set himself to formulate a theory which would account for their irregularity of action. He made a long and exhaustive examination, during which he experimented with several of the minor geysers at Whakarewarewa, and embodied his deductions in a paper, which was read before the Auckland institute in 1891. After the quiescence of the great Waiketi Geyser, Mr. Malfroy conceived the idea of once more bringing it to a state of activity, and had his health permitted there is little doubt he would have accomplished it. In 1889, Mr. Malfroy was appointed to represent the Colony at the Paris Exhibition, and he then received the distinction of “Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur.” Whilst in Europe he visited most of the Continental and English Spas, and on his return submitted a report thereon to the Government. In 1890 he proposed to convert the two springs in the Orouawhata Pool, near the Blue Bath, into active geysers, and nothwithstanding his exposure to the hot steam, cold air, and other difficulties, he successfully accomplished this, as the Malfroy geysers today testify. In 1893, Mr. Malfroy was sent to Hanmer, in Canterbury, to report on the springs there, and on his return, it was found that his health which had been seriously impaired during his experiments at the Sanatorium, had not improved, and he was persuaded to try the drier climate of New South Wales. He, however, experienced no benefit from his visit, and ultimately, about thirteen months afterwards, succumbed to his various complicated disorders, and died from sheer exhaustion, a martyr to his duty, though he had been previously offered retirement by the Government. The deceased gentleman was buried with public and Masonic honours, his funeral being attended by the Governor of Tahiti (representing Count d'Abbans, Consul-General of France, who was a relative of Mr: Malfroy), the aide-decamp of the Governor, and a numerous section of influential citizens, settlers of Auckland, Kalgoorlie, Brisbane, and Rotorua. In 1874, Mr. Malfroy was married to Miss Ellen Alice Jones, of Hobart, Tasmania, and was survived by his wife and several children.

The late Mr. J. M. C. Malfroy.

The late Mr. J. M. C. Malfroy.

The Rotorua Post And Telegraph Office has a mail room, public office, postmaster's room, operating and telephone rooms, and there are fifty private boxes. Mails arrive daily from Auckland, four times a week from Tauranga and Taupo, and weekly from Galatea and Te Whaiti, but there is no postal delivery in Rotorua.

Mr. George Augustus Empson, Postmaster-in-charge at Rotorua, was born near Blenheim, Marlborough, where his father, the late Mr. Charles Empson, arrived early in the forties. Mr. G. A. Empson became a cadet in the post office at Havelock in 1874, and after serving in various parts of the colony, he was appointed to Rotorua in February, 1900.

Mr. John Cross, who has held the position of District Telegraph Lineman at Rotorua since 1895, was born in 1844 in London, where he was brought up to the business of a cabinetmaker. In 1861 he went out to South America, and came to Port Chalmers in 1863. For several years he was engaged in goldmining or in working at his trade, but in 1867 he turned his attention to telegraphy and joined the Construction Branch of the Telegraph Department in Dunedin in 1869. He was soon removed to Auckland, where he became foreman of a working party, and he was engaged in the erection of the lines between
Mr. and Mrs J. Cross.

Mr. and Mrs J. Cross.

page 803 Auckland and Opotiki, Auckland and the North Cape, and Auckland and Manukau Heads. In 1874 Mr. Cross was married to a daughter of the late Mr. F. Moore, of Dublin, and has two sons and two daughters.

The Roads Branch Of The Land And Survey Department at Rotorua is under the direct control of the head office in Wellington. The whole of the roads and bridges in the thermal springs district, extending from Tokaanu to Tauranga and including Opotiki on the East Coast, are under the control of the department, together with the Government nursery and sanatorium grounds and baths at Rotorua. All tree planting on roads and reserves, and general improvements, are under the control of this office. Officers for 1900; Captain A. C. Turner, district road surveyor; Mr. D. I. Barron, assistant surveyor; Mr. H. J. Fox, chief clerk and bookkeeper; Mr. C. B. Turner, assistant road surveyor; Messrs J. A. Brownlie, inspector of roads at Taupo; W. Fairley and B. Stubbing, overseers; E. A. Vine, foreman bridge builder; and Mr. B. S. Corlett inspector of works and baths at Rotorua. There are 435 miles of roads under the control of the department, and there are fifty-two surfacemen, each with a special section of from eight to twelve miles in extent.

Mr. David Innes Barron, Assistant Surveyor under the Lands and Survey Department at Rotorua, was born in Dunedin in 1869. He was educated partly in his native city and partly in Wellington, and studied at the Dunedin University, where he passed an examination in science. Mr. Barron joined the Lands Department in Wellington in 1886 as a cadet, and eighteen months later was sent into the field. In 1889 he gained his certificate as a surveyor, and became assistant surveyor. Mr. Barron was engaged in surveys at Amuri, and Cheviot, in Canterbury, on the water race survey at Oxford, and was afterwards in the Nelson provincial district, where he surveyed land in many of the Sounds. He has been at Rotorua since September, 1899. Mr. Barron was married, in 1896, to a daughter of Mr. R. J. Whittle, of Christchurch, and has one daughter.

Mr. Harry James Fox, Chief Clerk in the Roads Branch of the Land and Survey Department at Rotorua, was born in 1861, in Cheshire, England. Mr. Fox was educated in Liverpool, where he was brought up to the brewing trade. He arrived in Auckland, in 1883, by the s.s. “Doric,” on her maiden trip to the colony, and spent several years in Otago. After a trip to England, Mr. Fox returned to the colony at the time of the Dunedin Exhibition in 1890, and shortly afterwards joined the Land and Survey Department, and was out in the field with a survey party. He has held his present position in Rotorua since 1895. Mr. Fox was married, in 1892, to the daughter of Mr. W. Murcott, of Hampden, Otago, and has three daughters.

Mr. Charles Barker Turner, Assistant Road Surveyor, was born in Canada in 1856, and is the eldest son of Captain A. C. Turner. He entered the Public Works Department in Wellington in 1874, and has been in the Rotorua district since 1895.

Mr. Benjamin Stubbing, Road Overseer, resides at Ruatahuna, about thirty miles beyond Galatea, and his postal address is Te Whaiti. He has charge of a large section of the roads in the district. Mr. Stubbing is the eldest son of the late Mr. B. Stubbing, a Waikato farmer, and was born in Middlesex, England, in 1844. He arrived in Auckland with his parents by the ship “John Scott” in 1859, and was brought up to country life in the Waikato. On the outbreak of the war, the family went to Auckland, but Mr. Stubbing joined the 2nd Waikato Regiment, served throughout the war, was present in several skirmishes, and gained the New Zealand war medal. He was two years on the Thames shortly after the opening of the field, but then joined the Armed Constabulary, and was stationed in Wairoa South. In that district he took part in the last expedition after the rebel Te Kooti to Lake Waikaremoana. For four years Mr. Stubbing was farming at the Taupiri, and for two years subsequently he was road overseer in the Raglan district. He then removed to Tokaanu, where he supervised the construction and maintenance of a great many roads, during the succeeding twelve years, and was appointed to his present position in 1895. Mr. Stubbing was married, in 1872, to a daughter of the late Mr. J. McKay, of the Lower Waikato, and has four daughters and eight sons.

Mr. Edward Alfred Vine, Bridge Foreman under the Roads Branch of the Land and Survey Department, Rotorua, was born in Victoria, in 1862, educated in Dunedin and Wellington, and apprenticed as a carpenter in the latter city. He made a specialty of bridge work and took contracts on his own account for six years before joining the department in 1893. After being bridge foreman in the Pahiatua district, he was appointed to Rotorua in 1895.

Mr. E. A. Vine.

Mr. E. A. Vine.

Mr. Benjamin Stott Corlett, Inspector of Government Works at Rotorua, was born in 1841 in Manchester, England. He was brought up as an architect, and came to Auckland by the ship “Annie Wilson” in 1863. The war had just commenced, and Mr. Corlett offered himself as a substitute for a sick person who had been called upon to serve, but was never himself called on to join the militia. He commenced business as an architect in Auckland, and continued for a number of years in that city. In 1877 he removed to Tauranga, where he followed his profession, and visited Rotorua periodically until he settled in the district in 1885. Mr. Corlett still acts as an architect and supervises Government works, including buildings, baths and water supply, and the springs and geysers at Whakarewarewa. He was married, in 1861, to a daughter of the late Captain Hawke, of the Madras 97th Sepoys. Mrs Corlett died in 1881, leaving three sons and two daughters. In 1885 Mr. Corlett was married to a daughter of Mr. Burge, of Yeovil, Somersetshire, England, and has two daughters and one son by this union.

Hanna, photo.Mr. B. S. Corlett.

Hanna, photo.
Mr. B. S. Corlett.

The Rotorua Electrical Works are situated at Okere Falls, thirteen miles and a half from Rotorua, and are under the control of the Roads Branch of the Lands and Survey Department. There is a splendid body of water—the outlet of Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti and the commencement of the Kaituna river—which is utilised in driving two turbines, each 100 horse-power, and two large alternating dynamos, each capable of producing energy for 800 sixteen candle power lamps. These machines are low current generators at a high voltage—4200 volts. The current travels over wires for the whole distance, and transformers are then used to reduce the power to 100 volts. The Government sanatorium and public buildings, as well as boarding and private houses, are lighted by means of the electric current, which also works the sewage-pumping machinery in a large brick building erected in the sanatorium grounds. The generator page 804 station at Okere is a large iron building, and the fluming which brings the water to the machinery is 15 feet wide by 9 feet deep. There are two cottages at the works for the convenience of the staff. The entire plant and installation was erected under contract by an engineer and staff in the employment of the Brush Electrical Engineering Company of London.

Mr. Robert Cameron White, Officer in charge of the Rotorua Electrical Works at Okere, was born in Victoria, in 1867. His parents having come to Otago in 1870 he was educated in Dunedin, where he also served an apprenticeship as an electrical engineer with Messrs Watt and Co. He afterwards commenced business on his own account in George Street, and several years later became manager and electrician to the Sandhills Dredging Company, which owned the first and only dredge worked by electricity. Mr. White supervised the dredge's subsequent removal to Miller's Flat. He was appointed to his present position in 1900, after having acted as inspector for the erection and installment of the electric plant at Okere. Mr. White was married, in 1896, to a daughter of Mr. J. Aspinall, of Skippers, Otago, and has one son and one daughter.

Mr. Dupair Edward Burrel Beal, Engineer in charge of the Rotorua Electric Lighting and Sewerage Plant, was born in 1867, in London, where he was educated and trained as an engineer. He was with the firm of Benham and Son, Wigmore Street, London W., and was afterwards at Chatham, where he was in the employment of Messrs Armstrong, Mitchell and Co. and the Government Constructing Department. Mr. Beal then joined the staff of the Brush Electrical Engineering Company in London, and was employed in connection with various installations in England, including the city of London, and came out in 1893 to Sydney, where he was engaged for two years and a half on his own account, and then joined the firm of Messrs Edge and Edge, electrical engineers. He then removed to Melbourne, where he was contracting in connection with sewerage work until February, 1900, when he came to Auckland, and was engaged by the Brush Electrical Company, as foreman of works on the contract for supplying electric light and power to Rotorua. On the completion of the work he received his present appointment. Mr. Beal was married, in 1890, to a daughter of Mr. W. C. Tymms, of Ryde, Sydney, but he had the misfortune to lose his wife, who died on the 2nd of March, 1901, of enteric fever.

The Land Purchase Department, Rotorua, which is under the control of the head office in Wellington, has its offices in the courthouse, Rotorua. It has been connected with the district since 1894.

Mr. Fox Maule Carnachan, Assistant Land Purchase Officer at Rotorua, was born in Manchester, in 1857. He arrived in Auckland with his parents by the ship “Helenslea” in 1864, and has had a general experience in farming, storekeeping, surveying, and colonial life. For some years he was in business as a storekeeper at Maketu, and joined the land purchase department in 1894, at Rotorua, where he has resided since 1882, as a native interpreter.

The Rotorua Railway Station was opened on the 10th of December, 1894. It is a wooden building of the usual type, and with the customary apartments, and adjacent sheds, and a large verandah covers a portion of the asphalt platform. Messrs Nathan and Co. have a large sulphur shed close by, and the stationmaster's house of seven rooms adjoins the line. Besides the stationmaster, two guards, a driver, fireman, a porter and a cadet reside at Rotorua.

Mr. James Henry Woodhouse, Stationmaster at Rotorua, was born in 1855, at Auckland, where he was brought up to mercantile life. In 1875 he joined the railway department in Auckland as a cadet, and was stationed eighteen years in Wellington, during six of which he was in charge of the goods department. Mr. Woodhouse was afterwards stationmaster for three years at Woodville, and for two years subsequently at Feilding, and was appointed to his present position in August, 1899.

Mr. Alfred Warbrick, the well-known Guide of the Hot Lakes and Thermal Springs District, was born at Rotomahana, near the famous but lost White Terraces, in 1860, and is the second son of Mr. Abraham Warbrick, native interpreter and land purchaser. He was educated first at the Lake Takapuna Roman Catholic College, and at the Three Kings College, finishing at St. Matthew's parish school. He then went to Tauranga where his father was living and remained with him for some time. On the advice of the late Sir Donald McLean, he was apprenticed to the boat-building trade and worked for Mr. C. Bailey, senior, for ten years. Mr. Warbrick afterwards commenced for himself as yacht and boat builder at which he continued for four years, when he returned to Te Wairoa. Lake Tarawera, to look after the interests of the land which his mother possessed in that district. In 1886, Mr. Warbrick set up as a tourist guide, at the suggestion of the late Hon. John Ballance, and during the terrible eruption of Tarawera he took an active part in rescue work and in leading expeditions formed to save the sufferers.


The Rotorua Public School, established in 1886, has three class rooms and a porch, with accommodation for 180 scholars. There are 140 names on the roll, and the average attendance is 110. The teacher in charge is assisted by one certificated and one pupil teacher.

Mr. Joseph William Webber, who holds a D2 certificate, is in charge of the Rotorua school. He was born in Torquay, Devonshire, England, in 1864, and came to New Zealand in 1884, when he settled in Tuakau. Mr. Webber soon afterwards entered the service of the Board of Education as a probationer. He was married, in 1891, to a native of the Arawa tribe.

Ranana (London) Native School, Te Ngae, near Rotorua. This school was established in 1896 under the direct control of the Minister for Education. It contains one class room and a porch, and is situated on three acres of land. A six-roomed residence is erected on the property, there is accommodation for fifty pupils, and there is an average attendance of about forty.

The Rev. Charles Crisp Brown, Headmaster, was born in 1848, in London, and educated at the City of London School. He studied for the ministry under the late Rev. C. H. Spurgeon, was ordained at the Tabernacle in London in 1873, went to India as a Baptist missionary in 1874, but after three years returned to England with broken health, and came out to New Zealand in 1884. Mr. Brown was in charge of the Baptist Church at Timaru for ten years, and after a year in Christchurch, was appointed to his present position in July, 1896. Mr. Brown was married, in 1875, to a daughter of the late Mr. A. Burnett, of Aberdeen, Scotland, and Mrs Brown assists in the duties of the school.


St. Luke's Anglican Church, Rotorua, was opened in November, 1899. It is prettily finished inside, and has accommodation for about 200 persons. The building cost about £600, and stands on a section of half an acre. St. Luke's parish is included in the diocese of Waipu; three services are held every Sunday and two daily services throughout the week. The vicar of Rotorua is the Rev. H. G. Blackburne, M.A., Cantab, who was appointed to the position in 1901.

The Rotorua Presbyterian Church was opened in February, 1897. It is a wooden building with a bell tower, with accommodation for 200 people, and occupies an elevated site on three-quarters of an acre of land in Pukuatu Street. The building cost about £450. Though the property belongs to the Presbyterian Church it is worked on undenominational lines, by the Presbyterian, Wesleyan, Congregational and Baptist page 805 denominations from Auckland, the ministers changing fortnightly.

St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church was erected in 1888 for Maori services. The priest in charge visits Rotoiti and other Maori settlements in the district, and services are held in St. Michael's in both Maori and English.

The Very Rev. Dean A. Lichardt, Vicar of Maori Missions in the Auckland Diocese, is under the direction of Bishop Lenihan. Dean Lichardt belongs to St. Joseph's Society of Millhill, London, N.W., and has been in charge for some years.

The Rev. Caspar Smiers, Priest at Rotorua, was born in Holland in 1867. He went to St. Joseph's Society at Millhill, London, and was there ordained in 1898. In the same year he came out to Auckland, and was engaged for eight months in Maori work at Whangaroa. He has been stationed at Rotorua since June, 1900.

The Salvation Army has been represented at Rotorua since 1897. The barracks are at Ohinemutu and have accommodation for sixty persons, and services are held in both Maori and English. There are twelve soldiers, and Captain J. Foster Kells and Lieutenant Joseph McCarthy are now (1901) in charge.

The Rotorua Football Club, established about 1886, is well supported, and has many Maoris among its members. Officers for 1900: Mr. W. H. Herries, M.H.R., patron, Dr. Kenny, president, Messrs D. I. Barron, H. J. Fox, and Judge Johnston, vice-presidents; Mr. C. A. Clarke, treasurer, and Mr. J. W. Webber, secretary.

The Rotorua Brass Band, established in 1892, has twenty-two active members. It performs weekly in the Sanatorium grounds at the band rotunda. Mr. H. Stewart has been bandmaster since 1898, and Mr. J. W. Webber is secretary.

The Victoria Institute in Rotorua was founded about 1888 in Ohinemutu. Its present domicile is in Arawa Street, and was erected in 1900, at a cost of over £400, towards which the Government contributed £250. The institute has a fine library containing 1300 volumes, and there is a large reading room, which is well supplied with papers. There are also committee rooms, a ladies' room, and a museum room, which contains a few specimens of Maori carvings. The late Mr. J. C. Blythe, road surveyor, was the originator of the institution, which was formerly managed by a committee, but is now controlled by the Town Board.

Hot Lakes Chronicle (M. F. Watt, proprietress), Hinemoa Street, Rotorua. From 1895 to the 4th of December, 1900, this journal was owned and conducted by the late Mr. F. F. Watt, who made it a first class weekly chronicle of all matters pertaining to the thermal district. During the tourist season of 1901 it was published as a bi-weekly, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, but reverted to the Saturday issue for the winter months. It is double demy, and has eight columns of reading matter, apart from advertisements. The paper is now edited and the business conducted by Mr. Watt's widow, who has a jobbing plant and does the local printing trade, besides carrying on the business of general stationer and news agent.

The Rotorua Magistrate's Court was erected in 1894, and contains the courtroom, offices for the magistrate, clerk, and bailiff, as well as an office for the land purchase department.

The Rotorua Police Station And Gaol adjoins the courthouse. There are five rooms in the residence, and two cells behind. The district extends about thirty miles from Rotorua on each side, and Tauranga is the nearest police station.

Mr. William Bern, Constable in charge and gaoler, and Clerk of the Magistrate's Court, was born in 1858, at St. John's College, Auckland. He entered the Government service as a member of the Armed Constabulary in 1878, and four years later was transferred to the police department. He has been in charge at Rotorua since 1898.

Eagle's Nest Geyser (Dormant).

Eagle's Nest Geyser (Dormant).


MacLoughlin, Thomas James, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S., (Edinburgh) Physician and Surgeon, Rotorua. Dr. MacLoughlin was born in County Meath, Ireland, in 1847, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He took his degrees in Edinburgh in 1878, and after travelling in various parts of the world settled in Sydney in 1886. He practised in that city for three years, and has practised in Rotorua since 1898.

Russell, Barry Taylor, L.R.C.S., L.K., and Q.C.P., L.M. (Dublin), Physician and Surgeon, Rotorua. Dr. Russell was born in Dublin in 1855, educated at Trinity College, and gained his degrees in 1883. He practised in West Maitland, New South Wales, for several years before settling in Rotorua in 1888.

Maxwell, Arthur Augustus, Chemist and Druggist, Hinemoa Street, Rotorua. Private residence, Pukeatua street. This business was established in 1897, and the premises consist of a shop, consulting room and laboratory. Mr. Maxwell was born in Auckland, and educated at the Parnell Grammar School. He learned his business with Mr. Graves Aickin, in Auckland, and became a chemist by examination in 1886. After eighteen months in the service of Messrs Sharland and Co., he commenced business in Newmarket, where he remained for eight years. In 1895 Mr. Maxwell acted as medical officer for the Government in the King Country, and subsequently established the present business. As a Freemason he is a member of Lodge Remuera. Mr. Maxwell was married, in 1895, to a daughter of the late Captain Hussey, of Wanganui, and has two daughters and one son.

Spencer, Robinson, Chemist and Druggist, Fenton Street, Rotorua. Mr. Spencer acquired this business, which had been established for some years, in the beginning of 1900. He was born in Derbyshire, England, in 1842, came to Auckland in 1863 by the ship “Annie Wilson,” and during the war was a dispenser in a military hospital.

Professional, Commercial and Industrial.

Griffiths, David, Land, Estate and Commission Agent, Arawa Street, Rotorua. This business was established in 1890, and the proprietor is local agent for the “New Zealand Herald” and for the Royal Exchange Insurance Company. Mr. Griffiths was born in 1851, at Shrewsbury, England, and was educated at King Edward's Grammar School. For seventeen years he was in the service of the London and North Western Railway Company. He came out to New Zealand in 1882 page 806 as one of a special party of settlers to Te Puke, by the ship “May Queen,” and settled on land which he had purchased before leaving England. After being engaged in farming for five years he entered the service of the New Zealand Railway Department, in which he reamined for about five years. In 1890 Mr. Griffiths settled at Rotorua, where he bought the “Hot Lakes Chronicle,” which he conducted for two years. Mr. Griffiths was employed by the Government Valuation of Land Department in 1897 to make a special valuation of the Rotorua district, and received a bonus for satisfactory work. He claims to have been the first to issue illustrated maps of the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Mr. Griffiths was married, in 1875, to a daughter of the late Mr. E. C. Pratt, of Oswestry, Shropshire, England, and has four sons and four daughters.

Raymond, W. T., (Christopher F. Naden, manager), Auctioneer and General Storekeeper, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. Head Office, Tauranga. This branch was opened in 1898. The premises are large and convenient, and contain a considerable stock of general merchandise, besides produce. Auction sales are held periodically as required.

Mr. Christopher Frederick Naden, Manager of Mr. Raymond's business, was born in Lussex, England, in 1868. He came to Auckland by the ship “Dunedin” in 1875, and was brought up to a mercantile life in the colony. For two years Mr. Naden was manager of Mr. J. M. Williams' store at Waipiro Bay, and afterwards, for a similar period, of Mr. Moate's store at Tokomaru Bay. He was for a year in business as a fancy goods dealer and tobacconist at Mount Eden Road, Auckland, and was appointed to his present position in 1900. Mr. Naden was married, in 1893, to a daughter of Mr. Devlin, of Whangarei. Mrs Naden died in 1894, leaving one daughter.

Rogers, William, Licensed Interpreter, Ohinemutu, Rotorua. Mr. Rogers was born at the Thames in 1857, and was educated at the Auckland College and Grammar School, and having entered the Government service, was for several years an accountant in the post office savings bank at Wellington and Nelson. Subsequently he had a trip to San Francisco in charge of the New Zealand mails, but had to leave the post office on account of his health. After a few months' residence in Gisborne, where he was farming, he became an interpreter, and afterwards established stores at Ohinemutu, Maketu, Te Puke and Waitekauri. Mr. Rogers afterwards built the Geyser Hotel, Whakarewarewa, which he conducted for some time. For a number of years he has been resident in Ohinemutu as a storekeeper and licensed interpreter. He was married, in 1881, to a grand-daughter of the late chief Waharoa of Waikato, whose greenstone mere, which has killed hundreds of his enemies, is in Mr. Rogers's possession. Mr. Rogers traces his descent from the famous Tamati Kapua, who came over from Hawaiki in the historical canoe Te Arawa, and he is now the leading young chief of that tribe.

Mr. W. Rogers.

Mr. W. Rogers.

Thom, Percival, Accountant, Rotorua. Mr. Thom, who has been a settler in Rotorua since 1881, was born in 1852 at Kensington. London, and was educated at Elm Grove, Ealing. He landed at Port Chalmers in 1875 by the ship “Lennox Castle,” and was altogether six years in Otago, and resided in the Tokomairiro and Wainori districts. After settling in Rotorua Mr. Thom was for four years with Mr. J. H. Taylor, whose store he bought in 1895, and after conducting it for five years, resold it to that gentleman. He then continued in Mr. Taylor's employment for three years, when the business was sold to Mr. W. Rogers. After this Mr. Thom was manager of Mr. Taylor's carrying business for one year, and for two years, subsequently, of his auctioneering business. In 1897 Mr. Thom joined Mr. Samson, storekeeper, as accountant. He was married, in 1900, to a daughter of Mr. W. A. Butt, of Ohinemutu.

Hall, William, Confectioner and Fruiterer, Fenton Street, Rotorua. Mr. Hall, who established his business in 1899, was for seventeen years well known in connection with the baths. He was born in the Brazils, in 1841, and was taken at an early age to Liverpool, where he received his education. For about nine years he went to sea, and, having landed in Victoria, was present at the Ballarat riots in the fifties. Mr. Hall followed goldmining for about eight years, and arrived in Marlborough in 1876. After a short experience at the Wakamarino diggins he went to Picton, where he was farming for five years. For eighteen months afterwards he had the charge of the Picton Hospital, of which Mrs Hall was the matron. He was then appointed to the charge of the Pavilion Baths at Rotorua, and on leaving that position in July, 1899, he commenced his present business. Mr. Hall was married, in 1874, to a daughter of the late Mr. W. Pilford [sic], of Wellington. Mrs Hall died in 1899.

Bell, Robert Morr, Builder, Fenton Street, Rotorua. Mr. Bell was born in 1828, in the Isle of Man, where he was apprenticed. He arrived in Victoria in 1854, and for a good many years worked at his trade in that colony. In 1862 he came to Otago and was at the Hartley and Riley “rush” on the Molyneaux. After two years in Dunedin he went to Invercargill, where he built some railway bridges. He was afterwards for a short time in Wellington, and subsequently at Tauranga.
Mr. R. M. Bell.

Mr. R. M. Bell.

page 807 In 1885 Mr. Bell settled in Rotorua, where he has since continuously resided except during a trip he made to England in 1898. Mr. Bell has erected a great many buildings in Tauranga and in Rotorua, and superintended the erection of two bridges for the Government, one at Tokaanu and the other at Awaha on the Tauranga Road. He was married, in 1860, to a daughter of the late Mr. Field, of London, and has one son.

Keys, John James, Builder, Rotorua. Mr. Keys is one of the earliest settlers in the Rotorua district. He was born in Essex, England, in 1831, and came to Auckland in the ship “Forfarshire” in 1875. A year later he established himself as a builder in Rotorua, and since that time has erected many buildings in the district.

Sloane, Thomas Henry, Builder and Contractor, Rotorua. Mr. Sloane was born in 1868 at Ruakaka, near Whangarei, and was apprenticed in Auckland. On returning to the Whangarei district, he found employment at his trade and in contracting, and was afterwards farming at Mangapai. He then removed to Ohinemuri, where he was employed for fifteen months at Karangahake, and for three months subsequently at one of the Mamaku sawmills. In 1898 Mr. Sloane settled in Rotorua, where he established himself as a builder and contractor. He had the contract for the erection of the electrician's house and dynamo house at Okere.

Corbett, William Henry, Coach-builder, Blacksmith and Wheelwright, Coach and Carriage Factory, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. This business, which was established in 1895, is conducted in a large wood and iron building divided into three compartments—a smithy, wheelwright's shop, and a painting room. Close by there is a comfortable five-roomed residence. Mr. Corbett was born in Birmingham, England, in 1858, arrived in Lyttelton with his parents by the ship “Chariot of Fame” in 1862, and was educated in Christ-church and at Timaru. He learned his business in Timaru, and removed in 1881 to Auckland, where he found employment with leading coachbuilders, until he settled at Rotorua and established his present business. He married a daughter of Mr. W. Hume, of Auckland, but she died in 1891, leaving one son. Mr. Corbett was married, in 1895, to a daughter of the late Mr. A. Pollock, of Auckland, and there is one son by this marriage.

Oldfield, James, Hairdresser, Tobacconist, Stationer, and Cycle Agent, Arawa Street, Rotorua. Mr. Oldfield was born in 1872, in Arrowtown, Otago, and learned his profession as a hairdresser in Dunedin. Having gained a general mercantile experience in various parts of New Zealand, he was for eighteen months manager of Mr. J. Cullen's store at Kaponga, Taranaki. In 1893 he commenced business with a partner at Hawera, and three years later removed to Karangahake, and was subsequently for a short time in business in Cambridge before establishing himself at Rotorua. Mr. Oldfield was married, in 1900, to a daughter of the late Mr. T. Shaw, of Helensville.

Mr. and Mrs J. Oldfield.

Mr. and Mrs J. Oldfield.

Grand Hotel, Hinemoa and Fenton Streets, Rotorua. This large wooden building is of two stories and has a verandah and balcony. It contains eighty rooms, including about sixty bedrooms, private and public drawing rooms, smoking and reading rooms. The dining room will seat 100 guests.

Lake House, Ohinemutu, Rotorua, is the oldest hotel in the district. It was re-erected several years ago, and has accommodation for about fifty guests. There are some private hot baths on the property.

The Palace Hotel, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua, is a fine building with forty rooms and accommodation for the same number of visitors. The house was removed from Ohinemutu several years ago.

Brent's Bathgate House (Stephen Thomas Brent, proprietor), Rotorua. This is an admirably appointed house of ninety rooms, including two dining-rooms, smoking and sitting rooms, a large social hall and bedrooms capable of accommodating eighty visitors. The menu is excellent and the tariff reasonable, every attention being paid to the wants and comfort of tourists by the proprietor, who is ably assisted by his wife and a competent staff of servants.

Mr. Stephen Thomas Brent, J.P., Proprietor of Brent's Bathgate House, was born in Prince Edward's Island. Canada, in 1834, and is the son of Mr. William Brent, contractor and farmer. In 1854, Mr. Brent left with his parents in the schooner “Lady Grey” for Nelson, New Zealand, and arrived there in 1855. He commenced business as builder and carpenter in that town, where he remained until 1865, when the West Coast gold “rush” set in and he went to Hokitika. Whilst there he built the supreme courthouse, district hospital, and asylum. On the discovery of gold at the Thames in 1867, he page 808 removed there and was similarly occupied at his trade until 1874, when he proceeded to Rotorua and was in business as a builder for two years. Later, he was appointed to manage a store for Mr. Thomas Wigley, of Tauranga, in which he continued until 1883, when he began the construction of Bathgate House. Mr. Brent takes an active interest in local affairs, is a member of the Rotorua Town Board, a Justice of the Peace, and has been secretary of the local branch of the New Zealand Alliance since 1891.

The Langham (Charles Hawker Wilson, proprietor), Hinemoa Street, Rotorua. This well known boardinghouse is centrally situated in Rotorua, very near to the Sanatorium grounds. It is a two-storey wooden building, with verandah and balcony, and is deservedly popular with tourists and visitors.

“The Langham” (Belonging to Mr. C. H. Wilson).

“The Langham” (Belonging to Mr. C. H. Wilson).

The Pines (James Grieves Peace, proprietor), Rotorua. This well known boardinghouse was established in 1897, and at present can accommodate thirty guests. It is (1901) intended to build a large two-storey building, which will contain thirty-two rooms, including a large dining room, to seat close on fifty guests. The premises are central, and visitors may rely upon receiving every courtesy, attention and comfort.

Mr. James Grieves Peace, the Proprietor, who also conducts business as a photographer and dealer in native curios in a separate building, was born at St. John's, Newfoundland, in 1848. He arrived in 1866 in Auckland by the ship “Clara,” which was owned by his father, Mr. Robert Peace, well known as a plumber and gasfitter in Auckland. After a short time at Parua Bay Mr. Peace was three years at the Thames. In 1870 he went to Queensland, and was for some time on the Palmer goldfield. During the succeeding twenty years he travelled in various parts of the world, including New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hebrides, South Sea Islands, and most parts of Australia and America. While he was in America Mr. Peace obtained diplomas and two medals at the Chicago Exhibition for a collection of South Sea Island curios, which he subsequently sold for £1000. In 1897 he returned to Auckland and settled at Rotorua. Mr. Peace was married, in 1893, to a daughter of the late Mr. J. G. Hewitt, of Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Rocky Nook Boardinghouse (John Cross, proprietor), Wahakaue Street, Rotorua. This establishment dates from 1899. The building contains twenty-two rooms and has acommodation for thirty-five visitors. There is a comfortable sitting room, and a large dining room, which will seat thirty-five guests. Mrs Cross manages the house and attends to the comfort of visitors.

McAuley, George, General Mechanic, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. This business was established in 1891, and is conducted in workshops adapted for engineering and mechanical work, and supplied with all needful machinery and appliances. Mr. McAuley was born in 1829 at Larne, County Antrim, Ireland, and when two years of age accompanied his parents to New Brunswick. He was brought up to shipbuilding and storekeeping, in which he found employment till the end of 1862, and in the following year he arrived in Victoria, by the barque “Our Hope,” 251 tons, which he had built. Mr. McAuley took a cargo of horses and coal to Invercargill, and afterwards traded between Melbourne and Newcastle for some years. In 1872 he settled in the Auckland provincial district, and was shortly afterwards engaged in bridge-building between Tauranga and Taupo. In 1874 he built a bridge across the Mohaka river near Napier, and for about four years, subsequently, was engaged on the Napier harbour works in building the breakwater. He has been employed on many contracts, including the erection of small steamers. Mr. McAuley settled in Ohinemutu in 1882, but subsequently removed to the new township. He was married, in 1855, to a daughter of the late Mr. Wilson, of County Derry, Ireland. This lady died in 1874, leaving four sons and two daughters.

Parker, Alfred Stephen, Plumber and Sanitary Engineer, Fenton Street, Rotorua. This business was founded in 1898, and Mr. Parker has a workshop and showroom adapted to the needs of the trade. His was the first plumbing business established in the district, and, in addition to the ordinary plumbing work, Mr. Parker also undertakes page 809 electric light installations. He was born in 1867 in Sydney, New South Wales, and served his apprenticeship in his native city. Mr. Parker was in business for eighteen months at Waverley, in New South Wales, and came to Auckland in 1892. He was for some time at Paeroa and Te Aroha, and began business on his own account at Rotorua in 1898. Mr. Parker was married, in 1889, to a daughter of the late Mr. C. Holmes, of Sussex, England.

Harp, James George, Cycle Engineer, Rotorua. Mr. Harp was born at Cambridge, in 1874, and was educated to be a teacher at Devonport, Auckland. Having served an apprenticeship with Messrs Masefield and Co., Auckland, he passed as a marine engineer, and has had considerable experience in connection with the cycle trade in Auckland, Wellington, and Sydney. For two years Mr. Harp acted as engineer of the various steamers on Lake Rotorua, and was engineer of Messrs Ryan and Co.'s fine tourist steamer on Lake Taupo. As a Forester he is attached to Court Victoria, Auckland. Mr. Harp was married, in 1900, to the fourth daughter of Mr. J. Taylor, foreman of works, Auckland Harbour Board.

Fordyce, Samuel Edgar, Boot and Shoe Maker and Dealer and General Agent for Bicycles, Sewing Machines and Pianos, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. Mr. Fordyce is agent for the Massey-Harris Company's bicycles and for the Singer Sewing Machine Company.

Dando, Sydney, Storekeeper, Ohinemutu, Rotorua. Mr. Dando arrived in Wellington by the ship “Wild Duck,” in 1866. He served in the Armed Constabulary as defence storekeeper at Hamilton, and in the office of the inspector of stores at Wellington. He was also railway storekeeper at Auckland for some time. In 1871 he married a daughter of the late Mr. T. Maunder, of Hamilton, and has two daughters and one son. He established his present business in 1895.

Manson, William, General Storekeeper and Baker, Fenton Street, Rotorua. This business was established in 1897. The proprietor, who was born in Dunedin, in 1867, was brought up to commercial life in that city.

Munro, Joe, General Storekeeper, Tutanekai and Arawa Streets, Rotorua. This business was established in 1870 by the proprietor at Ohinemutu, where it was conducted till 1898, when the present store was erected. Mr. Munro is a native of Victoria, and came to New Zealand when he was very young and settled at Onehunga.

Samson, Thomas, Storekeeper and Baker, Ohinemutu, Rotorua. This business was established about 1861, by Mr. T. Wrigley, formerly of Tauranga, and was acquired by Mr. Samson in 1894. The premises contain the Ohinemutu post office and telephone bureau. Mr. Samson is a native of Kent, England, where he was born in 1852. He came out to New Zealand by the barque “Sydenham” in 1881, and commenced business in Wellington Street, Auckland.

Williams, William Adams, General Storekeeper, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. This business was founded in 1863 by Mr. T. Wrigley, of Ohinemutu, and is said to have been the first store removed to the new township in 1891. Mr. Williams managed the business for three years before becoming its owner. The premises consist of a large two storey building with a verandah and balcony, and include a store and a large accommodation house known as Thirwell House. There are twenty-seven rooms, exclusive of the shop, and the dining room will seat thirty guests. Mr. Williams was born in 1863 in London, where he was brought up to mercantile life, and had experience in three large wholesale houses. He arrived in Auckland by the s.s. “Doric” in 1885. Mr. Williams was married, in 1890, to a daughter of the late Sergeant M. Downey, of Tauranga, and has two sons and two daughters.

Lakin, John Henry, Collector of Maori Curios and New Zealand Ferns, Ohinemutu, Rotorua. Mr. Lakin, who has been well known in Rotorua for many years as a dealer in curios, was born in France in 1838. He came out to Australia in 1861, and served for three years in the 1st Waikato Regiment during the native disturbances. His business in Rotorua was established about 1883.

Goodson, Frederick, Carter and Carrier, Pukuatua Street, Rotorua. This business was established in 1890, and Mr. Goodson is the Rotorua agent of the New Zealand Express Company. He is the fourth son of Mr. C. W. Goodson, of Auckland, was born in 1874, in Norfolk, England, arrived in Auckland with his parents in 1879, and was educated at the Wellesley Street School. Having been brought up to agriculture, he settled in Rotorua in 1889, and established his carting and carrying business in the following year. He employs about ten horses and as many carts and waggons, and finds plenty of general work in the district, and a good deal of special work in the carting of sulphur. Mr. Goodson was married, in 1895, to a daughter of Mr. H. Gill, of Waipu, and has one son and three daughters.

Robertson, E. and Co., (Edwin Robertson, managing partner), Coach Proprietors, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. This is the headquarters of the large coaching business which has for many years been well known throughout the Hot Lakes district. The firm possesses stables on the roads to Tauranga, Te Puke, and on both roads to Taupo, as well as Tauranga, Taupo and Te Puke. Coaches run regularly twice a week to Tauranga by the bush road, twice a week to Te Puke, twice a week to Taupo, via Waiotapu and Wairakei, and once a week to Taupo, via Ateamuri. About one hundred horses and thirty-five coaches and conveyances are used in connection with the business, and from sixteen to twenty-five men are employed in working the trade.

Mr. Edwin Robertson, Managing Partner, was born in 1854 at Castlemaine, Victoria. He came to New Zealand in 1863, and gained general experience during the first few years. In 1869 Mr. Robertson had a good deal to do with the management of pack-horses in the Bay of Plenty, and in the following year he started on his own account at Tauranga. From the small beginning then made the present large business has been built up. The first coach was run between Napier and Taupo in 1872, and Mr. Robertson's connection with wheel traffic commenced about three years later. During the time that he has been a coach proprietor he has bought out no fewer than fourteen opposition lines.

Washing Day at Rotorua.

Washing Day at Rotorua.

page 810

Kusabs Brothers (Andrew Ernest Kusabs and Charles Edmund Kusabs), Timber Merchants, Sawmillers, Builders and Contractors, Rotorua. This firm has been connected with the timber industry for a number of years and founded the large sawmills now conducted by the Mountain Rimu Timber Company at Mamaku. The Messrs Kusabs still have sawmills at Maroa and Rotorua; the Maroa mill sawing principally totara and matai.

Steele Brothers (Duncan William Steele, George Steele, Walter Steele, and Alfred Steele), Sawmillers and Building Contractors, Tutanekai Street, Rotorua. This business was established in 1888. The premises, erected on Government leasehold sections, include a drying shed capable of storing 200,000 feet of timber, shop, workshop, an eight roomed residence, and a large hall—the Rotorua Assembly Hall—the largest and best outside of any large city in New Zealand. The hall is beautifully fitted up and finished, and has a complete stage with scenery of all descriptions, and a supper room attached. It is well furnished, has seating accommodation for 600 persons, and a dress circle with seats for one hundred. The building cost about £1200, and is lighted with electric light. The firm's mill is fourteen miles from Rotorua on the Oxford-Rotorua Road. There is a sixty-horse-power steam engine and a full plant of all the latest machinery procurable, also a six horse-power locomotive for hauling timber to the mill. The firm owns a fine farm of 1500 acres, known as the Maraeroa-Otura block, all of which has been cleared, fenced, and laid down in grasses. There is a dwellinghouse of ten rooms, as well as necessary outbuildings, such as wool shed, yards, etc. The land was all virgin forest when taken up, but the bush has all been sawn into timber and sold at Rotorua and Waikato. The timber taken off paid for clearing, fencing and grassing. Grass grows on the land to a height of five or six feet.

Mr. Duncan William Steele, the Senior Partner, was born in 1868 at Ohaupo. He was educated in the Waikato, was brought up to agriculture, and was the founder of the firm's business. He is ably assisted by Mr. W. Christie, of Scotland, as foreman in connection with the firm's works. Since settling in Rotorua as manager of the firm's extensive business. Mr. Steele has taken an active part as a member of the school committee, also in connection with the temperance movement, and as superintendent of the Presbyterian Sunday School. Mr. Steele is a cordial promoter of such sports and pastimes as cricket and football, and is an active member of the Rotorua Rifle and Gun Clubs. He was married, in 1895, to a daughter of Mr. T. J. Robinson, J. P., and has two sons.

Rotorua Assembly Hall.

Rotorua Assembly Hall.

Old Colonists.

Mr. Henry Walker Mitchell is a very old colonist. He was born in 1835 at Dollar, Clackmannashire, Scotland, was educated at the local academy, and came to Port Chalmers by the ship “Jura” in 1858. After being eight years in Invercargill Mr. Mitchell practised as a surveyor under the late Mr. J. T. Thompson, who became Surveyor-General of New Zealand. He was a year in Wellington, and then joined the service of the Native Land Court in 1867, and was afterwards engaged in survey work between the Bay of Islands and Tongariro. In 1873 Mr. Mitchell joined the Land Purchase Department, and in the following year settled at Rotorua. He has carried on private practice as an authorised surveyor since 1893, and has often been employed by the Government. Mr. Mitchell has served as a member of the Tauranga County Council, on which he represented Rotorua riding, and has been a member of the Rotorua Licensing Committee. He was married, in 1874, to a member of the Arawa tribe, and has two sons.

Mr. Thomas Joseph Robinson, J.P., has been well known in the Rotorua district for many years. He is the son of the late Rev. W. Robinson, of Langrick, near Boston, Lincolnshire, England, and was born there in 1833, and educated at Lincoln. Mr. Robinson came to Auckland in 1858 by the barque “William Watson,” and settled at Mauku, where he remained till the outbreak of the war, when he enlisted as a volunteer and served till the close of the disturbance. For some time he acted as a schoolmaster under the Board of Education, and was appointed by the Government to the charge of a native school, which he taught for thirteen years, at Awahau near Rotorua. On retiring he removed to Rotorua, where he built Tarawera House, which he conducted as a first class boardinghouse for some time and still owns. Mr. Robinson has for some years been a lay reader in the local Anglican Church. He was married, in 1860, to a daughter of the late Mr. J. Crisp, J.P., an old Mauku settler, and has three sons and two daughters.

Mr. James Stanley, who is an Old Colonist, was born in 1845, in Tasmania, where he was brought up to an outdoor life. In 1863 he came to Auckland and joined the 3rd Waikato Militia, with which he served throughout the campaign. He settled in Cambridge in 1866, and five years later he was one of the first to walk overland from Cambridge to Tauranga, and afterwards to Maketu. For several years afterwards he was employed by Mr. F. E. Hamlin, R.M., and settled in Rotorua in 1874. Mr. Stanley commenced business as a butcher in 1877, but in 1878 he sold his interest to Mr. W. Kelly, and became driver for the line of coaches run by that gentleman between Tauranga, Rotorua and Wairoa. When page 811 the business was sold to Mr. E. Robertson, Mr. Stanley commenced a dairy farm in Rotorua, and conducted it for three years. In 1891 he joined Mr. Robertson as a driver, and has since been employed in that way.

Mr. William Seddon, who is one of the oldest Settlers in Rotorua, was born in Manchester, England, in 1831. He came out to Victoria in 1870, and was engaged in goldmining in that colony, New South Wales, and Queensland for about five years. After being in business in Dunedin as an auctioneer for about seven years, he settled at Rotorua in 1881. He was afterwards a storekeeper at Ohinemutu, and for some years past has been proprietor of “Lake View” boardinghouse. Mr. Seddon took a prominent part in the establishment of the local library, for which he worked very hard, and acted as secretary of the committee for several years.

Royal Visit, June, 1901: Scenes and Incidents at Rotorua.

Royal Visit, June, 1901: Scenes and Incidents at Rotorua.