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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Wellington Provincial District]

Professional, Commercial And Industrial

Professional, Commercial And Industrial.

Abraham and Williams (Richard Slingsby Abraham and Alick Williams), Stock and Land Auctioneers: Chief office and yards, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Branches, Pahiatua and Levin. Cable and telegraphic address, “Abraham, Palmerston North.” Telephone 43; P.O. Box 67. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Mr. F. L. Jackson, son of Mr. Freeman Jackson, of Wanganui, is the auctioneer of the firm. The Palmerston North offices and yards are situated in Rangitikei Street, and were specially designed and built for the business. The yards were planned by Mr. L. G. West, architect, and built by Mr. W. Watts, builder, of Feilding. They are constructed on the circular principle, and so adapted that the stock are returned after being sold to their own pen without any confusion arising. The yards and offices occupy about two-and a-half acres of land. Accommodation is available for 24,000 sheep and from 800 to 1000 head of cattle. The sales are held every Thursday, and horse sales each Saturday. Messrs. Abraham and Williams have also yards at:—

Colyton providing for 8000 sheep, 300 cattle, sales monthly.
Pahiatua ,, 5000 ,, 400 ,, alternate Tuesdays,
Awahuri ,, 8000 ,, 300 ,, bi-monthly.
Woodville ,, 4000 ,, 250 ,, monthly.
Levin ,, 1000 ,, 250 ,, monthly.
Shannon ,, 2000 ,, 100 ,, stated periods
Foxton ,, 2000 ,, 100 ,, stated periods
Otaki ,, 2000 ,, 100 ,, sales stated periods
Pohangina ,, 2000 ,, 100 ,, sales stated periods
page 1172

In addition to these regular sales, Messrs. Abraham and Williams hold an annual ewe fair (for sheep only) at Palmerston North about the middle of February, and a ram fair under the auspices of the Manawatu and West Coast Agricultural and Pastoral Association about the end of January each year. Messrs. Abraham and Williams make liberal advances on stock consigned for sale by auction or private contract, as well as on tallow, wool, and produce. They also negotiate loans on security of real estate, and undertake valuations of land and stock. Messrs. Abraham and Williams are agents for the Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Company, the Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society, the Northern Steamship Company, Limited, of Auckland, the Toxa Company, of Dunedin (rabbit and bird poisons), White's sheep dip, Peacock's lung-worm specific, Muir's Zealandia and Cockatoo wool press, etc., etc.

Mr. Freeman Lawlor Jackson, the Auctioneer for Messrs. Abraham and Williams, of Palmerston North, is the eldest son of Mr. Freeman Rayney Jackson, ex-mayor of Wanganui, and senior partner in the firm of F. R. Jackson and Co. Born in Riverton in 1859, he was educated at Wanganui College, and has had many years experience in connection with the large auctioneering business of which his father is the senior partner, besides which he spent four years in one of the banks. For several years Mr. Jackson represented his firm in Wellington, having charge of the large yards at Johnsonville, where he conducted the stock sales. In 1893 he accepted the position which he now occupies under Messrs. Abraham and Williams.

Henry, Matthew, Live Stock Salesman and General Auctioneer, Palmerston Live Stock Auction Market: Offices, and yards, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic and Cable address, “Matthew Henry, Palmerston North.” P.O. Box 75. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Private residence, Cook Street. Mr. Henry hails from the Highlands of Scotland, where he was brought up as a farmer. In 1877 he came to the colonies, and gained experience of stock on a large station in Australia. Arriving in New Zealand he accepted the position of overseer for the New Zealand and Australian Land Company, on Acton Estate, in Canterbury. In consequence of the death of his brother in Scotland, he was suddenly called to the Old Country, and resigned his appointment with the Land Company, from whom he holds excellent credentials. For eight years after his return, or until the expiring of his lease, Mr. Henry was farming in Ross-shire, Scotland. During these years, and indeed from his boyhood, he has had every opportunity of becoming fully acquainted with the breeding, rearing, and feeding of stock. He was associated with prominent agriculturalists, many of whom were directors of the foremost institution, the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, and of which he himself was a member. On leaving Scotland in 1889, in order to settle in this Colony, Mr. Henry was the recipient of testimonials of the highest character from well-known stock owners and breeders of the above standing, testifying to his knowledge of every branch of stock rearing, and agriculture. Indeed for the raising and feeding of stock he was considered second to none in that highly cultivated district, making early maturity of stock a special study. Mr. Henry visited the Southern American States, of Colorado, Texas, and Old Mexico, previous to coming to New Zealand in the latter year. In 1892 Mr. Henry estabished the present business. The yards are erected on a large leasehold section in Rangitikei Street, containing nearly 70,000 square feet of space. The plans were drawn by Mr. L. G. West, from Mr. Henry's own design, Mr. McColl being the contractor. These yards are circular in shape, with sale ring, which is forty feet in diameter, and seating gallery to accommodate 400 to 600 people, and temporary office in the centre, under one roof, which is 60 feet in diameter. The sale ring is lighted by sky-lights, and a central glass dome. Outside this building are the cattle pens, which surround the same, and beyond these a continuous circular race, with which all the pens are connected. Further away from the centre are a ring of sheep pens, and beyond these another race connecting with the same, as well as with the inner race and cattle pens, and also with the sheep drafting yard, outside the circular part of the yards. In conducting a sale, the yards are worked in sections, beginning with sheep pens one to twelve, section A, and continuing in order along sections B, C, and D, or vice versa, as the auctioneer may desire. Prior to the commencement of the sale, the first pen to be offered is put into the ring, the following lot being then put into the forwarding pen. The next in order is put into the circular race right against the sliding gate, that divides the circular race from the forwarding pen. The stockmen have thus a start of the Diagram of Matthew Henry's sale yards salesman, which they are generally able to keep up to the close of the sale. By this means, the sale is usually concluded much sooner than under the old objectionable system of cramming the pens in such a manner-that buyers have no fair opportunity of examining what they are about to purchase. As the stock from each pen are put forward towards the ring, the pen gate is locked across the circular race, and when sold, they are driven out of the ring by the opposite gate to that by which they entered for sale, and the first stop they encounter is their own pen gate, which turns them into their original pen. By manipulating a folding hurdle, which fastens on to a sliding gate, pigs are also brought into the arena, and disposed of in the same way as cattle and sheep, with little trouble or delay. Although these yards are specially designed for the handling of sheep and cattle, the sale ring cannot be beaten for the showing and disposal of horses, whether broken or unbroken. One of the main advantages of the building yards page 1173 on this system is that in the event of the volume of trade necessitating additions, these can be added from time to time, and yet not one of the additional pens will be further away from the ring than its fellow, or those erected in the same line of radius. This will not apply to any other system of saleyards. A notable feature of this system is the fact that when the stock in section A, for instance, have been disposed of, they can be delivered without in any way interfering with the progress of the sale. Or should stock arrive after the commencement of a sale, they can get access to their pens by side races, specially constructed for the receiving and delivering of stock during the progress of sales. These yards are said to be the only ones in the Colony where the whole stock, including cattle, sheep, and pigs are yarded, and sold before a seated audience. The advantages of the system are manifold. The yards as at present con structed afford accommodation for 600 head of cattle and 5000 sheep: when completed they will take in 800 cattle and 10,000 sheep. Mr, Henry makes advances on stock consigned for sale; he has good pad docks in which to keep those that are held over from one week is the following. His weekly stock sale at Palmerston North is held on Thursdays. Mr. Henry holds periodical horse sales and clearing sales, when required. He is agent for Aveling and Porter's traction engines, Hartley's, Hogge's, Drench's, Gray's, and Nicholson's milking machines, Burton's patent eclipse stumping machine, and Burton's patent straw elevator. Mr. Henry holds an annual ram fair on the show grounds, under the auspices of the Manawatu and West Coast Agricultural and Pastoral Association. He has also established an annual fat stock show and sale combined, in September of each year. when he gives prizes in the various classes, aggregating from twenty to thirty guineas. Mr. Henry also undertakes the valuation of land and stock in any part of the district. He also carries on general commission agency business of every description. Mr. Henry's business is steadily progressing, and there can be no doubt that his experience, energy, ability, and well-known integrity will be the means of building up a large connection.

Montague, James Robert, Auctioneer and General House Furnisher, The Square, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Montague, Palmerston North.” P.O. Box 131. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence. London Street. Mr. Montague was born in London, in October, 1850. Here he was educated, and here, too, he was apprenticed to Messrs. Jackson and Graham, upholsterers, cabinetmakers, and general house decorators, of Oxford Street, London. In 1880 he determined to leave England and emigrate to the colonies, and arrived in Auckland in 1881. Not finding a suitable opening here, Mr. Montague resolved to visit Australia, and spent a short time in Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, subsequently returning to New Zealand, and taking up his abode in the Empire City, where he commenced business as a cabinetmaker and general dealer, and after-wards as auctioneer in the large Central Arcade, Manners Street. In 1891 he removed to Palmerston North, and established his present business, carrying it on with great success. The building, comprising the auction room and offices, is of wood and iron, and has quite recently been greatly increased in size. The floorage space, which was formorly 2970 square feet, is now 5120 square feet. Mr. Montague was his own architect and builder, the original premises which he occupied having been destroyed by fire. In the house-furnishing department of his business, Mr. Montague makes a specialty of sideboards and overmantels, the carving of many being very fine. He has all the necessary machinery for the trade, such as a band-saw, circular saw, lathe, boring and sharpening machine, flock carder, etc., and uses a seven-horse-power gas-engine. A very work shop containing 3000 square feet of ground floorage space has just been added, besides an extensive yard for the proper seasoning of the timbers used in the factory. From eight to twelve hands are employed on the premises, and Mr. Montague is a direct importer of crockery, cutlery, and upholstering requisites, besides which he has a large stock of carpets, linoleums, bedsteads, mattresses, and a general assortment of good furniture. He conducts sales at private houses or elsewhere, in any part of the district, besides holding regular auction sales at his Central Auction Mart, in the Square. He employs none but first-class workmen who can be implicitly relied upon for executing orders in a superior manner. Suites of furniture are re-upholstered, and beds and mattrasses are re-made. Mr. Montague takes a great interest in all matters concerning the district, and is very popular. He is a Justice of the Peace, and a hardworking borough councillor. He is also a prominent Mason, being a member of the Manawatu-Kilwinning Lodge and of the Royal Arch Chapter. His methods of advertising are very ingenious, and he has kept himself well before the public by the issue of many novelties in the advertising line. He is thoroughly enterprising, and does a good business. As a councillor of the borough of Palmerston North in the interests of No. 2 Ward, further reference to Mr. Montague, chiefly as to his public career, will be found on page 1144.

Preece, George Augustus, Auctioneer, Land, Estate, and Commission Agent, Valuer, Arbitrator, Native Interpreter, and Native Land Agent, The Square. P.O. Box 47. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Fitzherbert Street. Mr. Preece is a native of the Colony, and was brought up to the civil service in he served twenty-eight-years. For twelve years he occupred the which honourable position of resident magistrate at Napier. He was also in the military service of the Colony as a captain of the militia, and in the armed constabulary as a sub-inspector Mr. Preece is a recipient of the New Zealand Cross for distinguished services. His auction rooms and offices, which were erected for the purpose of the page 1174 George Augustus Preece business, contain about 1000 feet of floorage space, and are built of wool. The special feature of Mr. Preece's business is land agency; his general knowledge of the whole country enables him to afford valuable information to clients. A sale of farm produce is held weekly each Saturday. Mr. Preece is also a purchaser of wool, sheep skins, etc. He conducts country and clearing sales when required. His business extends throughout the Colony.

Rutherfurd, Walter, Land, Estate, and Commission Agent, and Accountant, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Telephone 53; P.O. Box 35. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Private residence, College Street. Mr. Rutherfurd founded this business in 1890, and has a connection throughout the district. He acts as agent for the Public Trustee. He is more fully referred to in another page in his official capacity as secretary of the Hospital and Charitable Aid Board.

Snelson, Geo. M., J.P., Land and Estate Agent, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Private residence, Hokowhitu. Particulars regarding Mr. Snelson's career will be found under the heading of “Ex-Mayors.”

Scott, George J., Accountant, House, Land, and General Commission Agent, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telephone 51; P.O. Box 86. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Broad Street. Mr. Scott established his present business in 1888, but his experience of colonial life is of much longer duration than that. He was born at Dundee, Scotland, where he was educated. Mr. Scott had considerable mereantile experience both in his native town and in London. He left England for the colonies in 1866 per ship “Electra,” and on his arrival in New Zealand was at once engaged by the well-known firm of Taylor and Watt, of Wanganui. Mr. Scott held the position of accountant to this firm for some ten years, when he left Wanganui and became manager for Messrs. J. and C. Bull, of Bulls, subsequently vacating this position in order to-establish himself on his own account. Mr. Scott is a member of the Incorporated Institute of Accountants of New Zealand. He is the managing director of the Manawatu Permanent Equitable and Investment Society, the meetings of this body being held at his office in Main Street. Mr. Scott is Deputy Official Assignee in Bankruptcy for Palmerston, in which position his extensive mercantile knowledge is most useful. He takes great interest in educational and social mothers, and is chairman of the Terrace-end School Committee and is chairman of the Presbyterian Church. He holds the agencies for the National Fire and Marine Insurance Company, the Australian Mutual Provident Society, and others.

Linton and Mowlem, Land, Estate, and Financial Agents. The Square, Palmerston North.

Mowlem, James. Land, Estate. and Commission Agent, The Square. Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1891.

Pearce, E. B., Land and Financial Agent and Valuator. Pearce's Land Mart, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers. Bank of New Zealand. Estab. 1889

Bruce, James Stanley, Civil Engineer and Architect, Central Chambers, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Bruce, Palmerston North.” P.O. Box 106. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Featherston Street East. Mr. Bruce came to the Colony in 1869 per ship “Matoka,” from London, and at once commenced the practice of his profession. He was a pupil of Mr. Frederick Barry, M.I.C.E., of 31 Great George Street, Westminster, and prior to that a pupil of Mr. C. J. Shoppee, F.R.I.B.A., of 61 Doughty Street, London. Mr. Bruce first established himself in Christchurch. As engineer for the Springs and Lincoln districts, and the Kowai and Ashburton districts, Mr. Bruce has made more roads and bridges than any other engineer in New Zealand. Under his diection were formed the Rakaia-Mount Hutt Road of twelve-and-a-half miles; the Rakaia and Alford Forest Road, five-and-a-half miles; Black's Road, Jackson's Road, McLean's Road, the last eight-and-a-half miles; Longbeach Road, sixteen miles; Alford Forest Road, Coldstream Swamp Road, through a peat bog; a portion of the Main South Road, through the Ashburton county; the Elgin Road, Cochrane Road, a part of the Main South Road, in the Kowai district, for the Provincial Government, and many of the streets of Ashburton. His experience in connection with railway and road formation in both England and Ireland was of much use in New Zealand. Mr. Bruce has superintended the building of bridges in all parts of Canterbury, and in the architectural branch of his profession he has successfully undertaken most important works, of which the following are a few:—The house of George Hart, Hereford Street West, Christchurch; that of Mr. William Maddison. Selwyn; of Captain Willis, Southbridge; additions to Mr. John Grigg[gap — reason: illegible] Longbeach Homestead; Waterton Hotel, Longbeach; Ashburton County Hospital, county offices and secretary's residence; Longbeach Road Board offices and clerk's dwelling, and many others. After twenty years of continuous work at these and similar undertakings, Mr. Bruce's health gave way, and he was ordered by his medical adviser to live in the North Island. Coming to Palmerston he spent some two or three years at farming in the Fitzherbert district, but relinquished that for the practice of his profession. Since residing in this part of the Colony, he has accepted the position of engineer to the Fitzherbert Road Board, in which capacity he has run roads through that district, completed the Palmerston-Pahiatua Road to the boundary of the page 1175 district, and finished the main road west from Palmerston. Scott's Road through the Tararua Range, and the Kahutarawa and Tiritea Roads are also recently completed under Mr. Bruce's direction. In bridges, too, some important structures are in his hands. A house for Mr. A. A. Seaton, of Palmerston, one for Mr. F. E. Clapperton and one for Mr. William Akers, both of Fitzherbert, besides several other houses and business premises, have been erected from designs by Mr. Bruce. He has always taken a large interestin public affairs, and been instrumental wherever he has been located in promoting the well-being of the district. He established the Ashburton Fire Brigade and Fire Police in 1874, was instrumental in obtaining a large fire-engine and plant for the Hook and Ladder Company, and also the first fire-bell. In acknowledgment of these services he was elected an honorary life member of the brigade. In the beginning of 1877 Mr. Bruce was the means of raising a contingent of the Canterbury Yeomanry Cavalry, in which he held the rank of lieutenant, He was also chairman of the Wakanui School and Library Committees, and succeeded in getting the Elgin School erected on what was originally a portion of the Wakanui district, and was chairman of the Elgin School Committee, which office he retained until leaving the district. The Elgin School and postal district were named after Mr. Bruce's property, being formerly known as the Wakanai North district. Since his removal to the North Island he has been instrumental in getting a public school and post-office erected at Linton. In Masonic matters, too, he has taken a considerable part; he belongs to both the English and Scotch Constitutions, and helped to inaugurate at Ashburton St. John's Lodge No. 1858, E.C., of which he was for some time secretary and treasurer. In connection with the positions filled by Mr. Bruce, he has received many testimonials. They cover a period of over a quarter of a century, and are from some of the foremost English engineers, who speak in the highest terms of his qualifications. Mr. James Stanley Bruce is a son of the late Dr. James Bruce, of London, grandson of Captain Bruce, R.N., and great-grandson of the Rev. Robert Bruce. Both his grandfather and great-grandfather were in the “Bellona” 74 during the famous battle of Trafalgar, on the 21st October 1806 the latter being chaplain on board the said ship.

Edwards, R., Architect, Sanitary Engineer, and Proprietor of the Borough Swimming Baths, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Duke Street. Mr. Edwards is one of the most enterprising men of this district, and, notwithstanding the excessive demands of his private business, he has found much time for the service of the public, which he has rendered and is rendering in a variety of ways. For six years he was a member of the Borough Council, and for the year 1892–93 he filled the Mayoral chair. He was a member of the Hospital Board and the Charitable Aid Board for four years, and was instrumental in promoting the Bill creating Palmerston North a separate district, thus enabling the hospital to be located in the town. As a member of the School Committee and the Licensing Bench, Mr. Edwards has done good work. He is still a member of the Licensing Bench, having been elected to that office in 1894. In the past he successfully used his influence in securing the water supply, of which all Palmerston is now so justly proud. His labours in this direction have lately met with a well-merited reward. Wellington has been agitating the city baths question for many years, but Mr. Edwards has made a private enterprise of it for Palmerston, and the council has recognized his pluck by granting him important concessions for eighteen years. The Borough Baths, as they are called, are a credit to the town, and to the Colony indeed, or the North Island at any rate, for the whole of the cement used in the concrete was from the cement works of Messrs. J. Wilson and Co., of Auckland. Mr. Edwards is prepared to risk his reputation as an engineer and architect on his assertion that the so-called Portland cement ordinarily imported into this Colony is inferior to that of Messrs. Wilson and Co. For the construction of his baths he has used even less than the regulation proportion, and with results the most satisfactory. The main hath is 72 feet long, and 25 feet wide, while its depth when full varies from three feet at the steps to 7 feet 6 inches, some 10 feet beyond the centre, from this point gradually shoaling to 6 feet 5 inches at the further end. The centre being slightly below the drain level, the last few inches of water must be ejected, and for this purpose a patent ejector is used. In the cellar, and contiguous to the ejector, is a large water heater by Keith, of Arbroath, for improving the natural temperature in the winter. A dozen well-appointed dressing rooms are provided, besides an elegantly carpeted and furnished ladies' room, with easy chairs and large mirror, pretty tables, etc. Two large bath-rooms, with special vapour and plunge baths, occupy with other conveniences the opposite side of the entrance to that taken up by the ladies' lounging room. It is claimed for these baths that they are the most complete in the Colony. The writer had an opportunity of witnessing the opening ceremony performed by his Worship the Mayor, Mr. W. Park, in December last, and of noting the appreciation of the public. Mr. Edwards has done well for Palmerston, and it remains for Palmerston to “return the compliment.” The borough drainage design was the work of Mr. Edwards, and as an architect many of the houses and shops in the town and district have been erected by him. Mr. Edwards was born in Geelong, and arrived in New Zealand in 1869, per ship “South Australia,” from Melbourne. He learned his business with Mr. Murdock, and Mr. Eddie, architects and civil engineers, of Victoria.

Mr. R. Edwards.

Mr. R. Edwards.

page 1176

Larcomb, Ernest, Architect and Civil Engineer, The Square. Telegraphic address, “Larcomb, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Duke Street. Mr Larcomb is a native of London, and was educated at St. Saviour's School, now at Ardingly. He studied his profession from fifteen with an uncle, who was chief draughtsman at the War Office, London. After qualifying, Mr. Larcomb came to New Zealand, per ship “Corona,” in 1874. He at once entered the Civil Service, and had large experience in the Public Works Department for about seven years. Owing to the reorganization and the completion of works, Mr. Larcomb's services were dispensed with in 1881, he having previously been permitted to undertake work for the Wellington Corporation. In the latter year Mr. Larcomb removed to Palmerston North, and established the present business. Ever since taking up his abode in the district, Mr. Larcomb has received a large share of the work in Palmerston. He has designed and superintended the erection of at least six of the local churches, among which may be named the Wesleyan, Anglican, Catholic, and Presbyterian. About eighteen hotels in the locality are from Mr. Larcomb's plans,. A few may be named as among the most noteworthy, such as the Club, Occidental, Empire, and Albion. Mr. Larcomb designed and erected the Union Bank of Australia in The Square, and three other banks in the district, and also the Palmerston North Hospital. About half of the shops and business premises in The Square were erected under Mr. Larcomb's oversight. Three substantial structures are worthy of mention, viz.:—the fine buildings of the United Farmers' Cooperative Society and Messrs. Ireland and Co., and the Law Chambers. Mr. Larcomb has put up many fine private houses: the residence of Mr. William Park, which appears on page 1192 of this volume, is one of the best. Mr. Larcomb served for eight years as a member of the Borough Council. He is also a member of the local school committee.

West, Ludolph Georg, Architect, Fire Insurance and General Agent, and Valuer, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Telephone 25; P.O. Box 45. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Fitzherbert Street. In 1868 Mr. West settled in the Palmerston district, which was in a state of nature, and almost covered with bush. He was one of the party of settlers who made the famous exit from Upper Manawatu in 1868 when the news was spread that Te Kuti and the Han Haus were coming through from Hawkes Bay, after which he joined the cavalry volunteers, P.Y.C., in the Maori war, returning early in 1869. At this time there was no town of Palmerston North. there being only a dozen white people in the district, and only one building erected, which was deserted. Mr. West claims to be the oldest resident in the town. He remembers the early beginning of settlement, and has noted with considerable pride the progress that has been made. In the course of his business as an architect, Mr. West has designed and superintended the erection of a large number of shops and private residences in and around the Square. Amongst these may be named Mr. Hankins's office, the Bon Marche, Messrs. Ross and Sandford's premises, Mr. C. E. Waldegrave's residence, Mrs. Cooper's house, The Terrace, and Messrs. Baker and Cook's offices. Mr. West also drew the plans for the sale-yards of Mr. Matthew Henry, and Messrs. Abraham and Williams. These yards have proved very useful for the purpose for which they were built. They are especially valuable in preventing confusion even at the busiest sales. Mr. West also planned and built the Phœnix Hotel, the Foresters' Hall (Court Manawatu), and designed and supervised the rebuilding of the Theatre Royal. Mr. West is agent for the North German Fire Insurance Company of Hamburgh. He is valuer for several financial institutions. Mr. West, who founded the present business in 1880, is referred to in these pages as an ex-mayor of the Borough.

Wylde, Harry James, C.E., Authorised and Licensed Surveyor, Queen Street, Palmerston North. Mr. Wylde is a native of Renfrew, Scotland, and a son of Mr. James Wylde, the well-known civil engineer in New Zealand. He arrived in the Colony at an early age, was educated at Christ's College, Christchurch, and studied under his father on the West Coast, subsequently passing his examination as an authorised surveyor for New Zealand and Tasmania. Amongst the many important works carried out by Mr. Wylde may be mentioned his supervision of the underground tunnel Harry James Wylde work in connection with No. 2 Sludge Channel on the West Coast. Since taking up his residence in Palmerston, in 1892, he has been engaged in surveying work for the Government, and also privately. Mr. Wylde has compiled a very useful work, entitled “Field tables for surveyors, engineers, mine managers, etc.,” which should prove of great assistance to engineers and field surveyors. Mr. Wylde is a cousin of Sir Charles Douglas Fox, vice-president of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Australia, whose name is so well known in engineering circles throughout the Australasian colonies.

Flyger, W. H. R., Surveyor, The Square, Palmerston North. Private residence, Main Street East.

Scott, G. L. R., Surveyor, The Square, Palmerston North. Private residence, Fergusson Street.

Attwood and Co. (Thomas Attwood and Thomas Reginald Attwood), Artists and Photographers, Gilders, and Picture page 1177 Framers, The Square, Palmerston North. Private residence, George Street. Both partners his from Birmingham, where Mr. Attwood, senior, learned his business. In 1871 he took a silver medal against all England at the Agricultural Hall for photographs, Mr. T. R. Attwood studied are at the Birmingham School of Art. Both came to New Zealand by ship “Crusader,” in 1883. Previous to leaving for the Colony, Mr. Attwood, senior, was for fifteen years in business in Birmingham. On arrival in New Zealand the firm commenced business in Christchurch, where they continued till 1891, when they removed to Palmerston North. The leasehold premises occupied extend to 1400 square feet, and contain a show-room, where excellent specimens of work are exhibited, a large and well lighted studio, ladies' waiting-room, and other apartments required. Mr. T. R. Attwood has recently painted a remarkably fine background for the studio, which is well adapted for the business. Messrs. Attwood and Co. are direct importers of photographic goods and chemicals. They execute all kinds of photography in first-class style, their enlargements being really splendid. The writer saw some excellent specimens of the firm's work, some really fine groups being well worthy of remark.

Bunting, F. W., Photographer, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. The business, which was established in 1889, was originally carried on in the name of Billens and Bunting, but in 1894 Mr. Bunting bought his partner out. A branch is also conducted at Feilding.

Erenstrom and Andrews (Charles John Erenstrom and William Reid Andrews), Bread and Biscuit Bakers, Confectioners, etc., Model Bakery, Main Street. Telephone 37; P.O. Box 80. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Wanganui agent, Mr. W. S. Dustin; Palmerston agents, Barraud and Abraham. This flourishing business was established in 1880 by Mr. C. Whitehead, for many years well known as a baker and confectioner in Wellington; and it became the property of Messrs. Erenstrom and Andrews in the early part of 1893. Though the front shop is by no means small, it gives a very inadequate impression of the concern. To get an idea of the business done, one needs to see the bake-house at the back. This room alone contains 1200 square feet of floor space. The ovens are large, and in splendid order, one being the usual furnace oven, and the other what is known as a “Bailley-Baker Patent.” The machinery comprises two broad and biscuit mixers of large size, a biscuit-cutting machine, a machine known to the trade as a brake, a press for a special biscuit called the “Rout,” a fruit cleaning machine, peel cutting machine, a circular saw for the cutting of firewood, and a derrick for the hoisting of flour. The power for driving these machines is derived from a fine horizontal otto gas engine, nominally five horse-power, but frequently driven up to eight-horse-power. In separate buildings behind the business premises are the stables and three rooms for the men and boys employed. Messrs. Erenstrom and Andrews do a really good business, and claim to have the finest bakery in the Manawatu district. Eleven hands are constantly employed in the business, and no fewer than five delivery carts are kept going. Their goods are in demand in all parts. The refreshment rooms of the United Farmers' Co-operative Association are supplied by Messrs. Erenstrom and Andrews. The contract for the supply of the hospital has been in the hands of the firm since its opening. Mr. Erenstrom, who attends to the out-door work, is a native of Sweden, but has practically spent the whole of his life in the Colony, arriving per ship “London” in 1870. Mr. Andrews, who manages the business inside, was born in Scotland, where he learned his trade. In 1888 he came to New Zealand per steamship “Kaikoura.

Heaton, J. A., Baker and Confectioner, Biscuit and Lolly Manufacturer, Main Street, Terrace End, Palmerston North, Telegraphic address, “Heaton, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Colonial Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Heaton was born in America, and left that part of the world for the colonies in 1853, per ship “Glance,” Captain Taylor, arriving in Melbourne. After about ten years spent in Australia, during which time he visited the principal goldfields, Mr. Heaton came on to this Colony by the ship “Pearl,” which was wrecked on reaching New Zealand, and now lies in Jacob's River. This was in 1864, and during that year the subject of these lines went to Wanganui, and served an apprenticeship under Mr. John Hurley (successor to Mr. Joseph A. Burnett), general baker and confectioner. He completed his term in 1867, and went to Bulls, starting in business there on his present lines, and conducting it most successfully for a period of twelve years. During this time Mr. Heaton amassed a small fortune, being the possessor, at the end of the time specified, of no less than £10,000, which sum he subsequently lost in unfortunate land speculations. He had, indeed, to start life afresh; even the fine house which he had built for himself having to be given up, and it is now in the occupation of Mr. John Stevens, the present member of the House of Representatives for Rangitikei. The failure of the Glasgow Bank and the consequent wave of depression which reached these shores was the climax to Mr. Heaton's misfortunes. But he is not a man to be entirely crushed, no matter how severe the blow, and in 1879 he removed to Palmerston North, and began the business described above. His premises are large, and contain, besides the shop, some nine or ten rooms. The shop in itself measures thirty feet by sixteen feet, while the rest of the establishment is convenient and roomy, including a large bakehouse, stables, etc. All the machinery necessary to the business is possessed by Mr. Heaton, and comprises a brake, two mixers, a rolling machine for boiled lollies, and many other appliances. The business done both locally and in the outlying districts is very extensive, the products of the establishment being popular throughout the entire district. His specialties are fancy biscuits and lollies. In politics, Mr. Heaton is an advanced Liberal, but has declined all invitations to allow hinself to be nominated for a scat in Parliament, notwithstanding the fact that on one occasion the request emanated from so distinguished a politician as the late Hon. John Ballance. Mr. Heaton is still in the prime of life, and there is no reason why he should not yet take a prominent part in directing the affairs of the Colony. He has proved himself to be a man of remarkable energy and perseverance, and the admirable way in which he set to work to rebuild his shattered fortunes after losing the fruits of twelve years toil, by sheer misfortune which would have crushed many a man utterly, gains for him the esteem and commendation of all who know him. It is quite within the bounds of possibility that Mr. Heaton will eventually be succesful, if not in raising quite so large a sum as he once possessed, In at least being enabled to retire on a well-morited [gap — reason: illegible]

Todd, Matthew, Baker and Grocer, Post-office Store, Main Street. Telegraphic address, “Todd, Palmerston North.” This business was established in 1881, and came into the hands of the present proprietor thirteen years later. The premises are of wood, and one story. The shop has a good appearance, and is well looked after. Mr. Todd locks after the business outside, and his wife attends to the shop during the day. Mr. Todd is a native of Edinburgh, but learned his trade in Maidstone, Kent, where he lived several years. He came to New Zealand per ship “Strathnavar,” from London, in 1874. Before coming to Palmerston, he was in business for a few years in Gisborne. For the past two years, Mrs. Todd page 1178 has been a martyr to sciatica; but it is hoped that she is at length having some measure of relief. Mr. and Mrs. Todd are deserving colonists. They are attentive to business and have every prospect of doing well.

Whitehead, Albert Edward, Baker, Confectioner, and Refreshment room Proprietor, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Whitehead, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Mr. Whitehead is a native of England, and reached the Colony per s.s. “Rimutaka” in 1888. He learned his business with C. Grubb and C. Whitehead, with whom he was for five years. After becoming an expert at his trade [gap — reason: illegible] established the present business in 1894. The premises, which are situated in Main Street, were specially built for the business. The shop and refreshment-room, which fronts the street, is convenient, and contains about 900 square feet of floorage space. The oven and bakehouse are substantially constructed from designs which are the result of the large experience of Mr. Caleb Whitehead. The oven is very large, and will bake 400 loaves at one time. Mr. Whitehead makes a specialty of cakes, tarts, and confectionery generally, but particularly of wheatmeal and brown bread, which are made daily. In the latter he has succeeded in making a most wholesome loaf, and the demand is rapidly increasing, and there can be no doubt that a large trade will be done in this line, as well as all others. Mr. White-head delivers by horse and cart.

Aisher, Fred., J.P., Confectioner and Fruiterer, Palmerston Confectionery Works, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1888.

Dowdall and Co. (Samuel Dowdall), Sculptor and Monumental Mason, Palmerston North Monumental Works, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Dowdall, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Broad Street. Agents:—Marton, Mr. Snellgrove; Feilding, Mr. Shearer. Founded by the present proprietor in 1890, this business has steadily progressed. The premises occupied consist of a valuable freehold section, having thirty-three feet frontage by a depth of ninety nine feet, on which, offices, sheds and all necessary buildings have been constructed, the material used being of wood and iron. Mr. Dowdall was born in Southampton, England, and landed in the Colony from the good ship “Aldersgrove” in 1879. He was apprenticed to Mr. James Tait, the Well-known monumental mason and building contractor in Christchurch, with whom he completed his term in 1888. During the period of his indentures nine other youths commenced to learn the business at Mr. Tait's monumental works, but Mr. Dowdall was the only one out of the ten apprentices who persevered in learning the trade. He took up his duties with a determination to succeed, and bent all his energies to master the details of the work, including modelling and the construction of arches and columns, and it is not surprising that he should have succeeded. After finishing his apprenticeship Mr. Dowdall spent two years in Australia, where he greatly increased his experience of every branch of the trade, being engaged in executing carving on many fine and prominent buildings. On his return to New Zealand he decided to settle in Palmerston North, founding the present business, which is the only one of its kind between Wellington and Wanganui. Mr. Dowdall is a direct importer of marble, granite, and other choice stones from the best sources of supply, including the Vermont Marble Company, and other firms. He undertakes to supply in any design every discription of monumental work, including headstones, columns, or other similar mementos of the departed, marble mantels, tables, wash-stands, fenders, hearthstones, etc. Already his customers are found throughout the greater portion of the Wellington, Hawkes Bay and Taranaki Provincial Districts, and there can be no doubt that the career so auspiciously begun, is likely, under ordinary circumstances, to continue prosperous.

Bett, John, Coach Builder, Manawatu Carriage Works, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Bankers Union Bank of Australia. Private residence, Broad Street. Mr. Bett is a native of New Zealand, and learned his trade in the Colony. Prior to the 11th of September, 1894, his carriage factory was the most extensive and complete in the district. First-rate machinery was in going order, and a large stock of vehicles and materials was on hand. On this ill-fated day the fire fiend swooped down, and danced a war dance, utterly destroying this hive of industry, despite all efforts to save the premises. Palmerston North, like many other New Zealand towns, has been noted for the frequency and extent of its disastrous fires. Mr. Bett fortunately had some insurance, though not by any means commensurate with his loss, which was very heavy, not only in value destroyed, but particularly in the disorganization of his business and loss of time. Many a man has been crushed under the stroke of a lesser calamity; not so Mr. Bett. Forthwith he set about re-building the factory, and incredibly short period the new building, which is represented in the engraving below, was in course of Black and white photograph of the premises of John Bett erection. After about a month, the Manawatu carriage works were once more in operation. Too much credit cannot be given to Mr. Bett for the plucky manner in which he faced this difficulty, and it is to be hoped that better fortune is in store for this important industry. The main building, which fronts Rangitikei Street, includes a large show-room, wood shop, and smith's shop. The area is considerably over 5000 square feet. A gas-engine of four-horsepower drives the various machines. Behind the principal building are situated the turning shop, paint shop, and a large store. The average number of hands employed is about eighteen, and to these a sum of £160 is paid monthly. The products of these extensive works are sent to most parts of the North Island, Mr. Bett having won a name for the excellence and quality of his make. He is a direct importer of carriage wares, hickory spokes, and other necessaries for the trade. Mr. Bett makes every description of carriages to order and stock, but especially light work. There is no doubt that page 1179 Mr. Bett's works are equal to the demands of the district, and that he will maintain the foremost position which he has for so long enjoyed in the Palmerston North district.

Hall, Charles Edward Fletcher, Coachbuilder, Wheelwright, Farrier, General Blacksmith, and Undertaker, Fitzherbert Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Linton Street. Mr. Hall was born in the Lower Hutt district, and came to Palmerston with his father, Mr. Thomas Hall, who carried on a thriving business for many years. It was in this establishment that the subject of this notice learned his trade. Following his father's footsteps, Mr. Hall has, by dint of perseverance and strict attention to his business, gained for himself a steadily increasing trade. Mr. Hall is a skilled workman, and turns out nothing but first-class work, doing business in Feilding and beyond Ashurst. This establishment turns out work of every description, undertaking being one of its chief branches. These freehold premises consist of two buildings of wood and iron, and have a floorage space of about 1800 square feet. At a recent show Mr. Hall entered a spring dray, but as there was no special heading under which it could be classed, it could not command a prize, but received special mention. Mr. Hall intends to exhibit specimens of his work again, and is confident of success. He is auditor for the Foresters' Lodge, Court Manawatu, of which he is a member. He is also a member of the Trotting Club, and a shareholder in the Sports Ground Association.

Watson, R. E., Coachbuilder and Shoeing and General Smith, Fitzherbert Street. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Doddington Street. Mr. Watson [gap — reason: illegible] business was established in 1887, but came into his possession in 1890. The premises are conveniently arranged and large, being 40 feet wide by a depth of 100 feet. A good business appears to be done, both in new and repairing work, and the connection extends throughout a large district. A good variety of vehicles were in course of construction to order at the time of writing, and there was a good appearance of business about the whole place. Mr. Watson is a native of Ballarat, Victoria, and came to New Zealand in 1867, per s.s. “Ladybird,” from Melbourne. The “Ladybird” is now a hulk in the Wellington harbour, but in those days she was considered a sea worthy vessel. Mr. Watson learned his trade with his father, the late Mr. R. W. Watson, who was for many years in business in Wellington.

Browning, W. A., Coachbuilder and General Smith, Main Street, near Railay Station, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Estab. 1883.

Beck, W., Aerated Water and Cordial Manufacturer, Fitzherbert Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Beck, Palmerston North.” Telephone, 32. P.O. Box 51. Bankers, Colonial Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Beck has been in Palmerston North since 1883, but the business was established eight years prior to that date by Mr. William Deards. The premises are large and convenient, and occupy a good position, being only a few yards distant from the square. The buildings are constructed of wood and iron, and contain some 5000 square feet of floorage space. Mr. Beck's private residence adjoins the factory, which is a matter of no small importance to the good conduct of the business, for Mrs. Beck has a thorough knowledge of the manufacturing, and on occasions of her husband's temporary absence from Palmerston, she is able to superintend the establishment. Mrs. Beck is a daughter of the late Mr. Edward Dixon, the well-known cordial manufacturer of Wellington. All the latest machinery in the aerated water and cordial business is to be found on the premises, the extent of which may be realist when it is known that the premises were originally built for a wool storage depot. A large local trade is done by Mr. Beck, and his beverages are popular throughout the district, including Ashurst, Longburn, Linton, and other towns more or less distant. Two carts are constantly employed in the delivery of the cordials, the larger one being used in the town, while the smaller conveyance is for the country trade. Mr. Beck imports all the machinery and chemicals used in his business direct from the Old Country, and upon terms most satisfactory to the vendors, which enables him to compete very successfully with the trade throughout the district, and independently of his personal popularity, which is very great. Mr. Beck is agent for the Standard Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and for the celebrated Puriri waters from Messrs. Ehrenfried Bros., of Auckland, who are the sole proprietors. These waters are highly common led by the faculty for indigestion, gout, and all diseases of the bladder and kidneys, the trade mark being an anchor. Mr. Beck is a large manufacturer of horehound beer, horehound tonic (which is not aerated), football punch, kola champagne, champagne cider, orange champagne, hop tonic (aerated), zolakone, lemonade, ginger ale, soda water, and every description of cordials, and of tonic water and potass water; also a new table mineral water called “Biaris,” registered, prepared by W. J. Bush and Co., London, and bottled solely by him, having secured the sole right to do so. The kola champagne is quite a recent invention, and there is an immense run on it, it having at once become a popular beverage. Mr. Beck was born in Victoria, and came to New Zealand in 1862 per ship “Lightning” from Melbourne, landing at Dunedin. He came on to Wellington, and learned his business with the late Mr. George Dixon, his brother-in-law, He afterwards went to Nelson, where he for some time managed the business of Mr. Dixon, returning ultimately to Wellington, and purchasing his present premises. Mr. Beck is held in high esteem throughout the district, and has met with marked success during the twelve years he has conducted his business, which is in a most prosperous condition. He is a Past District Deputy Grand Master of the American Order of Odd-fellows, and holds the office of treasurer to the Manawatu Kilwinning Lodge of Freemasons, New Zealand Constitution. He is also treasurer to the Manawatu Arch Chapter, and treasurer to the Palmerston Club.

Bell and Co. (Joseph Bell, Edward William Isaac Collins, and William Stock), Aerated Water and Cordial Manufacturers, Rangitikei Line, Palmerston North. This factory, which is remarkably clean and well drained, has the most modern machinery and is supplied with a six-horse power Hayward and Tyler's gas engine. A notable feature in the production of this firm's goods is the fact that the gas is specially purified twice. The water is supplied by an artesian well from a depth of 200 feet. Messrs. Bell and Co. are direct importers of essences, bottles, and all other materials used in their trade. Their patent blue-top goods are eagerly sought after by the surrounding residents, the soda water being a speciality. The firm claim to supply by far the greater portion of Palmerston North. Messrs. Bell and Co. also conduct a corn-crushing business, and have one of Andrew and Beaven's corn-crushers. Mr. Bell, the senior partner of the firm, is a native of Hull, Yorkshire, where he was born in 1844. He arrived in New Zealand about 1876.

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Lyon, Edward, Aerated Water and Cordial Manufacturer, Taonui Street, Palmerston North. P.O. Box 74. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. London agents, Messrs. William Ashby and Co. Mr. Lyon is a native of London, and arrived in New Zealand in 1856 per ship “Westminster.” He learned his trade with the late Mr. G. Gower, and Mr. R. Evans, of St. Hill Street, Wanganui. In 1880 he entered into business on his own account, and two years later removed to Palmerston North. His premises are situate within easy distance of The Square, occupy about an acre of ground, and include a dwellinghouse, outhouses, and very pretty garden and shrubbery, besides two or three cottages which are let off. The property is all freehold. The machinery comprises one of Barnett and Forster's prize medal aerated water machines, bottling machines by McEwans, Bratby, and Hincheliff, and Barnett and Forster, a cork rack by Barnett and Forster, a capsuling machine, etc. The trade mark is a lion. A capital business is done throughout the town and district. All chemicals for the trade are imported direct from the Home agents, Messrs. William Ashby and Co., the senior partner of which firm is well known throughout New Zealand as the popular Captain Ashby, of the ship “City of Auckland,” and others. Most of the essences are purchased from the well-known firm of Messrs. W. J. Bush and Co. Mr. Lyon's principal manufactures are:—old-fashioned brewed ginger-beer, hop beer, horehound beer, football punch, anti-Burton herbal beer, ginger ale, kola tonic, champagne kola, champagne cider, and orange champagne, besides, of course, soda water, lemonade, cordials, and syrups of all kinds. For many of these lines, especially the football punch, kola champagne, and the old-fashioned ginger beer, there is a very large demand. Mr. Lyon is thoroughly well known and respected throughout the district, and during the time he has been in business he has been more than ordinarily successful.

New Zealand Farmers' Dairy Union, (Palmerston North branch). General manager, Mr. J. Young; manager of factory, Mr. G. M. Valentine, Fitzherbert Road, Palmerston North. This factory is worked by a horizontal steam-engine of twelve-horse-power nominal, capable of twenty-horse-power effective. The refrigerators were manufactured by Messrs. J. and E. Hall; a powerful separator and two large churns, capable of treating from 1200 to 1400 pounds of cream at a time, and a butter-worker, are all in good order and condition. Eight creameries, located at Bunnythorpe, Kairanga, Stoney Creek, Ashurst, Pohangina, Rangitikei Line, Foxton, and Sandon, send in their cream daily.

Mr. James Young, General Manager of the New Zealand Farmers' Dairy Union, was born in 1852 in Lanark, Scotland, where he was educated. Arriving in Victoria in 1871, he was engaged in dairy farming and as manager of dairy factories, gaining a large experience, till 1895, when he came to New Zealand to assume the position he now holds. A member of old St. John's Lodge of Freemasons, Lanark, he is unattached in New Zealand. In 1884 Mr. Young was married to a daughter of the late Dr. Hearn, chancellor of the Melbourne University, and has three sons.

Turner, Alexander, Painter, Paperhanger, and House Decorator, King Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Church Street. Mr. Turner was born in Wellington, and was apprenticed to Messrs. Button and Patton, of Christchurch, completing his term in 1868. He was subsequently in business in Wellington for fifteen years, during which time he undertook contracts for the painting and papering of some of the finest establishments in the city, St. George's Hall and the ministerial residence being of the number. While in Wellington Mr. Turner was largely employed by the principal contractors of the district—Messrs. James Lockie, Schoular and Archibald, Barry and McDowall, Murdock and Rose, and many others. In Palmerston North he has recently painted and decorated, in excellent style, the private house of Mr. George Howe, and several business houses and hotels. For many years Mr. Turner was corporal and acting quarter-master sergeant of the D Battery of Artillery, Wellington. In Christchurch, when but a youth, he was ensign of St. John's Cadets, and has always taken an active interest in volunteering. When quite a lad he was the means of averting a most terrible accident, which would have resulted in the loss of many lives. Two horses with a gun carriage by some means evaded control, and were fast approaching the cliff in Lyttelton, and in a few seconds would most inevitably have gone over but for the timely aid of young Turner. This was on a public holiday, when on the beach below were gathered a large number of people watching the regatta, many of whom must have been killed. At great risk to himself he rushed to the heads of the affrighted animals and turned them into a safe direction, when but a few feet from the edge of the cliff.

Tozer, E. J., Glazier, Gilder, etc., Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1887 and conducted by present proprietor since 1892.

Ross, C. M., and Co. (Charles Macintosh Ross), Drapers and Clothiers, Bon Marché. The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia, Limited. Private address, Featherston Street. P.O. Box 27. This business was
Charles Macintosh Ross

Photo by Attwood and Co.

page 1181 Black and white photograph of the premises of C. M. Ross and Co. established by the present proprietor in 1882, and was then in a very small way as compared with the present premises. Mr. Ross may well claim to be one of the leading drapers in the Manawatu district, being a direct importer in every line in which he deals. The firm's London buyers are Messrs. Edwards and Chynoweth, 26 Jewin Crescent, E.C., whose high commercial standing and long and intimate acquaintance with the New Zealand trade places their clients in the very first rank of direct importers. All intermediate profits being thus avoided, customers at the Bon Marché not only secure the latest goods of best qualities, but also at Rock Bottom prices, a fact which has made the Bon Marché the popular resort of drapery buyers which it has become, the reliability of both goods and prices at this establishment being proverbial throughout a large district. The Bon Marché is a two-story wooden building (the freehold premises of Messrs. C. M. Ross and Co.), having a frontage to The Square of forty-eight feet, and a floor space of over 8000 square feet. One entrance leads to the gentlemen's outfitting and clothing and tailoring departments, the other to the family drapery, hosiery, haberdashery, mantle, dress, and millinery departments. The ladies' showroom deserves special mention, it being one of the best on the Coast. It is 48 x 25 feet in size, is splendidly lighted, and abundantly supplied with mirrors and all the most approved fittings for the display of the large and superior stock of goods kept in this department. The millinery and dressmaking departments have always received prominent attention. The firm employ only first class talent, and have consequently secured a widespread reputation for the excellence of their results, which has done much to popularise their business throughout the district, Mr. Ross is a native of Tain, Ross-shire, Scotland, where he received his early education, and was duly apprenticed to a drapery firm of the same name, after which he succeeded in obtaining an appointment in the well-known house of Marshall and Snelgrove, London, where he remained for four years. Arriving in New Zealand in the ship “Leucadia” in 1878, immediately on arrival he entered the employment of the late wholesale house of Turnbull Smith and Co., Wellington, taking charge of the fancy drapery department, a position he retained until entering on the present business in Palmerston North. He has a large connection, and is doing a thriving and prosperous business, which has necessitated several additions to the premises of late years.

Green, Mrs., Dress and Mantle Maker, Main Street, Palmerston North. Mrs. Green is a native of England, arriving in New Zealand when very young with her parents. She learned her trade at New Plymouth, and was fifteen years in business in Nelson. The premises occupied are of wood and two stories high, containing about 3000 square feet of floorage space.

Johnson, W., Tailor, The Square, Palmerston North. Mr. Johnson began business in Palmerston North in 1891. He has a fine establishment with two large windows, one side being used as a fitting-room. The stock of tweeds and other materials is good, and he employs from four to six hands. He has a large range of customers, some of them being as far away as Wanganui and Taranaki. Mr. Johnson is a native of Devon shire, and has been in New Zealand since 1854, arriving in that year per ship “Egmont” from Portsmouth. Prior to leaving he served his apprenticeship with his father at Sheepwash, Devonshire, which he completed in 1847. In his younger days Mr. Johnson had a good deal of experience as a soldier, and can while away the time very pleasantly in recounting the military exploits of his youth. He has always taken an active interest in associations having for their object the improvement of the people. For twenty years he was superintendent of the Sydney Street Primitive Methodist Sunday School, Wellington. He is a “past grand” of the Manchester Union of Oddfellows, “past chief ruler” of the Rechabites, and “past grand worthy chief templar” of New Zealand. For upwards of twenty-one years he was in the employ of Mr. W. Cook, tailor, of Wellington.

George, Albert Wilberforce, Draper, Clothier, Milliner, etc., The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established by Mr. D. M. George, senr., in 1883.

Hansen, Mrs. C. J., Corset and Surgical B[unclear: e]lt Manufacturer, and General Draper, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1889.

Hatch, F. C., Drapery and Fancy Goods Dealer, The Square, Palmerston North. Manager, Mr. Charles Brown. Established 1892. This is a branch of the Wellington house.

Simmons, Leopold, Draper, Milliner and General Outfitter, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1890.

Warnock and Adkin (Lancelot George, manager), Drapers and Clothiers, The Square, Palmerston North.

Hallenstein Bros. (Henry Burmester, manager), Clothiers and Outfitters, The Square, Palmerston North. Established 1883.

Stubbs, John, Hosiery Manufacturer, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1889.

De Luen Bros. (Frederick De Luen and William De Luen), Tailors, The Square, Palmerston North. Established 1882, and conducted by present proprietors since 1893.

Olsen, E. O., Tailor, The Square, Palmerston North. Private address, Main Street. Established 1890.

Barrett, Mrs, Milliner and Dressmaker, Fergusson Street, Palmerston North, Bankers, Bank of New Zealand.

Fife, Misses, Anglo and Parisian Dressmakers, Palmerston North.

Merriman, Miss, Dressmaker, Main Street, Palmerston North.

Meyer, Miss A., Dress and Mantle Maker, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North.

Griggs, Thos., Undertaker and Builder, Main Street. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. This business was established in 1889; but the proprietor had been well and favourably known in and around Palmerston for fifteen years prior to that time. In 1891 Mr. Anstee, of Palmerston, was taken into the business, and for a year-and-a-half it was carried on under the title of Anstee and Griggs. Mr. Griggs then bought out his partner, and has since then carried it on under his own name only. As a builder, Mr. Griggs has done good work. Besides building a number of houses in all parts of the district, he has built four shops for Mr. Waldegrave, two for Mr. Cox, page 1182 two for Mr. Bryant, and one each for Mr. W. Cumming and Mr Wiltshire, and many others. In factories, Mr. Griggs has had a considerable experience, having erected the Palmerston Sash and Door Factory, and Mr. Bell's Cordial Factory. The Mortuary Chapel is also one of his. In the undertaking branch, Mr. Griggs is well to the fore, being evidently a favourite in the town. And no wonder, for he is just the man for that work—quiet, kind, considerate, and sympathetic. Only those who have suffered bereavement can fully appreciate these qualtities in an undertaker. His stock of accessories includes a good variety of artificial wreaths direct from the Old Country, and all the newest and best fittings and ornaments. The premises are very nice and suitable for his business, containing 1500 feet of floor space. Mr. Griggs is agent for Mr. W. McGill, monumental mason, of Wellington, and does a good business in headstones and other monuments. Mr. Griggs is a native of Kent, and served his apprenticeship with Mr. Brizley, of Ash, in that county. In 1873, he came to the Colony, per ship “Douglas,” from London. He is a “past grand” in the American Order of Oddfellows and treasurer to the Orient Lodge. Mrs. Griggs keeps a registry office for servants, and has a good little business in this line. Like her husband, she is attentive and obliging, and enjoys the fullest confidence of the Palmerston public. In every way Mr. and Mrs. Griggs are to be commended. They work hard and spare no pains to give satisfaction in the execution of all orders entrusted to them.

Lambert, William. Upholsterer, Undertaker, Frame Maker, and Venetian Blind Manufacture, The Square, Palmerston North. Mr. Lambert established himself as a polisher and upholsterer some thirteen years ago, and has since added the branch as mentioned above. He is a native of Wellington, and was apprenticed to Mr. William Nicholson, cabinetmaker, of Cuba Street. He completed his apprenticeship in 1872, and for some time he was a partner of the firm of Nicholson and Son. Mr. Lambert has always taken a very great interest in all matters connected with fire brigades, of which body he was lieutenant for some time. He was one of the promoters of the Wellington Navals, in which corps he rose to the position of warrant officer. He went with the famous Parihaka expedition. After settling in Palmerston North, Mr. Lambert was for a while a colour-sergeant of the rifle corps there. In cricketing, too, he has always taken a lively interest.

Pegden, W., Cabinetmaker, Upholsterer, Builder, Joiner, and General Contractor, The Steam Furniture Warehouse. The Square. Telegraphic address, “Pegden, Palmerston North.” Bankers. Union Bank of Australia. This leading business was established in 1882 by Messrs. Simmonds and Pegden, and after a successful career of some six years, the senior partner retired from the firm, his interest being purchased by the continuing partner. Mr. Pegden's shop is a credit to Palmerston. It has a handsome exterior, as will be seen from the picture here given. It is thirty-six feet wide by a depth of fifty-five feet, and behind are the offices. In the rear of this again, and in separate buildings, are the upholsterers' and polishing shops, and a fine large machine shop, with the joiners' and fitters' shops on the first floor. The manufactures of this firm will bear comparison with those of any furniture shop in the Colony. The splendid overmantels and sideboards, all more or less elegantly carved, with which the shop is well stocked, would reflect credit on any establishment. It is satisfactory to Mr. Pegden to know that his efforts to produce art furniture are being appreciated both in Palmerston and the surrounding districts. It is no uncommon thing for him to receive orders for sideboards and other elaborate articles of furniture from the various towns round about, even to the distance Black and white photograph of the premises of W. Pegden of New Plymouth. The machinery, which is driven by an eight horse-power steam engine, comprises lathes, circular saws, planing, mitring, boring, tenoning, moulding machines, etc. Many of the best houses in the district have been furnished by this firm, to whom was also entrusted the fitting and furnishing of the Union Bank of Australia, and the Colonial Bank of New Zealand. The Union Bank was also built by Mr. Pegden, besides many other business houses and private residences. The firm's own premises were both designed and built by him. By the disastrous fire of 1891, he suffered a loss of upwards of £2000. The night previous to the fire, he met with an accident, by which his leg was broken, and in that dangerous condition he was removed from the burning building. In many ways, even outside his ordinary business, Mr. Pegden has been a large employer of labour. The number of hands regularly employed is about twenty; but this number is often very largely exceeded when building contracts are undertaken. For some time the firm had a flax mill attached to the present premises, and Mr. Pegden has at various times employed a good deal of labour in connection with flax mills in different parts of the district in which he was interested. In every way this is a house worthy and deserving of the highest recommendation. The proprietor is a native of London, and arrived in New Zealand, per ship “Halcione,” Captain Bishop, from London, in 1874. Mr. Pegden had previously learned his business in the world's metropolis

Squires and Co. (William Squires), Cabinetmakers, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand.

Fleming, Jubal, Tobacconist, Hairdresser, Fancy Goods Dealer, Confectioner, and Turf Commission Agent, “The Corner,” The Square, Palmerston North. P.O. Box 8. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. An old colonist, Mr. Fleming is a native of Portsmouth, England, and arrived in Auckland in 1863, per barque page 1183 “Josephine.” Soon after arrival the Maori war broke out, and he was forced into the militia. He then volunteered for Colonel Pitt's original 400 militia, which was afterwards embodied in the 1st Waikato Regiment. Mr. Fleming held the rank of sergeant, and received the New Zealand war medal, for being under fire at the battle of “Bald Hills,” at Mauku, in 1863, where Lieutenants Percival and Norman and many others were killed, as well as at Pukekohe, Tuakau, Wairoa, Drury, Papakura, and other places, seeing and doing very active service in 1865. On the discovery of gold on the West Coast, Mr. Fleming went to Hokitika, and was one of the four original prospectors in the celebrated “Auckland Beach” rush. In this claim he made good money, returned to Auckland, and lost it by entrusting it for investment to Mr. Cox, a well-known solicitor, who absconded. Returned again and traversed the coast from Greymouth to Okarita. Being of a restless disposition, Mr. Fleming left the coast and went to New Caledonia, in 1866 till 1867, returning to New Zealand on the opening of the Thames goldfields, where for seven years he was in business in Shortland and Grahamstown. In 1874 he went to Christchurch and purchased the “City Bath” hairdressing and tobacconist business, Colombo Street, where he remained until 1885, doing a large business, when he sold out owing to the suppression of “Sweeps” by the Government, Mr. Fleming having been one of the two promoters of the “Robin Hood” consultation. He then went to Sydney and was in business in King Street, but returned in 1886, when the old business again fell into his hands, and was continued by him until 1891. In the latter year he opened the present business in Palmerston North. “The Corner” is well-known as containing one of the finest hairdressing saloons in the district, and does a good business, with a branch establishment adjoining the Commercial Hotel. Mr. Jubal Fleming is well known, deservedly popular, and enjoys the confidence of all classes, but particularly of the sporting public. An Mr. Fleming has a bigger venture in view, he is open to sell this business as a going concern.

Donnelly, Jas. Francis, Hairdresser and Tobacconist, The Square, Palmerston North. Private residence, Rangitikei Line.

Giorgi, L., Hairdresser and Tobacconist, The Square, Palmerston North.

Leslie, Alex., Hairdresser and Tobacconist, The Square, Palmerston North.

Levy. A. N. T. L., Hairdresser and Tobacconist, Main Street, Palmerston N.

Lyons, M., Tobacconist, The Square, Palmerston North.

Sadd, Henry, Hairdresser and Tobacconist. The Square, Palmerston North.

Cafe de Paris Hotel (Mrs. Susan Manson, proprietress), opposite the railway station, Main Street, Paimerston North. Telegraphic address, “Cafe, Palmerston North.” Telephone 80. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Mrs. Manson hails from the North of Ireland, arriving in 1886. For five years she was hostess of an hotel at Kaiwarra. The fine building occupied as above was built in 1893. It is in every respect up-to-date, and contains no less than thirty-eight rooms, which are large and lofty. The bed rooms, twenty-eight in number, contain thirty-five beds. There are six sitting-rooms besides a large cheerful dining-room. A handsome staircase leads from the spacious hall on the ground floor to the family and residential apartments. There are two fine baths supplied with hot and cold water. Excellent livery and bait stables are situated at the back of the hotel. Mrs. Manson has conducted the hotel since 1894. Visitors will find the “Cafe” a convenient and comfortable home.

Commercial Hotel (William Ryan, proprietor), corner of The Square and Main Street, Palmerston North. Telephone 3; P.O. Box 56. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. This fine two-story building, which is within a few minutes walk of the railway station, has only recently been taken over by the present proprietor. The hotel has long been known to the travelling public as one of the best houses in the Manawatu district. It is replete with all the latest conveniences, a special feature being a letter-box in the hotel, which is cleared before the closing of every mail. There are forty-four rooms, twenty-two of which are bedrooms capable of accommodating fifty visitors. On the ground floor there are six sitting-rooms, a commercial-room, a club-room, and a billiard-room with a full size billiard table in first-class order. The dining-room is large and well furnished. On the first floor there are three ladies' sitting-rooms and a drawing-room. Three large sample-rooms have recently been re-fitted throughout, so as to enable commercial travellers to display their goods to the best advantage. The hotel is well supplied with lavatories, bath-rooms, etc., and is fitted throughout with electric bells. In connection with the hotel there is a ten-stall stable, which is rented to Mr. George Maddison, and is used for training purposes, and also as a livery stable. Mr. Ryan was born in Tipperary, Ireland, in 1861, and came to New Zealand in 1876. After following various pursuits for some years, he commenced hotelkeeping in 1889. He has always been an enthusiast in racing matters, and at the time of writing is vice-president of the Palmerston North Trotting Club, a member of the Manawatu Racing Club, of the Agricultural and Pastoral Association, and of the Caledonian Society and the Salvage Corps. Mr. Ryan also owns the Phœnix Hotel, which he conducted successfully for six years.

Empire Hotel (Thomas V. Procter, proprietor), Main Street, Palmerston North. Established in 1890 by Mr. Dureen, the present landlord entered into possession in January, 1896. The Empire Hotel is a two-story wooden building having twenty-four rooms, including fifteen bedrooms, seven sitting-rooms, and a large dining-room, which will seat ninety persons. Behind the hotel the stables contain seven stalls and five loose boxes.

Mr. and Mrs. T. V. Procter.

Mr. and Mrs. T. V. Procter.

page 1184

Occidental Hotel (W. F. Brown, proprietor), corner of The Square and Fitzherbert Road, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. This fine hostelry, which is well known by its square clock tower, was re-built after being destroyed by fire some five years ago. It contains about thirty-five rooms, including four sitting-rooms, large commercial-room, handsome dining-room, and twenty-eight well furnished bedrooms. There are also three good sample-rooms. The host, who was born in Warwickshire, England, in 1847, lived for twenty-two years in the locality of Timaru, where he had the Grosvenor Hotel for over six years, and previously the Masonic Hotel at St. Andrews for five years. The house is well conducted and is a very central and convenient place for travellers and for tourists generally.

Phœnix Hotel (Michael Hodgins, proprietor), corner of Rangitikei and King Streets. This fine hostelry is large and commodious, containing thirty-four rooms, twenty of which are bedrooms. The dining-room has seating accommodation for fifty people, but is capable of holding 100 comfortably. There are two private sitting-rooms and a commercial-room. The house is well known throughout the district for keeping nothing but the best liquors, and consequently a good bar trade is done.

Royal Hotel (John E. Hall, proprietor), The Square, Palmerston North. Telephone 11; P.O. Box 17. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Agent at Teneriffe for supply of Madeira wines. The “Royal” is one of the oldest hotels in Palmerston North, having been established about the year 1871. It is situated on the corner of The Square and Rangitikei Street, and presents an imposing appearance, as is evident from the engraving below. The building, which has been repeatedly enlarged and improved, is composed of wood. It is two stories in height, and is divided from adjoining buildings by a substantial brick party wall. The property is freehold, the building ranks as one of the largest hotels, the total floorage space exceeding 33,000 square feet. The “Royal” has fifty rooms, every one of which was inspected by the writer. The dining-room is very large, lofty, and commodious; it is handsomely furnished and decorated. The whole of the silver in this house, which is massive and elegant, was specially imported from one of the most noted manufacturers in England. Of parlours there are ten, including two or three drawing-rooms, which open respectively into elegant bedrooms, thus constituting excellent suites for ladies or wedding parties. The billiard-room is a fine apartment, with every convenience for lovers of the game. The bedrooms number thirty-six, and contain forty-six beds. The latter are specially comfortable, wire wove spring mattrasses having been imported so as to make the accommodation perfect in this particular. The toilet-ware in these bedrooms is also worthy of special mention, it being so handsome as to attract the writer's careful attention. The proprietor of the “Royal” has evidently intended to make his house second to none in the Colony for convenience, and has likewise had a thought for the safety of his guests. The splendid bath-rooms, furnished with a regular supply of both hot and cold water, with patent closets adjoining, testify to the former, while the laying on of a water supply with those attached ready for any emergency on the various landings, staircases, and passages, proves the latter. The bar is a model of neatness and convenience. Of Mr. Hall, the genial host, who is a native of the Colony, and was brought up to the business with Mr. George Howe, his step-father, everyone speaks in the highest terms. Mr. Hall knows how to contribute towards the happiness of his customers, and in this matter he is largely aided by Mrs. Hall. The “Royal” is a popular house, as it could not fail to be with so jolly a landlord. Judge Kettle, Mr. Brabant, S.M., Colonel Newall, Inspector Pender, and visitors from all parts of the colonies, and indeed of the world, testify their satisfaction by staying at the house. Mr. Hall is captain of the Palmerston North Rifles, a position he has held for five years, and an active member of the fire brigade.

Albion Hotel (J. Fleming, proprietor), Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1890.

Central Hotel (Joseph Smith, proprietor), The Square, Palmerston North. Established 1888.

Club Hotel (B. Herrman, proprietor), The Square, Palmerston North. Established 1882.

Post Office Hotel (J. Fitzgerald, proprietor), Broad Street, Palmerston North. Established 1893.

Princess Family Hotel (Mrs. M. Clifford, proprietress), Terrace End, Palmerston North. Established about 1875, and conducted by present proprietress since 1884.

Railway Hotel (Mrs. O'Leary, proprietor), Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1892.

Star Hotel (Frederick Hiley, proprietor), The Square, Palmerston North. Established 1889.

Travellers' Rest Hotel (J. Kitchen, proprietor), Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Established 1891.

Royal Hotel, The Square.

Royal Hotel, The Square.

page 1185

Anderson, Axel Frederic, Boardinghouse and Restaurantkeeper, Anderson's Boardinghouse, David Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Anderson's freehold building, which is quite new, is a substantial two-story wooden structure, containing twenty-two rooms. There are fourteen bedrooms containing twenty beds, two sitting-rooms, one large comfortable dining-room, kitchens, and out offices. There is a good bath, supplied with hot and cold water, while every sanitary provision has been made for visitors. The rooms are lofty, well lighted, and furnished, and the premises are opposite the railway station. The charge is reasonable, being three shillings by the day eighteen shillings per week.

The Buffet (William and Edward Dawick, Proprietors), Rangitikei Street. Telegraphic address, “Dawicks, Palmerston North.” Telephone 13. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. This commodious temperance hotel and restaurant was built by the late Mr. S. Dawick, father of the present proprietors. The architect was Mr. E. Larcomb, and the contractor Mr. J. Freeland. It is a substantial two-story structure with a total floorage space of 8500 square feet. Besides the large dining-room, which is furnished in a superior manner, there are five sitting-rooms and a smoking-room. The kitchen is large and well fitted with all appliances. Water and gas are laid on throughout the entire premises, which are clean and comfortable. Visitors to the buffet have the convenience of a good bath, and the sanitary arrangements are perfect. Every care is taken to provide for the comfort and quiet of those who patronize the buffet. The writer had an opportunity of seeing every room in the building, and can testify to the excellent manner in which the entire establisment is managed and conducted. The proprietors are natives of the Colony, and have had large experience in the business.

Railway Refreshment Rooms (Walter Freeman, proprietor), Palmerston North. Since taking over the refreshment rooms, Mr. Freeman has left no stone unturned to make this fashionable place second to none of its kind in the Colony. All the small goods in the luncheon rooms are made under Mr. Freeman's own personal supervision, and he is no novice at the trade. The writer can speak from experience and invites comparison. At all times the hungry passenger will be rapaid by a visit to this establishment, for Mr. Freeman is in a position to cope with the rush that is often a feature of the refreshment rooms on account of the heavy railway traffic in Palmerston North. A first-class table is kept, and well supplied, not only with the necessaries of life, but also with a great many of the luxuries. Mr. Freeman was born in London, and embarked on board the “New Era” with his parents, arriving in Wellington in 1855. He was educated principally under Mr. Mowbray, at the Thorndon School. By dint of perseverance he succeeded in acquiring the art of catering, under his father and mother, who kept the well-known Bank luncheon rooms on Lambton Quay, Wellington, for twenty-six years, and were subsequently for three years in Mulgrave Street. The subject of this sketch was the host of Barrett's Hotel and of the Island Bay Hotel, Wellington, at different times. He afterwards took over the business of his father on Lambton Quay, then removed to the Manawatu, and in 1886 succeeded in his endeavours to get the Manawatu Railway Company to put the dining-car on the lines. With the exception of three years he has ever since been the lessee of this valuable convenience to the travelling community. It is now tendered for yearly, but the Wellington-Manawatu Railway Company, recognizing the valuable services of Mr. Freeman, and of the courteous and obliging staff which he employs, granted him the lease of the car till September 1897.

Photo by Attwood & Co. Mr. W. Freeman.

Photo by Attwood & Co.
Mr. W. Freeman.

Jack, Andrew, Plumber, Gasfitter, Bell-hanger, and Electric Light Fitter, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Jack, Palmerston North.” P.O. Box 131. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, College Street. In 1889 Mr. Jack came to Palmerston, and brought with him a colonial experience of some fifteen years. Though not in business for himself before that, he held most responsible positions in several of New Zealand's leading firms, such as Anderson and Morrison, of Dunedin (now Morrison and Co., Limited.), and J. E. Hayes, and Geo. Remington, of Wellington. When in the employ of the Dunedin firm mentioned, he was sent on their behalf to New Plymouth to carry out the whole of the plumbing for that important undertaking—the New Plymouth Water Works. On Mr. Hayes's account, he had charge of all the gasfitting work for the General Post Office at Wellington, erected in 1886, and destroyed by fire 1887. For about five years prior to commencing in Palmerston, he held the position of foreman for Mr. Remington, and in that capacity had charge of a number of large and difficult contracts. His premises in Palmerston are fairly large, and conveniently arranged. There is a good front shop well stocked and carefully kept, with a neat office, and a store for gas, water and steam fittings. Behind these are the large workshops, containing about 1200 square feet of floorage. Here are the principal machines, embracing a fine shearing and punching machine for iron of any thickness up to three-eighths, and a similar implement for lighter work; an adjustable screw-cutting machine, ranging in its operations from 1/8in. to 3in.; a good sized lathe, a curving machine for corrugated iron, a screw-cutting lathe, and numerous smaller appliances. A smelting forge for brass castings is conveniently placed in a corner of the main workshop, and another portion is occupied by a new and complete electro-plating plant, by Canning, of Birmingham. Perhaps the most interesting page 1186 appliance in the establishment is the blow pipe. It is not much bigger than a tea cup and quite inexpensive, but it saves no end of time and trouble. A spoonful of benzine supplies the fuel, and in a few seconds after ignition it roars like a furnace, and impinges a wonderful heat on the required spot. It is a patent, and known as Crowdon and Garrod's. Another interesting article in Mr. Jack's establishment is the “Alpha” gas-making machine—a really splendid thing for country houses. It is perfectly safe, and generates a pure gas not more expensive than that supplied in any of the large towns. Mr. Jack has recently fitted up Mrs. Aldridge's house at Bunny thorpe with the “Alpha” machine, and it is giving every satisfaction. In a store at the back of the workshop is kept a fine stock of pipes, and of rod and hoop iron. In all these and other lines, Mr. Jack imports his stock from the Old Country. His principal contracts in Palmerston are the Freezing Works, the splendid premises of the Manawatu Farmers' Co-operative Association, and the Catholic and Presbyterian Churches. The special line in the trade for which Mr. Jack is rapidly becoming famous, is the manufacture and erection of boiling-down plant. This work he is doing all over the country, and being a cash buyer, he is in every way well qualified to compete against all comers. Mr. Jack is a native of Argyleshire, and set sail for this Colony from the Tail of the Bank, Greenock, in 1874, per ship “City of Dunedin.”

Wood, W. T., Farrier and General Smith, Cuba and Rangitikei Streets, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Mr Wood, who is more fully referred to as Mayor of Palmerston North, established himself in his present business in 1879.

Allman, George, Farrior and General Blacksmith, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1891.

Hosking and Son, Iron Founders and Range Makers, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established by Mr. Hosking, senr., in 1875, and conducted by present proprietors since 1886.

Jackson, F. H. L., Blacksmith, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1896.

Kirk, William, Plumber, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1896.

Poad, John, Blacksmith and Farrier, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1893.

Rawlins, William, Tin and Coppersmith, Plumber and Gasfitter, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1883.

Bergersen, Carl August, Engineer, Gunsmith, Locksmith, and Machinist, Broad Street. Telegraphic address, “Bergersen, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Terrace End. Mr. Bergersen is a native of Norway, where he was brought up to the trade of a cabinetmaker with his father. He came to New Zealand in 1870, per ship “Selina,” from London, and settled in Palmerston North, there being at that time but one single house within the boundaries of the present borough. Mr. Bergersen turned his attention to engineering work on arrival in the Colony. The business was founded by the present proprietor in 1886. The premises, which are freehold, include a wooden building of one story, containing over 1300 square feet of floorage space. A water moter of two-and-a-half-horse-power drives the lathes (of which there are two), boring, emery, punching, shearing, and other machines. Mr. Bergersen makes models for patents, and all kinds of agricultural implements and machines are made or repaired to order on the premises.

Pickering, Charles Samuel, Cycle Engineer, Broad Street. Mr. Pickering is a native of Birmingham, England, and came to New Zealand, per s.s. “Tongariro,” in 1889. He was apprenticed to Mr. Kent, cycle engineer, of Christchurch, and completed his term in 1893. The building occupied by him is of wood, and contains about 1200 square feet of floorage space. Mr. Pickering is a direct importer of cycles, and holds an agency for the Rudge Company of Coventry. He undertakes to repair bicycles when required. The business was founded in 1893 by Lisle and Pickering. The latter has conducted solely since early in 1894.

Barry, R. S., Ironmonger and Hardware Merchant, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1893.

Burgess, Adam, Agricultural Implement Maker, Coach and Waggon Builder, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1892.

Ford, John H., Boot and Shoemaker, Main Street. Palmerston North. Private residence, Pascal Street. Mr. Ford is a native of England, and came to New Zealand in 1866 with his parents, per ship “Glenmark.” He was apprenticed to Mr. W. H. Ford, of Invercargill, completing his term in 1883, when he went to New South Wales. During his absence Mr. Ford worked for eight years at his trade, returning to New Zealand in 1893. The building occupied is of wood, having a floorage space of about 400 square feet. Mr. Ford's specialties are bespoke work and repairs.

Thacker, Samuel, Boot and Shoemaker and Retailer, The Square, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Thacker, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Cuba Street. This business was established in 1887 by Thacker and Pallant, who conducted it till April, 1893, when the latter retired from the firm. Mr. Thacker is a native of Dunedin, where he served an apprenticeship of five years, completing his term in 1884. For three years thereafter Mr. Thacker continued to work as a journeyman till starting in business as above. The premises occupied are conveniently situated in The Square, opposite the Bank of Australasia, which is one of the best positions in the town. The building leased by Mr. Thacker is constructed of wood, one story in height, the floor space being equal to about 800 square feet. The markets of Great Britain and the Continent of Europe are laid under contribution to supply the varied assortment of boots and shoes kept in stock at this establishment. All classes of colonial-made goods are likewise open for customers, and every class of boots and shoes is made to order on the premises, and repairs likewise receive attention.

Colville, C. G., Boot Manufacturer, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers Bank of New Zealand. Established 1882.

Colville, John, Saddler and Harness Maker, The Square, Palmerston North. Private residence, Linton Street. Established 1891.

French, Chas., Saddle Manufacturer, Main Street, Palmerston North. Established 1895.

Garrett, B. R., Boot and Shoe Manufacturer, The Square, Palmerston North. Established 1894.

Henderson, John, Boot and Shoe Maker, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1891.

Kitchen, G., Saddler and Harness Maker, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1896.

Pallant, W. J., Leather and Grindery Merchant, Main Street, Palmerston North. Established 1894.

Pringle, D., Saddler and Harness Maker, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Broad Street. Established 1882.

Wray, T., Saddler and Collar and Harness Maker, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1875.

page 1187

Bryant, F., Butcher, etc., The Square, Palmerston North. Telephone 19; P.O. Box 78. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Lombard Street. This business was established in 1872, and was purchased by the present proprietor in 1885. Mr. Bryant has two shops in the town, and a boiling down works about two-and-a-quarter miles distant on the Rangitikei line. The floorage space of the principal shop contains upwards of a 1000 square feet. The building is of two stories, and constructed of wood and iron. Mr. Bryant does a large business both in town and country. He was born in Auckland, but has been for many years in this district. He is “worshipful master” of the United Manawatu Lodge, No. 1721, E.C., has been a member of the local school committee for several years, and is a churchwarden of All Saints' Church. At the time of writing (1896), Mr. Bryant is a member of the Palmerston North Licensing Committee.

Clarkson, John Bowes, The Cash Butchery, corner of Alexandra and Main Streets, Palmerston North. Private address, Church Street. This business, which was established in 1895 under the style of Clarkson and McGregor, was taken over by the present proprietor in October, 1895. By adhering strictly to the cash system, Mr. Clarkson is enabled to sell at prices much below others in the meat trade of Palmerston North. His monthly turn-over runs into large figures, and this is the result of supplying the best quality of goods at a cheap rate. Mr. Clarkson has little or no expense in connection with his business, as he does not run any hawking carts.

Morgan, Alfred Finley, General Butcher, The Square (next Fire Brigade Station), Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. This business was established in 1878 by the present proprietor, who has been prominent as a business man in the district from the first. His specialties are the manufacture of small goods of every description, English and Continental, and the curing of hams and bacon by the new mild cure process, in which he has gained celebrity. Mr. Morgan was born in London, and came out to Victoria in 1852. He came to New Zealand in 1861 landing at Dunedin, where he conducted a business till 1864. He then went to the West Coast, where he stayed for many years, afterwards starting a business in Wellington. While a resident in Westland, Mr. Morgan was an energetic colonist, and took considerable interest in the development of the district. He is well known in Palmerston North as an amateur theatrical, in which capacity he has often assisted for charitable purposes with good effect. He was at one time manager of the local Working Men's Dramatic Club.

Siddels, William Lee, Butcher, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Lombard Street. This business, which was established in 1890, has an extensive connection in and around the borough of Palmerston North. The one-story wooden building occupied, which is centrally situated close to The Square, has a convenient shop, which is well supplied with meat of the very finest quality procurable. Three horses and carts are used to deliver to customers who patronise this establishment. Mr. Siddels was born in Auckland, and there he learned his business, subsequently gaining experience with Messrs. Gear and Ling in Wellington, with Mr. Asher and Mr. Dornwell in Dunedin, where he remained ten years, and with Messrs. Nelson Bros. at Tomoana during four years. For two years he was manager of the Longburn Freezing Works, and conducted business for two years on his own account at Makotuku before commencing the present business.

Barraud and Abraham (Edward Noel Barraud and Lionel A. Abraham), Seedsmen and General Merchants, Commission and Insurance Agents, Rangitikei Street. Cable address “Braham, Palmerston North.” Code ABC; Telephone 12; P.O. Box 12. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Branch, Feilding (Mr. Ormond Cooper, manager). London agents, R. T. Turnbull and Co., 5 East India Avenue, E.C. Private residences: Mr. Barraud, Broad Street; Mr. Abraham, Park Road. This large business was founded in 1882 by Messrs. Stevens and Gorton, and conducted by them till 1892, in conjunction with that of stock auctioneers and station agents. In the latter year Messrs. Barraud and Abraham purchased the seed and general goods department of the business. The freehold premises occupied by the firm have recently been enlarged to afford room for an extending trade. The total floorage space of the wood and iron building, including the bulk store in Fitzherbert Street, is over 5000 square feet. The specialty of the business is colonial grown seed, which the firm grow under contract, and purchase from growers in the district. They have machinery for the purpose of the seed business and are largely adding to their plant, Mr. Abraham having visited England to select the latest appliances. Messrs. Barraud and Abraham are direct importers of seeds, farm and station requisites. Their operations in seeds and grain extend throughout New Zealand, in which they have a large sale, any surplus being exported. The firm are agents for the New Zealand Shipping Company, the China Traders' Marine Insurance Company, the Victoria Fire and Marine Insurance Company, the United Fire Insurance Company, Booth, Macdonald and Co.'s implements (Christchurch), the Massey Harris harvesting machinery, Cooper's, Little's, and Owen's sheep dips and other lines. Mr. Barraud is a native of the Colony, and was nine years in the employ of Krull and Co., merchants, of Wellington, and later for twelve years as page 1188 accountant and managing clerk with Murray, Roberts and Co., stock and station agents, of Wellington. Mr. Abraham is a nephew of Bishop Abraham, and had a training at the great Agricultural College, Cirencester, England, and was for some time with Stevens and Gorton in Palmerston North.

Mr. Lionel Augustus Abraham, junior partner of the firm of Barraud and Abraham, Palmerston North, is the son of Canon Abraham, of Suffolk, where he was born in 1865. His uncle was the first bishop of Wellington, and is still living (1896) at Litchfield, England. After spending seven years at Charterhouse School, Surrey, Mr. Abraham went to Germany to undergo a course of tuition with a view to joining the army. Changing his plans, however, he returned to England, and, having determined to adopt farming pursuits, studied for some time at the Royal College of Agriculture, Cirencester. In 1883 Mr. Abraham left England in the s.s. “Ionic,” and arrived in New Zealand in the same year. After spending some time on the estate of Mr. John Rolleston, in the Rangitikei, he joined his brother, Mr. R. S. Abraham, in the firm of Stevens and Gorton, Palmerston North. When this partnership was dissolved in 1892, Mr. Abraham, in company with Mr. Barraud, took over the general merchandise portion of the business, his brother retaining the remainder, under the style of Abraham and Williams. Mr. Abraham takes a warn interest in out door sports. and is a director of the Sports Ground Association, secretary of the Golf Club, treasurer of the Polo Club, and a member of several other clubs. In 1890 he married a daughter of the Rev. Chas. Martin, of Suffolk, England.

Mr. L. A. Abraham.

Mr. L. A. Abraham.

Dahl, Charles, Soft Goods Merchant, Wholesale Manufacturer of Ropes, Tents, Horse Covers, Tarpaulins, Oilskin Clothing and Shirts, and Sole Proprietor of Dahl's Patent Butter Mould. Principal establishment, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, ‘Dahl, Palmerston North.” Telephone 54; P.O. Box 41. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Mr. Dahl began business in Palmerston in 1882, and since then he has progressed at a rate truly surprising. Even the long list of departments mentioned above but inadequately sets forth the extent to which Mr. Dahl's business has grown. The picture here given shows only a few of the hands employed, and only the front shop. Besides the 3000 square feet of floor space in this building, there is at the rear a large two-story drying house, capable of holding hundreds of oilskin coats. This house was specially erected for the purpose of drying the oiled clothing, the manufacture of which is carried on by Mr. Dahl on a scale said to be unapproached elsewhere in the Colony. It is the custom in this line to dry the oiled goods artificially, to economise space, and to save the necessity of preparing so far ahead of requirements; but Mr. Dahl has departed from this rule, though at a very heavy outlay, because he is satisfied from experience that the naturally-dried goods are vastly superior in the matter of strength. “Hercules” is the registered trade mark, an evidence that in this all-important point of strength, Mr. Dahl defies the world. Some idea of the output from this establishment may be gained from the facts that two travellers are constantly “on the road,” and that in the North Island a single customer takes from two to three hundred oiled coats annually. The whole Colony is covered by the travellers, who, of course, carry samples of all the lines mentioned above and a good many others. Mr. Dahl's rope and cordage works are in Grey Street, occupying a considerable space. Altogether about forty hands are employed, and a large amount is monthly paid away in wages. Mr. Dahl imports largely in the soft goods lines and in saddlery, but experience Black and white photograph of the premises of Charles Dahl tells him that not infrequently ready money has a wonderful buying power inside the Colony. It is not an unusual thing for him “to pick up a line” from five to ten per cent. less than its landed cost. In the shirt department a large trade is done, no fewer than fifteen sewing machines being constantly employed in this and other work. The finest of these is Singer's latest improved button-hole machine, laid down at a considerable cost. In December, 1894, Mr. Dahl completed a contract for the supply to Fitzgerald Bros., the well-known circus proprietors, of sufficient tents to accommodate two thousand people. Large marquees are made to order, and kept in stock for sale or hire. At a moment's notice tent accommodation may be provided for a thousand people. A large assortment of flags of all nations are also ready at any time for hire or sale. In horse covers a very big trade is done; every year several thousand of them are manufactured and disposed of to saddlers and storekeepers all over the country; the Hercules brand in this, as in all other lines, being in great demand. Dahl's patent butter mould is a marvel of simplicity, efficiency, and cheapness. Want of space precludes description, but the handy time-saver may be had for 8s. 6d., or post free to any part of the Colony for 10s.; and the writer's advice to the butter man is, “Get it—honestly if you can, but get it.” It will pay for itself in a very short time. It is a clever conception, but the price is stupidly low for a patented article which will enable a smart man to reduce a cartload of butter to “exact pound pats” at the rate of ten a minute. Perhaps there is money in it at 8s. 6d., but there would be a fortune at 15s., while to the user it would return a grand rate of interest on fifteen pounds. All the testimonials are alike: “Would not on any account be without it,” is the ruling expression. Mr. Dahl, the fortunate proprietor of this wonderful contrivance, is a native of Denmark. He went by the American ship “Henrietta” from London to Melbourne in 1877, and shortly after came on to this Colony. He has devoted all his energies to his business, and has himself thoroughly mastered every one of its many branches. Given a continuance of health and strength, it needs no prophet to predict for Mr. Dahl a most successful course. His establishment is a credit to Palmerston, as it would be to any part of the Colony.

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New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Co., Limited (Palmerston North branch), Rangitikei Line, Palmerston North. Telephone 79; P.O. Box 94. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. District agent, Mr. J. M. Johnston. Head office, Wellington. The Company's offices and stores comprise a large wooden building of one story, containing over 5000 square feet of floorage space. The district worked by this branch extends from Tokomaru to the sea on the south and as far as the Rangitikei River on the north, embracing the towns and settlements of Palmerston North, Feilding, Bunnythorpe, Colyton, Ashurst, Pohangina, Halcombe, Sandon, Rongotea, Birmingham, Beaconsfield, Cheltenham, Pemberton, Rangiwahia, Waituna, and Carnarvon. The manager also supervises the Rangitikei district.

Mr. J. M. Johnston, the Manager of the Palmerston North branch of the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Co., Limited, is well known in business circles, having been seventeen years in the service of the Bank of New Zealand. Previous to his present appointment he was for seven years in charge of the Marton branch of the Bank. He is more fully referred to on page 1163.

Secker, E. W., Produce and General Merchant (next to Club Hotel), Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Secker, Palmerston North.” Telephone 33; P.O. Box 59. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residence, Church Street. The business being now successfully carried on by Mr. E. W. Secker, was established in 1887 by Mr. W. Luxford. In January, 1894, it was purchased by the present proprietor. The premises are large, the building, which is of wood and iron, containing nearly 5000 square feet. It was built by Mr. S. Ewing. Mr. Secker has a good general business, delivering his goods throughout the district, coal, firewood, lime, and general produce being among his specialties. He is agent for the National Mutual Life Association of Australasia, Limited. Mr. Secker is a native of London, and came to this Colony in 1880, per ship “Dunbritton.” He has spent a considerable time in the Manawatu district, being for five years in the employ of Messrs. Stevens and Gorton, stock and station agents, seedsmen, etc., and continuing for about a year in the same business with Messrs. Parraund and Abraham, when the latter firm bought out the former. Mr. Secker is both well known and popular, and there is every appearance of prosperity about his establishment

United Farmers' Co-operative Association, Limited, Storekeepers, General Produce Dealers, Seed and Grain Merchants. Head office, Wellington. Palmerston North branch, The Square. Manager, Mr. Mauríce Cohen. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Telephone 31. Manager's residence, Grey Street, Palmerston North. The Palmerston North establishment is the largest and most important of this thriving co-operative Society's branches. It was originally founded in 1877, by Messis. J. Nathan and Co., merchants, of Wellington, and was successfully conducted by them till 1892. In that year, the Manawatu Farmers' Co-operative Association Ltd., was established; that Company carried on an increasing and successful business till the amalgamation with the United Farmer's Alliance, Limited, and the registration of the Company in 1895. The premises are of brick, and were erected by Messrs. Greenhow and Ransom, from plans drawn by Mr. Chatfield, architect, of Wellington. Since that time, very considerable additions have been made to the buildings by Mr. A. R. Munro, under the direction of Mr. E. Larcombe, of Palmerston North. The departments of this most extensive establishment are divided off into those of hardware, furnishing, drapery clothing, men's mercery and tailoring, millinery and dressmaking, grocery, boots, and bottling, and include almost every conceivable line that is of immediate importance for the comfort of mankind. The various departments are divided from each other by large iron doors—a precaution against loss by fire. Refreshment rooms for ladies and gentlemen are features of the establishment. About fifty hands are regularly employed on the premises, where, as far as possible, the various articles are manufactured for the business. Everything that can be obtained in New Zealand has a preference over Home productions, the latter only being imported when it is not possible to secure them satisfactorily in the Colony. The Company holds a large number of agencies, and represents the firm of Messrs. Reid and Gray, noted for their agricultural machines. They are agents for the Buckeye harvesting machines, the Alexandra separator, Brooke's dips, Lawes' dip, Longburn and Gear Companies' manures, Excelsior butter workers, Noble's explosives, Yalumba wine, Boomerang brandy, Ruenart's champagne, McNab's Scotch whisky, Salter's earmarkers, Defiance churns, Elliott's Champion sheep drench, and other patent drenches, Johnston's Yarmouth oiled clothing, Scott's ranges, and the Union Packing Company's teas. The business extends throughout the whole of the Manawatu District. It is carried on upon co-operative principles, under which shareholders of the Association participate in the profits. The various departments are under experienced managers, whose thorough knowledge of local requirements enable them to conduct the business of the most economical and satisfactory basis. The valne of such an institution is evidently quite apparent to the settlers, for the list of shareholders includes a large number of the farmers in the district, who find that it affords them great facilities for the investment of savings, with the accompanying benefit of profit-sharing as consumers. The Association also finds a local sale for the produce of the farmers of the district at as small expense as possible, and the farmer is in return able to make all his purchases at the establishment.

Mr. M. Cohen, Manager of the United Farmers' Co-operative Association, Palmerston North, is referred to as an ex-councillor of the Borough. Mr. Cohen was appointed manager of the Association in 1895, the year of its registration.

Mr. Charles Edward Dempsy, Secretary of the United Farmers' Co-operative Association, Limited, was born at Roscrea, Tipperary, Ireland, in 1862, and was educated in Dublin. Entering mercantile life in the capital city of his native land, Mr. Dempsy qualified as a book-keeper, and for nine years held the position of accountant for the firm of Jameson, Pins and Co., brewers. He was subsequently with the Phœnix Brewery Company in a similar capacity for three years. Leaving Britain, Mr. Dempsy went to New Calabar, on the West Coast of Africa, as trading representative for Messrs. Harrison and Co., merchants, of Liverpool, remaining two years. In 1889 he came to New Zealand, travelling by s.s. “Orient” to Sydney. Early in the following year he entered the service of Messrs. J. Nathan and Co. in Palmerston North, as accountant. On the incorporation of the Manawatu Farmers' Co-operative Association, Mr. Dempsy was appointed secretary of the Company, which position he retained till the amalgamation with the United Farmers' Alliance and the establishment of the United Farmers' Co-operative Association, Limited, of which he became secretary. As a member of the craft, he was initiated in Lodge Manawatu, No. 1721, E.C., and as an Oddfellow he belongs to the local lodge under the Manchester Unity. Mr. Dempsy was married in 1890 to a daughter of the late Mr. Francis Falkner, merchant, of Dublin, and has two daughters.

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Mr. John Samuel Watchorn, Manager of the Drapery, Clothing and Boot Departments of the United Farmers' Co-operative Association at Palmerston North, is a son of Mr. Samuel Watchorn, of Edmondthorpe, whose farm is situated partly in the three counties of Lincolnshire, Rutlandshire and Leicestershire. Born in Wymondham, Leicestershire, in 1858, and educated at Edmondthorpe and Stamford, he was apprenticed to the drapery in Oakham, and subsequently was a salesman in Stamford. Afterwards he gained further experience with one of the largest firms in Leicester—Messrs. Morgan and Squires—and later with Mr. F. Gorringe, of Buckingham Palace Road, Pimlico, London. In 1880 Mr. Watchorn landed in Wellington, per ship “Maraval,” and after Mr. John Samuel Watchorn two years with Mr. P. Bell, of Wanganui, he settled in Palmerston North, having accepted a position with Messrs. J. Nathan and Co., proprietors of the Ready Money Store. With the exception of a year, during which he was traveller for part of the North Island for Messrs. Bing, Harris and Co., the well-known warehousemen, Mr. Watchorn has continued in the same house. On the incorporation of the Manawatu Farmers' Co-operative Association in 1893, he became manager of the departments which he now controls for the present Company. He is a member of the United Manawatu Lodge of Freemasons, and holds the office of treasurer in the Oroua Lodge of Druids. In 1887 Mr. Watchorn was married to a daughter of Mrs. D. Sinclair, of Palmerston North, and has two sons and a daughter.

Mr. Thomas Tozer Kerslake, Cutter at the United Farmers' Co-operative Association, Palmerston North, is a native of Devonshire, England, where he was born in 1851. Educated in his native place, he was apprenticed as a tailor at Tavistock, and left for Canada and the United States in 1871. Mr. Thomas Tozer Kerslake During the five or six years which he spent in America, Mr. Kerslake became an expert cutter, and arriving in Wellington in 1877 he worked at his trade for two years. Settling in Palmerston North in 1880, he commenced business on his own account, conducting a steadily growing and successful trade till 1893, when he sold his good-will and business to the Manawatu Farmers' Co-operative Association, becoming manager of the tailoring department. On the incorporation of the present Company, Mr. Kerslake was requested to continue in the same position. He is a Past Master in the Masonic order, being attached to the United Manawatu Lodge, No. 1721, E.C.; as an Oddfellow he belongs to Lodge Manawatu. In 1891 Mr. Kerslake was married to a daughter of the late Mr. George Best, of Ohariu Valley, settler, and has two sons and three daughters.

Douglas, David, Fruiterer and Confectioner, The Square. This business was established in 1894, and is curried on by Mrs. Donglas. Mr. Douglas is a professional gardener, and is at present engaged in that capacity in the employ of Mr. Baker, solicitor, Palmerston North. He is a native of the parish of Killyleagh, Ireland. He arrived in New Zealand in the year 1875, per ship “Conflict,” from Belfast. He learnt his profession at Home in the garden of the Rev. David Anderson, of Ashvale Peninsula, County Down. Mr. Douglas has been employed by several of the best families in Canterbury, and holds recommendations from Messrs. Nairn and Sons, of Christchurch, Mr. E. G. Rhodes, of Meadow Bank, Christchurch. Mr. Douglas has had experience further South on the estate of Mr. H. D. Buchanan, Kinlock. Mr. and Mrs. Douglas both work hard, and are deserving of encouragement.

Mayo and Sons (Alfred Mayo, Joseph Mayo and Joseph Mayo, junior), Nurserymen and Seedsmen, Main Street, page 1191 Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. The firm has conducted the business at Palmerston North since 1890. The nursery is well stocked with all varieties of fruit-trees, plants, and the other necessaries which go towards making up an establishment of this kind. It has a large connection in the Manawatu, Rangitikei, and Hawkes Bay districts, and its products are highly spoken of; indeed, Messrs. Mayo and Sons' fruit-trees, especially, have something more than a local reputation. Mr. Joseph Mayo, one of the firm, in 1895 was appointed Government Pomologist, and his articles published in connection with the culture of fruit-trees have proved of great benefit to those engaged in the industry. Mr. Mayo came to New Zealand in 1864, and previous to that had been engaged in some of the best nurseries in England, among which can be named several noblemen's places, and his Home experience has naturally proved of inestimable value out here. The nursery in Main Street is well worthy of a visit.

Runge, John Frederick, Fruiterer and Confectioner, Main Street, Palmerston North. Private residence, Linton Street. Established in 1896. Mrs. Runge gives personal attention to the shop.

Harty, Henry Kew, Fruiterer and Confectioner, Oyster and Supper Rooms, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Estab. 1892.

Edwards, R. P., Brick, Tile, Pipe, and Flower-pot manufacturer, Church Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Fergusson Street. Mr. Edwards is a native of Manchester, and arrived in New Zealand per ship “Hindostan,” from London. He was brought up in Manchester, where he served an apprenticeship to his father, Mr. Frederick Edwards, builder. He arrived in the Colony in 1872, and for about eight years followed his father's calling, in which he had been engaged at Home. In 1886, however, he established the present business in Palmerston North. His yards, which are freehold, cover an area of some four-and-a-half acres, and are fitted up with all the necessary appliances for the conduct of a good business. He has two kilns, one with an up and one with a down draught, having a combined capacity of about 60,000 bricks. Mr. Edwards's goods are all of a very high class, and he receives orders from persons residing at very considerable distances, some of his patrons living at Stratford, Taranaki, and others at Hastings, Hawkes Bay. His brickyards and pottery are so complete that he can compete successfully with any other brickmaker in the district. His agencies include that of the Milburn Lime and Cement Company, Limited, whose lime received first award at the South Seas Exhibition. Mr. Edwards's specialties are bricks and flower-pots, and wherever any of the latter have been shown they have invariably carried off the prizes. He keeps a good stock of bricks, tiles, drain pipes, butter crocks, flower pots, garden borders, fire bricks, lime, cement, etc., always on hand. Mr. Edwards is a man well liked throughout the district, and is doing a flourishing business.

Smith, William, Brick and Tile Maker, Church Street, Palmerston North. Established 1872.

Bennett, G. H., and Co. (G. H. Bennett and A. Amos), Booksellers, Stationers, and News Agents, The Square, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Bennett. Palmerston North.” P.O. Box 138. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Main Street. This business was established in 1889 by Mr. John Watt, lately of Masterton, but for many years a thriving bookseller of Wellington. As a branch establishment, however, it was not a great success, and notwithstanding its exceptional site—quito close to the Post-office—it cannot be said to have gone ahead at all until it came into the hands of the present proprietors in 1891. It is a neat and pretty shop, splendidly kept in the matters of quality, quantity, and arrangement of stock. The depth of the shop is 40 feet by a width downstairs of some 16 or 18 feet. The show-room upstairs is about five feet wider. The establishment of Messrs. G. H. Bennett and Co. is one to be commended in every way. Prompt and pleasant, but not fussy, attention is paid to customers, and the business generally is thoroughly well looked after. Mr. Bennett is a native of Auckland, and well-known throughout the Colony. For five years he was a partner in the firm of M. E. Porter and Co., of Wellington.

Butler, Fred, Wholesale and Retail Manufacturing Stationer, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Broad Street. Mr. Butler is a native of Dublin and came out to New Zealand in 1889 via Melbourne. He acquired his business in London. His premises occupy a prominent position in the Square, being but a few doors from the Colonial Bank. The frontage is thirty-two feet by a depth of thirty-six feet. The building is two stories. The ground floor is occupied by the shop and the heaviest of the plant, the upstairs being mainly used for manufacturing purposes Mr. Butler employs several hands, and does a good deal of work for the trade. His specialties are school stationery and the manufacture of account books and non-corrosive and damp-proof butter envelopes for dairy factories. Mr. Butler is honorary secretary of the Palmerston Volunteer Brass Band.

Essex and Co. (Isabella Essex), Booksellers, Stationers, Fancy Goods Dealers, and Tobacconists, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Essex, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Branch, book-stall at railway station. London agents, White, Ridsdale and Co., Hounsditch. Mrs. Essex is a native of Scotland, and came to New Zealand in 1884. She established the present business in 1891, and has successfully conducted the same since that time. The freehold premises occupied by the firm consist of a one-story wooden shop and dwelling, offording over 1800 square feet of floorage space. The building has been enlarged and adapted to the growing trade. Mrs. Essex imports direct all classes of books, stationery, toys, and fancy goods from the best markets, and is thus able to supply customers at reasonable prices. The firm have a lease of the railway book-stall for three years from November, 1894.

Hart, William, Printer, Publisher, Rubber Stamp Maker, etc., Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand, This business was established in 1891, and has during that time made considerable progress. Both the premises and the plant have been largely increased. Being so recently purchased, all the latter is in excellent order, a fact well evidenced by the specimens printed for circulation. Of these, 124 are samples of plain and ornamental types, followed by numerous specimens of blocks in great variety. The premises are freehold, and are built of wood and iron. The floorage space of the part used for the printing business is nearly 1000 square feet. The contract for the building was carried out by Mr. Frank Anderson, from plans by Mr. T. B. Jacobson. The machinery includes a crown wharfedale, foolscap folio arab platen machine, guillotine, and hand press, the motive power being derived from a two-horse-power gas-engine. Mr. Hart employs four hands, and does work for all parts of the district. He is page 1192 contractor to the Borough Council, Hospital Board, and the Pohangina Road Board. When it is considered that Mr. Hart started only three years ago in a room twenty feet by fourteen,- with one small treadle machine, it must be admitted that he has made rapid strides. He is a native of Painswick. Gloucestershire, and arrived in New Zealand in 1884, per ship “Kaikoura,” from London. Prior to that he served his apprenticeship to the trade with Mr. J. D. Bales, of Chesterfield, Derbyshire. [Since the above was in print, Mr. G. W. Keeling, son of Mr. R. N. Keeling. Town Clerk, has joined Mr. Hart, under the style of Hart and Keeling. Mr. Keeling, who was born in New Plymouth in 1869, served his apprenticeship with Mr. J. P. Leary, who founded the first printing establishment in Palmerston North. Previously to entering into partnership with Mr. Hart, Mr. Keeling conducted the printing branch of a firm in Wellington for four years.]

Park, William, Bookseller, Stationer, Newsagent, Importer of Fancy Goods, Toys, and Musical Instruments, The Square, Palmerston North. Telegraphic and cable address, “Park, Palmerston North.” Telephone 20; P.O. Box 137. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. London agents, Sampson Low and Co., publishers, Fleet Street, E.C. Private residence, “The Wattles,” College Street. Mr. Park learned his business in Hokitika with Mr. John Crerar, now of Napier. After completing his knowledge of the trade he speedily rose till he was entrusted with the position of manager of Mr. John Manson's establishment in Hokitika, which he conducted for three years till 1882, when the present extensive trade, which was founded in 1878, was purchased. When Mr. Park found himself in possession of the nucleus of this business he realized that energy, steady plodding, and perseverance would be required to make the concern a success. He, therefore, brought his powers of concentration into requisition and determined to do everything thoroughly. The result of years of steady planning and toiling has been the development of the trade to its present dimensions. Some years ago the necessity for increased accommodation for the business became apparent. It was then that it was decide to build the present handsome and commodious building. Mr. E. Larcomb, the well-known architect, prepared the plans and superintended the erection, Messrs. France and Stubbs being the contractors. The large double-fronted shop, with plate glass windows, is completely filled with a very valuable stock of books, toys, fancy goods, musical instruments, etc. The total floorage space included in the two-story building of wood and iron, which is erected on freehold land, is over 8000 square feet. Mr. Park is a direct importer of all lines from such leading and well-known publishing houses as Casselland Co., and Thomas Nelson and Sons. He has a sole agency for the district for Collard and Collard's pianos, and imports instruments from the leading manufacturing firms. Mr. Park also makes a specialty of cricketing, football, and tennis goods. His connection extends throughout the Manawatu district, the Forty Mile Bush, Feilding, and into Hawkes Bay. The stock is certainly one of the
Mr. W. Park's Residence, “The Wattles.”

Mr. W. Park's Residence, “The Wattles.

page 1193 largest in any inland town in the Colony. As an ex-mayor and as chairman of the Hospital Board (1896), fuller information is given concerning Mr. Park in another portion of this section.

Smith, Joseph J., Printer, Palmerton North Printing Works, the Square, Palmerston North. Telephone 22; P.O. Box 11. Bankers, Colonial Bank of New Zealand. London agents, John Haddon and Co. Private residence, Princess Street. This business was established in 1875 by Mr. J. P. Leary. who conducted it most successfully for about eleven years, and during this time took the greatest interest in it. The plant is consequently not only wellchosen, but was thoroughly well kept. On the retirement of Mr. Leary it was purchased by the late Mr. J. J. Cherrett, a gentleman for many years well known in connection with the Government Binding Department. He remained in the business in Palmerston for about eight years, but in 1894 he died, and his widow sold the business, plant, etc., to the present proprietor, Mr. J. J. Smith, who has had over twenty years' experience as a printer. The premises are situated in one of the busiest parts of the Square, and next door to the Manawatu Daily Times office. The building is of wood and iron, and affords a floorage space of 2500 square feet, and is literally crowded with machinery, A large stock (over £200 worth) of stationery, fancy cards, etc., is always kept on hand. The office has always done the leading trade of the district, and does work for such firms as the United Farmers' Co-operative Association, Messrs. Ireland and Co., Ross and Co., Longburn Freezing Company, etc. All classes of work are executed on the premises [unclear: ,printing,] bookbinding labels, seed bags, and envelopes, etc. The machinery comprises a Payne's double royal cylinder machine, and three platen machines—an Imperial, a Universal, and a Simplissimus; an Imperial press (on which the Manawatu Daily Times was first printed in 1875), a guillotine, an embossing machine, a stapling machine, a numbering machine, and a treadie perforating machine; a ruling machine, under the charge of a competent ruler and bookbinder, is also on the premises. The machinery is driven by an Otto gas-engine of one-and-a-half horse-power. Mr. Smith has sufficient work for from six to eight hands regularly, a very great deal of printing outside the district being executed by him. He is the recognised printer for the Manawatu and West Coast Pastoral and Agricultural Society, and does all the work for the Manawatu Racing Club. He is the contractor also for the Horowhenua County Council's printing, the Wirokino Road Board, and the Palmerston North Hospital Board, and also executes printing for the Manawatu Road Board, Fitzherbert Road Board, and also for the Sluggish River Drainage Board, the Aorangi Drainage Board, and the Manawatu Drainage Board. On the occasion of the writer's visit to Mr. Smith's establishment, a very extensive contract for draper's counter-books was being executed. Until quite recently this class of printing has always been sent out of the district, but counter-books are now obtainable on the spot in any number and of any qualities, thanks to the enterprise of Mr. J. J. Smith. Theatrical printing is a specialty with Mr. Smith, and he claims that his is the only office between Wellington and Wanganui capable of turning out large posters and general colour printing. Mr. Smith (who is a brother to Mr. W. H. Smith of the Manawatu Times) is a native of Wellington, Shropshire, England. He came to the Colony in 1864 per ship “Sir William Eyre.” He was apprenticed to Mr. A. K. Arnott, of the Wairarapa Mercury, a newspaper published in Greytown, and now known as the Standard, which name was given to it on its coming into the hands of Messrs. Wakelin and Payton. Mr. Smith afterwards entered into partnership with Mr. A. W. Hogg, the present member for Masterton, and started in conjunction with that gentleman, in 1881, the Wairarapa Star, a paper which grew rapidly into the public favour. On the dissolution of the partnership, which existed for about eleven years, the-business was sold for about £2500. At the same time Messrs. Smith and Hogg were proprietors of the Weekly Star and South Wairarapa Advocate, and the Eketahuna and Pahiatua Mail. Mr. Smith has always taken a deep interest in all public affairs and has played an active part in matters political as well as social. He was a prominent member of the Masonic Lodge, and also a member of various Friendly Societies, and was highly respected and esteemed throughout the district.

Fearne, Mrs., Fancy Goods Dealer, Art Needlework Emporium and Registry Office, The Square, Palmerston North.

Welch and Co., Booksellers and Stationers, Broad Street, Palmerston North Established 1884.

Caird, George, General Storekeeper, Terrace End Post-office Store, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Caird, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. This business was established in 1802, and came into the hands of the present proprietor a year later. It is a fine establishment with a dwelling-house attached, and occupies a corner site with a handsome window to each street. It is a good general store, the departments comprising hardware, drapery, grocery, general produce, etc. Mr. Caird does a good trade, and keeps a cart constantly delivering his goods throughout the district. Considering the short time this business has been established, really good progress has been made. Mr. Caird has a seat on the local Borough Council, and further reference to him will be found in that connection.

page 1194

Johnstone, Lawrence, Grocer and Storekeeper, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. This business, which was established in 1896, and is conducted in centrally situated premises, is developing rapidly. Mr. Johstone keeps a well assorted stock of grocery and general stores. Born in the Shetland Isles in 1871, he came to Wellington, per ship “Houra,” at six years of age with his father, Mr. L. Johnstone, a retired schoolmaster, who settled in the Wairarapa. Having gained colonial experience, Mr. Johnstone commenced business as above. Mr. Johnstone takes active interest in politics, the debating society, and draughts, and is a member of the Theosophical Society.

Luxford, W. L. and Co. (William Lewis Luxford), Grain Merchants, Church Street. Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Private residence, Hokowhitu. Originally established in 1885 as timber and grain merchants, the former branch of the business was sold in 1892 to the Palmerston North Sash and Door Company, Limited, the latter business being still conducted by the firm. For some time after the timber portion of the business was sold to the Palmerston North Sash and Door Company, Mr. Luxford acted in the capacity of manager. Further particulars concerning Mr. Luxford's career will be found under the heading of “Ex-Councillors.”

Richter, Nannestad, and Co. (John Christian Richter, Jacob Nannestad, and Fritz Jenssen) Roller Flour Millers, Grain Merchants, and Sawmillers, Hokowhitu Siding. Telegraphic and Cable address “Richter, Palmerston North.” Telephone 69; P.O. 20. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Private residences: Mr. Richter, Broad Street; Mr. Nannestad, Main Street; Mr. Jenssen, Napier, H.B. This large business was founded in 1872 by the present proprietors, who have successfully conducted a growing trade ever since. The freehold mill that is in the possession of the firm, is built of wood, and contains upwards of 21,000 square feet of floorage space. The machinery in the mill comprises the latest roller milling plant specially imported from the well-known Manchester maker, Henry Simon. The plant has a capacity of five sacks per hour, and the firm are enabled to deliver right on to the railway trucks at the Hokowhitu Siding, which runs into the mill. The brand is “Manawatu Roller Flour.” The machinery is driven by a six-horse-power horizontal steam engine, and wood and coke is used for fuel. The mill is lighted by electricity, which is generated by a dynamo driven by a four-horse-power steam-engine. Seven hands are employed in the flour mill, and about £100 monthly is paid in wages. In addition to this large business, Messrs. Richter, Nannestad, and Co. have four sawmills, one at Dannevirke, two at Makatoku, and one at Tahorite. They have 36,000 acres of bush land in the vicinity of these sawmills, which produces vast quantities of fine timber. About one hundred hands are employed in and about these mills and the bush, and to these from £200 to £300 per month is paid in wages. The out-put of sawn timber is very considerable, and it is mostly sold locally, the surplus being exported. It is anticipated that at no distant date, there will be a very large export trade in all kinds of timber. The firm have already cleared and sown down a good area of land in English grasses. They have from three to four thousand sheep and a lot of cattle on the land. As grain merchants they procure a large quantity of wheat from the South. They are in a position to supply grain as well as flour and timber, and their operations are very large. All the partners are natives of Norway. Messrs. Jenssen and Nannestad came to New Zealand together via Melbourne in 1867, and Mr. Richter a year later. The partners have continued associated together in business just as they began over twenty-two years ago Mr. Jenssen was at one time mayor of the Borough of Palmerston North. Mr. Nannestad is a director of the Palmerston North Building Society.

Archer, W. J., Grocer. The Square, Palmerston North, Bankers, Bank of Australasia, Established 1893.

Charker, Daniel, Grocer, Main Street, Palmerston North. Established 1896.

Grove. Edwin, Storekeeper. The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1889, and conducted by present proprietor since 1892.

Haydon, H., General Storekeeper, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. private residence, Main Street. Established 1870, and conducted by present proprietor since 1889.

Milverton and Son (Edward Joseph and Joseph Milverton), Produce Dealers, Main Street, Palmerston North. Established 1885.

Miller, James, General Storekeeper. The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1884.

Revans, Claude, Storekeeper, The Square, Palmerston North. Estab. 1893.

Palmerston North Gas Company, Limited (Directors: Dr. Collins (chairman). Dr. Fell, and Messrs. D. Jones and H. Hume). Manager of works, Mr. F. W. Dunderdale, corner of Short and Main Streets, Palmerston North. Telephone 2; P.O. Box 84. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Registered office, 11 Brandon Street, Wellington. Secretary and general manager, Mr. A. H. Truebridge. This Company was formed in 1891 to take over the works which had been constructed by Coates and Co., Limited, of Melbourne, who supplied the gas to the consumers for eighteen months. They consist of suitable buildings containing eleven retorts and two large gas-holders. About 1000 tons of coal are used annually, the consumers having increased considerably since the inception of the Company. The energy and good management of Mr. Dunderdale have resulted in placing the company in a splendid position.

Metcalfe, James, Livery Stable Proprietor, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Mr. Metcalfe is an Englishman who came out to the goldfields of Australia in 1854, arriving at Gabriel's Gully rush, in New Zealand, in 1862. He was all through the Otago and West Coast goldfields. Mr. Metcalfe acquired the present business, which was established in 1889, over two years ago. The stables, which are of wood and iron, contains about 4000 square feet of floorage space. They have thirty-two stalls and five loose boxes, and are conveniently situated for farmers and others attending the live stock sales. Mr. Metcalfe has a good paddock adjoining the stables.

Neilsen, Charles, Livery and Bait Stable Proprietor, Palmerston North. Mr. Neilsen was born in Sweden, near the Finlands, and first commenced work on his father's farm in that country. In 1882 he came to the Colony, and obtained work at the Mataura sawmills, afterwards being employed at Cruickshank's sawmill at the Hutt. Mr. Neilsen then followed his old vocation for a time, taking up land at Campbelltown, in the Manawatu District, but he subsequently leased some land at Waikanae, where he resided some five or six years. After a short residence again in Campbelltown, on property which he purchased, he came to Palmerston and took over the stables in Rangitikei Street, formerly owned by the late Mr. J. R. Harper. The property is one of the largest and finest of its class in the Manawatu district. The stable contains ten loose boxes and about twenty stalls, and there are two large lofts for storing hay. Mr. Neilsen's enterprise is being duly appreciated, the country settlers according him liberal patronage. A man is always in attendance at the stables, and there is no delay in serving customers.

Smith and Hall (John F. Smith and Geo. R. Hall), Livery and Stables, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1881. Conducted by present proprietors since 1894.

page 1195

Hugli, James Eugene, Jeweller and Watch maker, The Square, Private residence, Hokowhitu Mr. Hugli is a native of Switzerland, and was apprenticed in Chaux de Fonds, the largest watch manufacturing town in that interesting Republic. He served five years in the schools, and thoroughly mastered his trade. Mr. Hugli came to New Zealand, per ship “Calypso,” in 1879. The business was founded in 1880. The handsome brick shop, which was built from Mr. Hugli's own design, contains about 700 square feet of floorage space. All classes of goods are imported direct for the purpose of the business.

Drew, Alfred, Watchmaker, Jeweller and Optician, Church Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. private residence, Fitzherbert Street. Established 1886.

Ganstad, J. J. Watchmaker, Jeweller and Opticain, The square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Established 1890.

Haybittle, H. W., Watchmaker and Jeweller, The Square, palmerston North. Bakers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1880.

Merriman, Albert Victor, Watchmaker and Jeweller, The Square, palmerston North. Private residence, Fergusson Street. Established 1894.

Wood and Wishart (Albert Edwards Wood and John Briggs Wishart), Watchmakers, Jewellers and Engravers, The Square, palmerston North. Estab. 1892.

Cook, William, Cooper and Packing-Case Manufacturer, Palmerston Cooperage, Main Street. Telegraphic address, “Cook, Palmerston North.” Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Mr. Cook has been established since 1879. It was in quite a small way that he began, his premises at that time being but 16 feet by 32 feet. Now the main building is 73 feet by 32 feet. Mr. Cook has done his own building and been his own architect, and in many other ways has, by his ingenuity, greatly increased his power of production. The motive power employed is supplied by a six-horse-power steam-engine, by Mr. David Robertson, of Wellington, who also supplied the boiler. Mr. Cook speaks highly of both. The machinery includes a hoop-splaying and bending machine; a cutter and puncher, made from Mr. Cook's own pattern, by Mr. T. Martin; a band saw; a head-cutting machine, by Mr. Oakey, of New Plymouth; a shaper; a planing machine to take an eighteen inch board and plane three edges at once, by Haigh and Co., of Oldham, through Messrs. E. W. Mills and Co, agents; a circular saw; a swing saw; a circular rip saw; a steam chest; and a hand-windlass for hauling the staves into shape until the hoops are fixed. Mr. Cook's specialties are butter boxes and tallow casks, but his trade is by no means confined to these. Among many other useful lines is that of churns, on a principle greatly improved by the manufacturer, Mr. Cook is a native of the Lower Hutt, and learned his business with his brother Mr. T. Cook, of Petone. In windmill tanks and brewery appliances Mr. Cook does a good trade; among other breweries fitted by him are the Marton brewery; the Eagle Brewery, Palmerston; and the Burton Brewery, Palmerston.

Palmerston North Sash, Door, and Timber Company, Limited (Olaf Möller, manager). Directors:—Captain J. Mowlem, J. P. (chairman), Messrs. G. Howe, J. Nannestad, H. S. Fitzherbert, R. Leary, R. S. Barry and W. F. Greenaway. Factory, Hokowhitu Siding; Sawmills, Matahiwi and Oringi, Hawkes Bay. Telephone, Factory 35; P.O. Box 79. Bankers, Bank of Australasia. Manager's private residence, Broad Street. This thriving industry is the outcome of a sawmill established in 1870 by Richter, Nannestad and Co., and a timber-yard founded by Mr. W. L. Luxford in 1886. The company was incorporated in 1892. The factory, which is erected on four-and-a-half acres of the company's freehold, is built of iron. The machinery is driven by a splendid horizontal steam-engine of thirty-horse-power. For many years the old proprietors used to tip their shavings at the rear of the mill; and this large accumulation was used as fuel for the boiler, the manager having adapted the fires accordingly, thus effecting a great saving in cost. The plant is of the latest pattern, having been completed in 1893. There are three planing machines and three lathes always going, in addition to many other beautiful appliances, which work perfectly. One specialty is the butter-box trade, for which white pine is used. The out-put is 7000 boxes per month, each capable of holding 56lbs. of butter and weighing 11lbs.; these are turned out at
Interior view—Palmerston North Sash and Door Factory.

Interior view—Palmerston North Sash and Door Factory.

page 1196 an incredibly small price, according to contract. All kinds of sashes, doors, turning, and carving work for house-building are made at these works in large quantities. The mills, which are twenty-seven and twenty-nine miles respectively by rail from the factory, are erected on 4000 acres of leasehold bush, affording about ten years cutting in matai, red and white pine, and totara. A twenty-five-horse-power steam engine drives each of these plants. About twenty hands are employed at the factory, and twenty-five at the sawmill, the wages sheet being some £500 per month. The mills cut 300,000 feet per month, which, included with the Company's purchases from other mills, swells the monthly sale to over 400,000 feet, in addition to the products of the factory. The Company finds a market for its goods and timber throughout the central and southern portions of the North Island and Australia.

Phœnix Timber Yard (Christian Nicholai Clausen, proprietor), Palmerston North. Althouth only nine months have elapsed since Mr. Clausen opened a timber yard in Palmerston, his business has rapidly extended, and his time is fully occupied in attending to the requirements of customers. The premises in which the business is carried on are very suitable, and are near the railway station. Of the space utilized by Mr. Clausen, half-an-acre is set apart for seasoning timber, and on another portion stands the office. Mr. Clausen deals in all kinds of timber, and carries on a large business, and his patrons can therefore rely on receiving the best value for their money. He buys very largely from the leading mills in the district, and being well known his name is a sufficient guarantee that the material he sells is the best procurable. Mr. Chausen is a native of Denmark, and came to the Colony in 1875 in the ship “Terpsichore.” After his arrival he engaged in contracting for many years, and then followed up farming pursuits, residing at Maharahara, where he was a member of the Road Board for a considerable time, and chairman for twelve months.

Photo by Attwood and Co. Mr. C. N. Clausen.

Photo by Attwood and Co.
Mr. C. N. Clausen

Wylds, A. H., Timber, Produce, Coal, and Flax Merchant, Main Street, Palmerston North. Telegraphic address, “Wylds, Palmerston North.” Telephone 39; P.O. Box 15. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Saw-mill at Cheltenham. Private residence, Ferguson Street East. Mr. Wylds is a native of Bath, and went to Melbourne in 1865, where he stayed a few weeks and then left per s.s. “Lady Darling” for the West Coast of New Zealand. Here he spent eight years, and had experiences common to goldfield towns in rather an uncommon degree, and on one occasion he made the acquaintance on the ranges near Hokitika of Messrs. Sullivan and Levy, of West Coast bush-ranging fame. In conjunction with his friend Mr. Hawkes, he was “stuck up” by these two men on the range between Ross and Douchnes, who were waiting for Mr. Kerr, the manager of the Bank of New Zealand, who was expected to pass by during the afternoon. Their mates, Burgess and Kelly were on the beach below, so whichever way Mr. Kerr should elect to take he was sure to fall into the hands of two of the gang. Messrs. Wylds and Hawkes were robbed of all they had upon them and were allowed to pass on. These two gentleman were the last the Kelly gang “stuck up” without murdering. They of course made all haste to Rosstown and were just in time to stop Mr. Kerr, whose movements were somewhat delayed, and thus saved his life. In 1876 Mr. Wylds established himself as above. He does an export trade of timber to all parts of Australia, including Torres Straits, Townsville, Bowen, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Newcastle, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, and Port Pirie. Mr. Wylds is agent for the Grey Valley Coal Company and the Westport Coal Company. As sub-contractor under Mr. McCurdy, Mr. Wylds drove the first tunnel on the Wairarapa line and did about half a mile of his tunnel work.

Coles, H., Importer of Musical Instruments and Music, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand.

Gattsche, Joseph, Brewer, Eagle Brewery, Rangitikei Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1891.

Kuhtze, J. Son, brewers and Bottlers, Palmerston North Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1892.

Kirk, E., Furniture and New and Second-hand Goods Dealer, Main Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Bank of New Zealand. Established 1892.

Higham, R. and Co. (Robert Higham), Umbrella Manufacturers, Main Street, Palmerston North. Established 1891.

Hutchinson, Matthew, Soap Manufacturer, Fergusson Street, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1893.

Abrahams, Solomon, Pawnbroker, The Square, Palmerston North. Bankers, Union Bank of Australia. Established 1872.