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The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Wellington Provincial District]

The Ministry. — (Illustrated with Portraits of Members and their Wives.)

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The Ministry.
(Illustrated with Portraits of Members and their Wives.)

Though the present Ministry, with the Hon. R. J. Seddon as Premier, has been in power only since the 1st of May, 1893, it is really more than two years older than those figures represent. The Government headed by the late Hon. John Ballance was practically the same. It may be said, therefore, that the Administration of to-day has been favoured with the confidence of the country for nearly five years. Never in the history of the Colony's parliamentary life has the Opposition been numerically so weak. In a House of seventy-four members, nearly three score of them are pledged to support the men and measures of the present Government. That the Opposition is individually strong there can be little doubt; and of its usefulness there can be less doubt; but of its hopes of a majority nothing can be said. The Government, while claiming to administer the affairs of the Colony in a manner that in the end will be best for all classes, looks mainly to Labour for its support, and is, therefore, determined that the interests of Labour shall be paramount. However distasteful this may be to the classes who have hitherto ruled, there is nothing surer than that the Working Man means to have his innings. He has found men of considerable force of character and great courage, who are prepared to advance his interests; and the only alternative for those who object to the working man's choice of leaders is to provide him with better if they can. Both parties at present in the House may be called Liberal; the Conservatives have vanished from the political arena, never to return. The Opposition is more forcibly directed against the methods than the objects of the party in power. A party pledged to provide remunerative employment for every one willing to work, and the means of comfortable subsistence for the very few who are incapable of rendering any kind of service in return, might have a chance of ousting the present Government; but nothing less radical than that can hope to succeed. The thin end of the wedge of this reform has already been driven, in the shape of State farms. This principle, carried in the direction of its legitimate conclusion, must soon find work for every man, until every acre of land is made the most of, or until the physical needs of the whole world are provided for. If once the principle of “work for every one” be practically acknowledged in this country, there will be no need for further inducement for immigration. And to the present Government must be given the credit of having initiated this very desirable reform.

The Hon. Richard John Seddon, Premier of New Zealand, Minister of Public Works, etc., was born at Eccleston, near St. Helens, Lancashire, on the 22nd of June, 1845. His father was headmaster of the Eccleston Hill Grammar Scool for a quarter of a century. The Seddon is one of the oldest families in Lancashire, the members being mostly farmers. His mother's maiden name was Lindsay, and she came from the beautiful little town of Annan, in Dumfrieshire. Her family were also farmers, and this probably accounts for the sympathy that the Premier has ever evinced towards the agriculturists of New Zealand. After receiving a fair education, young Seddon was apprenticed to the engineering firm of Daglish and Co., St. Helens, serving his time, and, before reaching his eighteenth year, he was employed as engineer in the Vauxhall Foundry, Liverpool. At this time glowing accounts of the goldfields of Victoria reached the Old Country, and in 1863, having obtained a Board of Trade certificate, Mr. Seddon bade good-bye to home and kindred and left for Victoria, arriving there a stranger in a strange land with neither friend nor relative to bid him welcome, and he had little else besides a good head, square shoulders, and a determination to make his way in the world. A few days after arrival he received an engagement at his profession in Melbourne, but did not stay there long, as the goldfields at Bendigo proved too tempting. The engagement was thrown up in order to try his luck at the diggings. Like many another new chum, however, he found to his cost that nuggets were not to be picked up in the streets, as he had been led to believe, and he returned to Melbourne, with more experience if lighter in pocket, though nothing daunted. Immediately after, he found employment at the Victorian Locomotive Works at Williamstown. Here he remained until the West Coast goldfields of New Zealand began to excite attention, and then the gold fever once page 41 again induced him to try his luck at the diggings. Obtaining leave of absence, he landed in Hokitika in 1866, thence making his way up to the old Waimea diggings, where fortune favoured him. Mr. Seddon and his mates were amongst the first to introduce hydraulic sluicing on a large scale, and for that purpose constructed reservoirs and water-races to wor the auriferous terraces at the Right-hand Branch. Subsequently he went into business as astore-keeper. In 1869 he returned to Victoria and married Miss Louisa Jane, daughter ofCaptain John Stuart Spotswood. He first essayed to enter public life in 1869, contesting seats for the Arahura Road Board and the Westland County Council, the election for both taking place the same day. Mr. Seddon was returned at the head of the poll for the road board, but the diggers were of opinion that he was rather young for the county council. The year following his election saw him chairman of the board, and he held his seat until the board was merged. When the county was abolished and Westland The Hon. Richard John Seddon became a province, Mr. Seddon was returned to represent the Arahura district in the Provincial Council, and was made Chairman of Committees, which position he retained until the abolition of the provinces in 1876. It was whilst occupying this position that he made himself acquainted with parliamentary procedure, assiduously studying May, Todd, and other standard authorities. This training has proved of great assistance since his entry into New Zealand parliamentary life. Westland again becoming a county in 1877, Mr. Seddon was elected a member of the council, and then chairman, and continued a member until he joined the Ballance Administration in 1891. In 1878 the Borough of Kumara was formed, and Mr. Seddon had the honour of being elected its first mayor, holding that office for the first two years of its existence. The selection and laying-off of the township was entrusted to his direction, and in this capacity his sound practical common sense was made evident, for Kumara is acknowledged to be one of the best formed towns in New Zealand. Education and all questions pertaining thereto have always evoked the warm interest and sympathy of Mr. Seddon, and it is, therefore, only natural to find him a member of the Westland Education Board, to which he was elected in 1874. He was also chairman of the board, and continued to hold a seat in it until he became a Minister of the Crown. His first attempt to enter the New Zealand Parliament was made in 1876, when he stood in the Liberal interest as one of the members for Hokitika, the other candidates being Messrs. R. Reid, Dungan, Barff, and Button. Messrs. Barff and Button were elected, but in 1878 the difference of opinion between Mr. Button and his constituents became so great that he tendered his resignation. Sir George Grey was consulted, and he favoured the candidature of his nephew, Mr. Seymour Thorne George, in securing whose return Mr. Seddon took an active part. On this occasion Mr. G. G. Fitzgerald was the candidate in the Conservative interest. When the dissolution took place in the year 1879, it was decided to ask Sir George Grey to recommend someone to contest the Hokitika seat in the Liberal interest. Mr. Seddon communicated accordingly with Sir George and received a characteristic reply which was to the effect that “you are worthy, stand yourself.” Mr. Seddon did so, and with Mr. Reid, was elected as one of the two members for Hekitika, defeating Mr. Barff (the sitting member), and Messrs. Dungan and Cumming. In 1882 when the electorate was divided, Mr. Seddon successfully contested the Kumara seat, his opponent being Mr. Edward Blake, the late member for Avon. In 1884 he contested the seat, and was again returned, defeating the same opponent. At the next general election he was returned unopposed. The Kumara electorate was then merged into Westland, which seat Mr Seddon contested, and was returned at the head of the poll by a majority of nearly 400 votes against Mr. Joseph Grimmond, who was then the sitting member for Hokitika. At the last general election he was again returned unopposed. The present is the twentieth continuous session in which Mr. Seddon has sat in the New Zealand Parliament, having occupied a seat without interruption from September, 1879, to the present day, and in this respect he holds a unique record, being the only member of the present Parliament who has sat continuously since the general election of 1879. There are only five members now in the House who sat prior to that date, viz., the Hons. Sir Maurice O'Rorke, Sir Robert Stout and Major Steward, Mr. Larnach, and Mr. William Kelly. It may therefore be said that he is the father, as well as the leader of the House, for the older members referred to have been for intervals out of Parliament. During the troublesome times of 1881 Mr. Seddon was well to the front, and was a hard-working, plodding, persevering member. On making his first speech in the House in 1879, he brought down Mr. Saunders, the Nestor of the House upon his devoted head, who twitted him with being a slavish supporter of Sir George Grey, and termed him a young “greyhound,” saying he had speed of foot, and plenty of assurance, but lacked usefulness. The late Frederick Whitaker, son of the Hon. Sir Frederick Whitaker, followed the member for Hokitika in the debate, and commenced his speech by saying it was unusual to fire a cannon at a minnow. In 1881 Mr. Seddon was one of the seven famous stonewallers at the time when the House sat continuously for seventy-three hours, an unfortunate episode which ended in the Hon. Mr. Gisborne being fined £20. It was Mr. Seddon who was intended as the victim, but his Scotch caution and training as chairman of Committees in the Westland Provincial Council came to the rescue, and, when told that a motion to report progress would not be received, and was ordered to resume his seat, contrary to expectation, he did so. The Hon. Mr. Gisborne, who was then member for page 42 Totara, on the West Coast, rose to protest against the ruling of the Chair, and moved to report progress so that the opinion of the Speaker might be taken. The Chairman reported Mr. Gisborne as disorderly, and, amidst the greatest excitement ever witnessed in the New Zealand House of Representatives, on the motion of Sir John Hall, Mr. Gisborne was fined £20. That the protest against the Representation Act of 1881 was well-founded, is proved by the fact that at the present time Mr. Seddon represents the same area which at that date comprised three seats, viz, Totara, and two for Hokitika. In adversity and prosperity Mr. Seddon has consistently stuck to Liberal principles and to the Liberal Party, and has supported as his leaders the Right Hon. Sir George Grey, the late Mr. Macandrew, Mr. Montgomery, the Hon. Sir Robert Stout, and the late Hon. Mr. Ballance. In January, 1891, after the defeat of the Atkinson Government in the elections of the preceding year, the Hon. Mr. Ballance
Mr. Seddon's Birthplace at Eccleston, near St. Helens.From a Photo recently taken and forwarded to the Premier, in commemoration of his fiftieth Birthday.

Mr. Seddon's Birthplace at Eccleston, near St. Helens.
From a Photo recently taken and forwarded to the Premier, in commemoration of his fiftieth Birthday.

selected Mr. Seddon as one of his colleagues. He was appointed Minister for Mines and Public Works, and has since held, in addition, the portfolios of Defence, Native Affairs, and Marine. In 1893, owing to the illness of his chief, he was chosen as Acting-Premier, and first led the House during the session of 1892. On the death of Mr. Ballance he became Premier, and this selection was almost unanimously ratified by the Liberal Party at the commencement of the session of 1893. Mr. Seddon has occupied the first position in New Zealand from then until the present day, and the session of 1895 is, therefore, the fourth session he has been the leader of the House of Representatives. At one period of his history, besides carrying on a large private business at Big Dam, Duffer's Gully, and Kumara, the subject of this sketch, whose capacity for work is phenomenal, held the positions of Mayor of Kumara, member of the Westland County Council, member of the Westland Education Board, the Charitable Aid Board, one of the Westland Hospital Trustees, and chairman of the Kumara School Committee; in fact, he held the last position continuously for thirteen years. No doubt this multiplication of offices has led the Premier to the conclusion that a number of these bodies can be amalgamated with gain to the district and benefit to the Colony. As a private member Mr. Seddon was indefatigable in promoting mining legislation and the development of the goldfields of the Colony, and he also succeeded in passing the Adulteration Prevention Act, and the Adulteration of Tea Act. Probably it was the promoting and passing of the last measure which helped to make Mr. Seddon a favourite with the ladies, a position which to this day he occupies. Although not an ardent supporter of the extension of the franchise to women, yet it was his Government that succeeded in passing the law giving the franchise to the women of New Zealand. To Mr. Seddon the miners in a great measure owe the abolition of the duty upon gold, as also the Mining Act and Coal Mines Act of 1891–2. On the many other beneficent measures which have been passed by him it is unnecessary to dilate. As a self-made and almost self-educated man, it speaks volumes for the opportunities which the colonies give to energetic, able men to reach the highest position in the gift of his fellow colonists. As a debater, although not a finished speaker, Mr. Seddon holds a very good position. As a platform orator there are very few public men now-a-days who are his superiors, and his earnest, bluff way of putting things makes him at home with his hearers at once. He has a good sound general knowledge of the laws of New Zealand, and, in respect to mining laws, his practical experience as a miner, and his practice for a number of years as a mining advocate, have caused him to be looked upon as one of the first men in the Colony. He is an associate of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. His self-sacrifice and devotion to the people of the Colony is unquestioned, and whilst others have been attending to business and their own private interests, he has thrown away many opportunities of acquiring wealth. To-day Mr. Seddon has no cause to regret this course, for he holds a position in the hearts and minds of the people of New Zealand which no wealth could purchase.

Mrs. Seddon is the daughter of the late Captain John Stuart Spotswood, land and shipowner of Williamstown, Victoria. He was one of the early pioneers of the Colony, and the land upor which a large portion of the town of Williamstown is built formerly belonged to him, as also the land upon which stands the township Mrs. Seddon page 43 of Spottiswoode, on the Yarra. Her grandfather was Captain John Spotswood, of the 84th and 98th regiments, East Bay Neck, Tasmania, and her grandmother was the daughter of Major-General Waddington, of the Honourable East India Company, and at one time Governor of Bombay. There has been issue by her marriage eleven children, nine of whom are still living, viz., six daughters and three sons. The eldest daughter is the wife of the Rev. Mr. Bean, Vicar of Addington, Christchurch. The names of the family are Jane A. (Bean), née Seddon, Phœbe Alicia, Louisa J., Mary Stuart, Elizabeth May, Richard John, Thomas Edward, John Stuart Spotswood, and Ruby Jessie. Amongst the miners and residents of the West Coast the name of Mrs. Seddon is revered, and, although ofttimes Mr. Seddon, as all public men are, has been adversely criticised, yet none would dream of breathing a syllable adverse to his good lady. In fact, on several occasions, when political feeling has run very high at elections, many of the diggers refrained from voting against Mr. Seddon because they saw his rejection would be a reflection on his good wife, and cause her pain. As an evidence of the good feeling which is felt towards Mr. and Mrs. Seddon and their family on the West Coast, the townships of Greymouth, Kumara, Hokitika, and Ross, and the surrounding districts vied each with the others in giving some substantial and lasting token of their good wishes on the occasion of the departure of the Premier, Mrs. Seddon, and family, to take up their residence at Wellington. Mrs. Seddon is not one of “the New Woman” kind. She is retiring, and has devoted herself almost exclusively to her family, and to assisting her husband in his arduous duties. She has taken an active interest in Church and Benevolent matters, but in matters political her answer has ever been, “I am quite satisfied to leave politics and public affairs to my husband.”

The Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus Buckley, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Colonial Secretary and Attorney-General, has had a much more varied experience than colonials generally think. To most he is known only as Colonial Secretary; but before coming to New Zealand he had been in many lands, and though he may not have suffered “most disastrous chances by flood and field,” yet the story of his life will be of interest to the reader. Born in County Cork, Ireland, he received his early education at the well-known Mansion House of that county. He was afterwards sent to Paris, where he remained until he entered the University of Louvaine, in Belgium. While studying at this institution, he was commissioned by Count Carlo MacDonald, private chaplain to the Pope, to conduct recruits from Ostend to Vienna for the Irish Papal Brigade. Joining the army of General Lamoricieye, who was attempting to crush the Piedmontese in their attack on the states of the Church, Mr. Buckley experienced the vicissitudes of camp life. At the storming of Ancona he was taken prisoner. His captivity, however, was short and soon after his release he returned to Lonvaine to complete his studies, and then went home to Ireland. But the conditions of life in Cork did not satisfy him, and he accordingly determined to seek his fortune in a new land. Queensland was chosen as the scene of action, and not long after his return from Louvaine he sailed for that colony. On landing he was confronted with the wilderness of Australia, and for a time shared the common lot of settlers. Finding, however, that their conditions were too severe, he turned his attention to the profession of the law. This he found a more congenial life, and soon attained distinction in the “dusty purlieus of the Court.” For some years he was associated in his profession with Mr. Lilley, who afterwards became Chief Justice of Queensland. But it was not in Queensland that Mr. Buckley attained the highest honours. Relinquishing practice in Brisbane, he sailed for New Zealand, and soon after his arrival entered into partnership with the late Hon. Robert Hart, in Wellington. He was not long in New Zealand before he entered the Provincial Council, in which he rose to the rank of Provincial Solicitor. This office he held until the abolition of the provinces. In 1878 he was called to the Legislative Council, and six years later became Colonial Secretary in the Stout-Vogel Government, and leader of the Upper House. This position he held until the retirement
The Hon. Sir Patrick Alphonsus Buckley

Photo by Kinsey.

of his party in 1887. On the return of the Liberals to power in 1891 he took office as Colonial Secretary and Attorney-General in the Ballance Government, which office he still holds. At the distribution of birthday honours in 1892 he received the title of K.C.M.G. Sir Patrick Buckley has always taken great interest in volunteer matters, and for six years was captain of the D Battery of Wellington. He is at present senior partner in the firm of Buckley, Stafford and Treadwell, full particulars of which are given elsewhere in the Cyclopedia.
The Hon. William Pember Reeves, Minister for Education and for Labour, is recognised as the most finished speaker and ready debater in the Government Party. But he did not achieve this position without long and severe training, as the following narrative will show. He is the son of the late Hon. William Reeves, M.L.C., Minister for Public Works in the Fox-Vogel Government of 1872, and was born in Lyttelton in 1857. At the early age of ten he won a scholarship worth £40 a-year, which entitled him to tuition in Christ's College and Grammar School. Here he studied for several years, and won the scholarship a second time. In 1873 he was successful in winning the Somes Scholarship, and in the following year won two University scholarships, securing first honours in page 44 classics and mathematics. With these successes he went Home to study at Corpus College, Oxford, for the bar. His uncle, Mr. Edward Pember, Q.C., has been for a long time distinguished as counsel at the parliamentary bar, and Mr. Reeves resolved to emulate him. But his plans were broken by ill-health, and he returned to the Colony without ever entering upon his course of study in the English University. Soon after his return he went into the country for the benefit of his health. The quiet country life, however, had no scope for his energies, and he accordingly returned to Christchurch, where he was admitted a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court. But it was not in the practice of the law that Mr. Reeves was destined to make his mark. For a time he acted as reporter of the Canterbury Law Society, but beyond this he did very little professional work. Another field of labour—journalism—was now beginning to attract his attention, and he determined to throw in his lot with the Fourth Estate. He began his new career as contributor to the Lyttelton Times, and quickly rose to the position of leader-writer. Soon after this he became editor of the Canterbury Times, and in 1889 rose to the position of editor of the Lyttelton Times. But Mr. Reeves's labours at this time were by no means confined to mere journalism. On the contrary, he has made several contributions to the literature of the Colony. His best-known works are “Colonial Couplets,” “In Double Harness,” and “Pharos.” In the two former of these Mr. Reeves shared the labours of authorship with Mr. G. P. Williams. In passing it may be mentioned that these two publications met with a success hitherto unknown in the history of
The Hon. William Pember Reeves

Photo by Wrigglesworth and Binns.

Mrs. Reeves.

Mrs. Reeves.

New Zealand literature. Printers know full well that nearly all the books published here are paid for out of their own pockets. Such, however, was not the case with Mr. Reeves's poems. Both these books are now out of print. “Pharos” is a brief historical outline of Communism and Socialism from the time of Plato to the present day. Mr. Reeves, as is well known, is a student of Socialism, and “Pharos” prepares the ground for the study of this subject. In 1885 Mr. Reeves married Miss Magdelen Robison, daughter of Mr. W. S. Robison, for a quarter of a century manager of the Bank of New South Wales in Christchurch. Before narrating Mr. Reeves's political career, it may be mentioned here that during his younger days he was a well-known athlete in Christchurch. He represented Canterbury in seven or eight cricket matches with foreign teams and the other provinces, and in one or two football matches. But he abandoned these pastimes to seek honours elsewhere than in the Olympian dust. His first appearance in Parliament was in 1887, when he was elected for St. Albans, defeating Mr. Garrick by a large majority. When the Liberals returned to power in 1890, Mr. Reeves accepted the portfolio of Education. It will thus be seen that he rose to the rank of Minister after having served the short parliamentary apprenticeship of three years. As Minister for Education, his chief works were revising and modernising the public school syllabus, and the code of the native schools, and passing a new School Attendance Bill. Under his direction the “working” average basis of the capitation pay was restored. The Educational Institute, too, owes much to him, for he was the first to recognise it, and to consult it on educational matters. He has also endeavoured to improve the means of education in the State schools by preparing a national geographical and historical reader. A few years ago, when the Labour Department was established. Mr. Reeves took the portfolio of Labour, and has been instrumental in placing page 45 on the Statute Book a large number of Acts affecting the various interests of labour in the Colony. The tendency of these laws is to improve the condition of the workman by protecting him from undue influence on the part of the employer, and by securing satisfactory conditions of sanitation. A few of the more important of these Acts may be mentioned. The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act is intended to facilitate the settlement of trade difficulties. Any society may bring a disputed case before the Board of Conciliation, and if the board fails to arrive at a settlement, the matter may be referred to the Court of Arbitration, the award of which latter body may be enforced in the same way as an award of any court of law. The Factories Act was passed to secure better conditions of labour for operatives in the various industrial pursuits. Proper ventilation and general cleanliness of buildings are enforced, and the hours of labour for women and children are strictly regulated. Provision is also made with a view to preventing the system of sweating in our industries. The Shop and Shop Assistants Act regulates the hours of labour in shops, and makes provision for sitting accommodation for women shop assistants. The Employers' Liability Act is intended to protect workmen from negligence on the part of employers. These and many minor Acts too numerous to mention here have been passed into law through the labour and energy of Mr. Reeves, who has devoted much time to this department. But notwithstanding all his parliamentary duties, Mr. Reeves is a diligent student of general literature, and finds time to keep himself abreast of the thought of the day.
The Hon. Alfred Jerome Cadman, Minister for Railways and Mines, is the eldest son of the late
The Hon. Alfred Jerome Cadman,

Photo by Wrigglesworth and Binns.

Mr. Jerome Cadman, who was well-known to Aucklanders as a prominent member of the Provincial Council. The subject of this notice was born in Sydney, New South Wales, in 1847, and was an infant when his parents crossed over to Auckland. Educated at the parish schools of St. Paul's and St. Matthew's, and at Wesley College, Auckland, he was apprenticed to Mr. E. I. Matthews, with
The Late Mrs. Cadman.

The Late Mrs. Cadman.

whom he served his full term to the carpentering trade. When Mr. Cadman was about twenty-one he went to settle in Coromandel, where he entered into the sawmilling business, in which he did well for many years. Mr. Calman first entered politics as a member of the Tiki Highway Board at Coromandel. Here he speedily rose to the position of chairman, which he held for some years. On the coming into operation of the “Counties Act” Mr. Cadman was one of the first members of the Coromandel County Council, to the chair of which body he was at once elected. He held this position for ten years, and did a good deal to further the progress of the district. At the end of 1881 Mr. Cadman was first returned to Parliament as member of Coromandel; three years later, and again in 1887, he was re-elected for the same constituency. In 1890 the honourable gentleman was elected for the Thames electorate — which now included the main portion of the old Coromandel electorate — after a severe fight. In 1893 Mr. W. L. Rees attacked Mr. Cadman on the floor of the House stating that he had used his position as Native Minister to further his own private interests in connection with the purchase of some native lands in Hawkes Bay. The subject of this notice challenged Mr. Rees to resign his seat and contest a constituency, so that the electors might express their opinion on the charges made against him, and his conduct as a Minister. Mr. Cadman gave his adversary the choice of battle-ground; expressing himself willing to meet Mr. Rees either at the Thames or in Auckland City, the latters own constituency—Mr. Rees accepted the challenge and chose his own constituency. Both gentlemen resigned on the 20th of July, 1893, and the City of Auckland became the scene of a fierce struggle between the two politicians, the result being a victory for Mr. Cadman by one of the largest majorities, 750, ever gained before the advent of the fair sex to the New Zealand polling-booths. At the general election of 1893 Mr. Cadman successfully wooed the electors of the Waikato, for which district he still sits. It may be remarked that in the honourable gentleman's political career he has never on any occasion page 46 lost an election from a seat on a Road Board upwards. He first became a Minister of the Crown in the Ballance Ministry in January, 1891, when he became Commissioner of Stamps Duties, which position he retained for only six days. On the 4th of February, 1891, he took the portfolio of Native Affairs, and on the 28th of May of the same year he was appointed Minister of Justice. In the Seddon Government he continued Native Minister and Minister of Justice till his resignation on the 20th of June, 1893. On his return to the House he was pressed to resume his old portfolio as Native Minister, but declined to do so, and was therefore appointed Minister of Mines, and again took the portfolio of Justice. The position of Minister of Mines is a peculiarly congenial one to Mr. Cadman, as having lived the best part of his life on the goldfields he naturally takes great interest in mining legislation, and is, au fait, with matters effecting that industry. The portfolio of Railways was conferred on Mr. Cadman in January, 1895. A fact not generally known is that this was in accordance with a wish expressed by his late chief (Hon. Mr. Ballance) some time before his death. The honourable gentleman has probably held more portfolios than any of his colleagues. In 1876 he was married to Miss Bell, daughter of Mr. Joseph Bell, J.P., of Whangarei. Mrs. Cadman died in April, 1892, leaving one son and one daughter.

The Hon. John McKenzie, Minister of Lands and Immigration, Minister of Agriculture and Commissioner of Forests, has had much experience of colonial life, having been in New Zealand for thirty-five years. As his name implies, he is a native of Scotland, and was born on the estate of Ardross, Rosshire, in 1838. After leaving school he worked for some time on his father's farm, thus gaining large experience in agricultural and pastoral pursuits. When quite a young man, however, he determined to leave Scotland, and to seek his fortune in another country. New Zealand was chosen as the scene of action, whither he sailed in 1860. On his arrival in Otago he followed the same life as that to which he had been accustomed in Scotland, and found employment on Puketapu Station, near Palmerston South. Here he put such industry and ability into his work that he soon rose to the position of manager of the station. Dissatisfied, however, with working for an employer, he determined to begin farming on his own account. With this end in view, he took up a section in Shag Valley, where he settled down to the life of a farmer. But as the quiet pursuits of the country did not give scope to his energies, he resolved to enter public life. The position he first filled, that of clerk and treasurer to the Bushey Road Board, was humble, but it was good training for the discharge of higher functions. About the same time he became secretary to the local school committee. In 1868 he contested with Mr. Geo. McLean the seat for Waikouaiti, in the Provincial Council. Although unsuccessful at this election, the labour was not lost, for he was thus brought prominently before the people as an aspirant to public honours. In 1871 he was elected a member of the Provincial Council—a position which he held until the abolition of the provinces in 1876. About the same time he was appointed a Justice of the Peace. Some years later he was elected a member of the Waikouaiti County Council, and was appointed Property Tax assessor for the same district. In 1882 he was successful in getting the Waihemo County created, and was elected first chairman of the new council. In 1881 he was elected a member of the House of Representatives for the first time, and two years later he secured a seat on the Otago Education Board, which position he held for nine years. Mr. McKenzie occupied for many years a seat on the Otago Land Board. The first constituency represented by the honourable gentleman was Moeraki, but he has sat for several electorates since The Hon. John McKenzie then. His first appointment in the House was that of whip in the Stout-Vogel Government of 1884–87. Retiring by nature, he did not come prominently before the public until after the general election of 1890, when Mr. Ballance offered him the portfolios he now holds. Since Mr. McKenzie's term of office, much advanced land legislation has passed through the House. It is well known that the tendency of this legislation is in the direction of land nationalisation. The quantity of land which may now be taken up by one person is defined by law, and no one is allowed to retain possession of his section unless the improvements required by the Act are made in the manner stipulated. These stringent measures are necessary to check the spirit of speculation, which is so rampant in the Colony, and if Mr. McKenzie succeeds in his purpose, he will effect a reform of no mean kind. At the last general election the honourable gentleman was elected for the Waihemo Constituency, defeating Mr Scobie McKenzie by over 300 votes.

Mrs. McKenzie (née Annie Munro), is the daughter of Mr. John Munro, a tenant farmer on the Novar Estate, Glenglass, Rosshire, Scotland. Here the subject of this notice was born and brought up. On the 23rd of May, 1860, she cast in her lot at the hymenial altar with Mr. (now the Hon. John) McKenzie, and on that selfsame day the brave young girl left her native heath with her juvenile consort, to seek their fortunes in far away New Zealand. The pluck and self-reliance shown by Mr. and Mrs. McKenzie on their wedding day has not been unrewarded. Fortune has favoured them, and together they have risen to a high position in the Colony. The New Zealand Graphic of September the 17th, 1891, says, speaking of Mrs. McKenzie and her children: “Their family consists of two page 47 Mrs. McKenzie fine sons, both well-grown young men, and three bright, intelligent daughters, one of whom generally accompanies her mother in her visits to the House. Mrs. McKenzie's tastes are essentially domestic, and in training her children, supervising her household, and hospitably entertaining her friends, she has always found ample scope for her energies, as well as the purest of all enjoyments.” Mr. and Mrs. McKenzie had another daughter who died at the early age of thirteen years.

The Hon. Joseph George Ward, Colonial Treasurer and Postmaster-General, has risen to a conspicuous place in the politics of New Zealand in a very short time. Eight years ago he was quite unknown to Parliament, and at the present time he is attracting more attention than any other man in the Ministry. The story of his life is the record of continual advancement from early youth. Born in Victoria, he came when a child to New Zealand with his parents. Having received an elementary education, he entered the Postal Department at the age of thirteen. But he did not remain long here. Determined to find by experience what he was best fitted for before giving his mind seriously to anything, he relinquished the Postal Department, and found employment in a merchant's office. This, however, did not satisfy him, and when twenty he entered the Railway Department. Upon reaching his majority, he determined to begin business on his own account. That this step was well-chosen is abundantly proved by subsequent results. The line of business he selected was the grain trade, in which he made rapid progress, and soon became a large exporter. Nor were his operations confined to New Zealand. On the contrary, his success at home induced him to extend his business beyond the Colony, and he consequently established agencies throughout Australia. So rapidly had his business grown that it is now one of the largest concerns in New Zealand. Few men have met with so marked success in the commercial world in so short a time. Yet, notwithstanding the demands made upon him by his business, Mr. Ward has from the first taken an intelligent interest in public affairs. When only twenty-one years old he was elected a member of the Campbelltown Borough Council, and afterwards occupied the position of Mayor for five years. For many years he was a member of the Bluff Harbour Board, and was chairman during four years of his term of office. He has also long been a member of the Invercargill Chamber of Commerce. In 1887 he entered Parliament, but did not attract much attention in the House during the first few years. He was elected unopposed in 1890, and when the late Mr. Ballance came into power with the return of the Liberals, Mr. Ward accepted the office of Postmaster-General. It will thus be seen that he had served only three years in Parliament when he rose to the position of Cabinet Minister. As Postmaster-General, Mr. Ward has discharged his duties well, and is very popular among the employees of the department under his control. As mentioned above, he was for several years a cadet in the Post-office, and consequently the postal staff claim kinship with him on this ground. On the redistribution of portfolios, necessitated by the death of Mr. Ballance in 1893, Mr. Ward accepted the Treasurership. During the first session of his office, no deviation was made from the policy of his predecessor. But in the recess of 1893–94 he took time to consider the whole question of the finances of the Colony. The result of his deliberations was
The Hon. Joseph George Ward

Photo. by Wrigglesworth and Binns.

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Mrs. Ward

Mrs. Ward

embodied in the budget of last year. The proposals made by him were so unparalleled in the history of the Colony that they spread alarm through a large section of the press and the public. Power was given to raise, in various ways, about £5,500,000, to be spent partly on public works and in the purchase of native lands and private estates. Of the above sum, £3,000,000 was to be devoted exclusively to making advances to farmers for the improvement of their land at greatly reduced rates of interest. One of the schemes adopted for raising the money was the establishment of consols in the Colony, the amount offered to the public in this way being limited to £500,000. Up to the present, however, only a small portion of this has been subscribed. But the boldest feature of Mr. Ward's policy was the scheme relating to farmers. For this purpose funds had to be provided, and with a view to floating a loan in the London market, Mr. Ward went to England in the early part of the present year. The result of his visit is well known. The loan was raised at three per cent, a rate hitherto unknown in the history of colonial finance
Hon. James Carroll, member of the Ministry without portfolio, and Maori member of the Executive Council, was born on the 20th of August, 1857, at Te Wairoa, in the province of Hawkes Bay. His birthplace is writ large in the annals of New Zealand History, as it was, during the Maori War, the base of the military operations on the East Coast. Mr. Carroll is a son of Mr. Joseph Carroll, a very old settler in the Wairoa, who married Tapuke, a chieftainess of high rank in the Ngatikahungunu tribe. After receiving a very slight education at one of the native schools in the district, Mr. Carroll, who was then about eight years old, was sent to a European school at Napier. Here he remained only two years, retiring from the pursuit of knowledge to take to an outdoor life on his father's station. Two years later we find young Carroll, although but a boy in years a man in pluck, fighting with a native expedition sent out under the command of Mr. F. E. Hamlin, in pursuit of the notorious Te Kooti. This gallant company was on the warpath for five months, and had three engagements with Te Kooti's party. During that time they captured 150 prisoners of war; compelled the Hauhaus to conclude terms of peace, and swear allegiance to the Queen. Mr. Carroll, who then could hardly have been fourteen years of age, was specially mentioned in despatches, the Government awarding him the New Zealand Medal, and a bonus of £50 for the services he had rendered. Soon after this he was appointed as a cadet in the office of Mr. Commissioner Locke at Napier. While so engaged he attracted the attention of Sir Donald McLean, who gave him a more responsible position in the native office at Wellington. After a year's service he was again promoted, being made native interpreter to Judge Rogan of the Native Land Court. In 1879 Mr. Carroll was appointed interpreter to the House of Representatives; in this capacity he gained a very high reputation as an able an eloquent speaker. This was the turning point of his career. In 1883 he resigned this office and contested the Eastern Maori Electorate with Mr. Wi Pere, but having only two weeks in which to contest the seat, Mr. Carroll was defeated by twenty-three votes. After the election
Hon. James Carroll

Photo by Wrigglesworth and Binns.

Sir Maurice O'Rorke, who was then Speaker of the House, pressed Mr. Carroll to take up his old post, but he declined, preferring to enter into private business. In 1886 he once more entered the page 49 political arena, against Mr. Wi Pere, whom he defeated by 200 votes. After Mr. Carroll's first session in Parliament, it was said of him by an able and far-sighted writer that “were he to do nothing else his efforts in the direction of the political and social union of the two races in this Colony, would hand his name down in New Zealand history as that of a statesman of broad and comprehensive views, farseeing, and a benefactor alike to Maori and European. As one of the foremost young chiefs of the large and powerful Ngatikahungunu, whose mana extends nearly the whole length of the East Coast of the North Island, he exercises a vast influence with the native race, and his opinions on native questions naturally command the greatest attention. On the other hand his fine presence, his youth, his genial and courteous bearing, his past services and his signal ability as a public speaker command the friendship, the admiration, and the attention of European members. James Carroll is, in fact, one of the few remarkable men in the House. His political future should be a great one in its personal advancement, and in its usefulness to the European and Maori races. As an outcome of native representation, he is in himself a valuable and instructive lesson to colonists.” This graphic pen and ink portraiture of Mr. Carroll's character and abilities was written as far back as 1887, and has since been amply borne out by his political career. In 1890 the honourable gentleman was once more returned for his old constituency by a large majority, again defeating Mr. Wi Pere, who is now the Maori member for the East Coast. At the last general election in 1892 he decided to contest the Waiapu European electorate, and was opposed by Mr. De Latour, whom he defeated by the substantial majority of 497 votes. Mr. Carroll became a Minister of the Crown in 1892; and, although holding no portfolio, he specially represents the native race. Owing to his great tact and influence with the natives, by whom he is known as “Timi Kara,” he has been able to amicably settle a number of disputes of a threatening nature, and his services have proved of the utmost benefit to the Colony, and the race he so ably represents. No one in the House occupies so unique a position. Twice be has acted as the representative of the East Coast Native Electorate; while he is now M.H.R. for a European Constituency, and specially represents the Maori race in the Seddon Ministry.

The Hon. William Montgomery, M.L.C., member of the Executive Council without portfolio comes of an old family which emigrated from England to the North of Ireland about the year 1620. The hon. gentleman was born in London in 1822, and was educated at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution, the great public school of the North of Ireland, under his uncle, Henry Montgomery, LL.D., who was head English master. On leaving school the subject of this notice chose a seafaring life, and threw himself into his duties with such zest that before he was nineteen he was entrusted with the command of a vessel trading to the Mediterranean. Mr. Montgomery spent thirteen years of his early life at sea, but decided to visit Australia, owing to impressions produced by reading the late Dr. Lang's book “Australia Felix.” In 1860 he crossed over to New Zealand, and settled in Canterbury, where for many years he engaged in mercantile pursuits. The future politician was returned as a member of the first road board—the Heathcote—in 1864, and was elected to the chairmanship. A year later he was successful in gaining a seat in the Canterbury Provincial Council for Heathcote constituency, which he represented continuously till 1870. In the Council he soon rose to prominence, becoming Provincial Treasurer in 1868, under Mr. Rolleston's superintendency and retaining the position till 1870, when he retired for a time from politics. In 1872 he again offered himself for a seat in the Council, and was re-elected without opposition, becoming president of the The Hon. William Montgomery Provincial Executive Council, which position he held for about eighteen months. It was not long before Mr. Montgomery offered himself for a seat in the General Assembly, to which he was elected in 1874 as member for Akaroa, which he represented for nearly fourteen years continuously. In 1877 the honourable gentleman declined the Colonial Treasurership because he disagreed with Sir George Grey's manipulation of the Canterbury land fund as colonial revenue. When the late Sir H. A. (then Major) Atkinson became Premier, Mr. Montgomery became leader of the Opposition. On the formation of the Stout-Vogel Administration in 1884, he accepted office in that Government as Colonial Secretary and Minister of Education. Mr. Montgomery has ever been an advocate of manhood suffrage, triennial Parliaments, and representation on a population basis, and has voted consistently with his opinions. He has long taken an active interest in local institutions in Canterbury. As long ago as 1867 he was chairman of the Christchurch Chamber of Commerce. He sat as a member of the Canterbury Board of Education in 1866; a year after joining he was elected chairman, and he continued to hold a seat till the board ceased to exist in 1875. Two years after this the honourable gentleman was elected a member of the Board of Education of Canterbury under the Education Act of that year, and still retains the position. In 1873 he was appointed a Governor of Canterbury College by the Provincial Council; three years subsequently he became chairman of the Board of Governors, which office he held till 1885. In 1865 Mr. Montgomery was married to Miss Jane Todhunter, daughter of John Todhunter, Esq., of London. He has two sons—William Hugh and John. The eldest son is a member of the House of Representatives for the Ellesmere District.