Samoan Material Culture
Double Entrancs Trap
Double Entrancs Trap
The fangauli type of double entrance trap (Pl. XLIV) is a large barrel-shaped trap made of thick tuafanga vine. The front end (mata, face) and the rear end (muli, back) have each a funnel whose inner ends are prolonged to form an inner tube passage (tapua) which is blocked in the middle by a partition. On the floor of the tube on either side of the partition is an opening (ala i'a, fishes' path). Fish entering the funnels, pass along the passage and on being blocked by the partition, pass down through the opening into the trap proper.
The technique consists of a single-pair twine around longitudinal warps. Both warps and wefts consist of the same material; the warps are selected from the thicker pieces about 0.4 or 0.5 inches in diameter, while the weft elements are slightly thinner. The warps ('aso) consist of single elements and the weft (filosi) of two. Construction commences with the tapua tube. (See figure 263.)
Figure 263.—Fish trap (fanga uli) technique:
a, longitudinal section, the mata (1) opening 12 inches in diameter, the muli opening (2), elliptical through pressure, 10 by 13 inches in cross diameter. The funnels (3) lead into the tapua tube (4), 6 inches in diameter; partition of sticks (5); openings (6) in tube for entrance of fish. b, The tapua tube shown flattened out by cutting through the weft rounds in the middle longitudinal line above. The warps (1-8) are long warps. The pair (9, 10) is formed by doubling two long elements to leave a space (13) between their doubled ends on the mata side of the partition (19). The pair (11, 12) are formed in a similar way to provide for an opening (14) on the muli side. A long vine (20) is doubled around a bottom warp (5) on the mata side and commences the single-pair twined weft round which works outwards and upwards to reach the warp (8) at the point (1'). The warp (8) is really above the tube, and adjacent to the warp (1) over which the weft round continues uninterruptedly at page 459the point (2'). The weft crosses the warps (9, 10) close to their bend and crosses the warp (5) about 1.5 inches from its commencement in order to continue the rounds in spiral turns. The weft reaches the warp (8) at the point (3') and carries on the next warp (1) at the point (4'). The weft reaches the warp (3) and turns back as shown to form a side of the opening (13). On arriving back on warp (1) at the point (5'), it continues on warp (8) at the point (6') whence it works in to the other side of the opening (13) on the warp (4). The weft turns back on warp (4), works out to warp (8) at the point (7'), and continues on warp (1) at the point (8'). The weft now has an uninterrupted run, passing as it does over the doubled warp (9, 10) and completing the margins of the opening (13). From now on the even spirals are continued outwards with an interweft space of 1.5 inches. Four rounds from the margin of the opening completes the mata end of the tapua tube. c, The tube is expanded into the mata funnel termed sifa by adding looped strips, with each limb between two warps from the tube. The section figures 9 of the tube warps ('aso tapua) crossed by the third and fourth weft rounds. The fifth round is commenced with the warps (1 and 2). The weft includes one limb (10) of an introduced pair (10, 11), crosses over two warps (3 and 4) and then includes the other limb (11) of the new pair. Two more tube warps (5 and 6) are crossed, when a new warp (12) has to be added. The new warp is added by taking one end of a long strip, passing it under the warp (7, 8) on the right and drawing it up over the fourth round until its middle is reached. The limb (12) is then included in the twine, after which two more tube warps (7, 8) are included. The other limb (13) is drawn taut to adjust the bend under the warps (7, 8) and it is brought back over the fourth weft round and included in the twine of the fifth round in the same way as warp (11). The two weft elements (14, 15) continue the twining until three fresh sets of 2 warps have been equally spaced amongst the 12 warps that came from the tube. d, View from outside the funnel, showing the addition of the 6 new wefts (1-6) evenly spaced with 2 tube warps between each new element. The spiral weft is continued and the funnel expands in size with each round not only owing to the increased number of warps but also to the gradual widening of the interwarp space from 1 inch to 2 inches at the end of the 7th round of the weft in the funnel. The weft has worked along the warp for a distance of 12 inches, the funnel is 11 inches in diameter and the weft ends are fixed temporarily while the other end of the tube is dealt with.
The funnel (sifa) of the mata end has been formed from 12 original tube warps ('aso tapua) to which three new pairs ('aso fa'angaulua) were added. All these warps project beyond the last weft round of the funnel and enter later into the finish of the trap.
The partition of the tube is formed of three short pieces of vine spaced horizontally across the tube. A strip of vine is doubled around one of the tube warps and two weft lines are made across the partition rods. A round is then worked around all the tube warps on the muli side of the partition. The opening in the floor of the tube on the muli side is defined and the tube and funnel of the muli side made in exactly the same way as on the mata side (figure 263).
The last twined round of the muli funnel forms the technical bottom (muli) of the trap by including the bent back warps which form the afe turn, and the last round of the funnel is also the first round of the body of the trap. (See figure 264.)page 460
Figure 264.—Fish trap (fanga uli) turning the bottom end.
a, The 7th and 8th twined rounds on the muli funnel are shown. With the 8th round commence the afe turns. The warp (1) is shown projecting in its normal course. The ends of the funnel warps at this end are 3 feet and more in length. The weft twine is carried round the warp (2). The warp (2) is then bent around the back of the warp on the right (3) and doubled downwards on its right side. The next half turn of the weft twine passes around both the right warp (3) and the bent-down warp (2). The twine is carried on to the next warp on the right but the left warp (3) must be bent around it before the turn of the twine is completed. Note that the turned-down warp (2) is to the outside of the funnel twine of the 7th round. b, The method is continued as shown where each warp in turn passed behind the warp on the right as (3) behind (4) and (4) behind (5) until all the warps have been turned back and the weft line meets the commencement. The weft line interspace was not spaced evenly as the line had to meet to define the bottom margin exactly. The weft has, therefore, to be turned down on the last warp to renew the interweft spacing. For convenience in twining the round the craftsman turned the end away from him as in the figure. It is awkward to continue working in this position as the long ends are now towards him. He therefore reverses the bottom towards him. c, In reversing the position of the work, however, the weft line runs from right to left which is awkward for continued work. As the weft elements (1 and 2) complete the twining around on the warp (3) they are twisted out on the left side of the warp (3) and make another turn on it from left to right to reverse the direction and work across the warps (4, 5, and 6) and those to the right in the normal left to right direction. Before, however, the weft crosses from (3) to the next original warp (4), fresh warps have to be added to expand the body of the trap. d, The original warps ('aso tapua) of the funnel that reached the turn and were bent over at the afe to take part in the body number 18. New warps ('aso fa'aopoopo) are introduced singly in each space between two original warps. The new warps measure 4 feet and are sharpened at one end. Carrying on from the last figure, a new warp (7) is introduced between (3) and (4) by its pointed end being thrust down under the weft twine of the turning round. It is then caught in the twine. The other new warps (8 and 9.) are similarly introduced in the spaces between 'aso tapua. The pointed ends where possible are thrust in between the two elements of the weft row below. Thus, the twine has ceased on warp (6). A new warp will be thrust into the twine as indicated by the arrow and then caught in the weft twine before the weft passes on to the next 'aso tapua (10). The method of securing the weft spacing and the change in direction is thus clearly indicated. The first weft round finishes close to the commencement and adds 18 new warps, making 36 body warps in all.
The bottom having been turned, the spiral rounds are continued around the 36 warps that now from their direction form body warps. The interweft space remains constant at about an inch but the warps are gradually diverged from an inch apart near the turn to 2 inches at the middle of the trap. From the middle the warps are gradually converged until the diameter approaches that of the mata funnel at the other end. Some of the warps converge to form a pair enclosed by the same half turn of the twined weft.
The warps that run short are lengthened by overlapping a fresh piece for a few inches and including the two in the same half turn of one or two rounds of the weft. The simple join (so'o o le 'aso) is similar to those of the previous traps. The weft join (so'o o le filosi); due no doubt to the greater strain in a heavy trap, is more complicated than those previously used. (See figure 265, a, b.) While the body is being made, an opening for the removal of fish is left on the upper surface about 18 inches from the middle. (See figure 265, c.)
Figure 265.—-Fanga uli trap:
a and b, joining new weft element; c, exit opening: a, Of the weft pair (1, 2), the element (2) is short. About 4 or more inches from its end (2') a new weft (3) is added. After the twine is made around the warp (5) the new weft is placed between the weft elements with 4 or 5 inches of its end (3') projecting. Both the elements (2 and 3) pass in front of the warp (6) with the new weft (3) on the outside. The end (2') of the old weft is discarded and the twine continued with 1 and 3. b, When the spiral round of the weft reaches the warp (5) again, the end (3') of the new weft element is turned up on the right or joint side of the warp and included with warp (5) in the half turn of the twine. The end (2') of the old weft is also turned up on the joint side of the next warp (6) and included with it in the twine. The ends are left long enough to be caught in two or more rounds of the weft. c, At the appropriate place, two warps (1 and 2) are cut off just beyond a twined row. The weft row is continued and when it reaches the side of the left marginal weft (3) it is turned back to the left. It continues the round parallel with its previous course and reaches the right marginal weft (4) when it is turned back to the right. It has now balanced the spacing on the left. It continues in the orthodox spaced weft round until it again arrives at the gap to the right of warp (3). Two new warps (1' and 2') are now included in the twine to fill up the gap between the warps (3 and 4). The weft continues on in the spiral rounds as the warps have again reached the normal number and the opening (5) has been formed.
The finish. The decreasing diameter of the twined rounds of the body are so arranged that when they reach the outer end of the mata funnel, the page 462two sets of warp elements come together. The two sets of warps are united (ao) by a series of close twined rows as in figure 266.
Transverse lashings (fa'amau) with pieces of vine around the last set of four or five weft rounds are made by passing the turns around the rim above and a twined row below. They are tied with the ordinary half hitch, or two half hitches, and the end tucked in under the turns. The lashings are spaced to about seven in all and some are continued on from the preceding one by carrying the vine across. The lashings prevent the last twined rows from working over the ends of the warps which are cut off about 2 inches from the last twined row. (See Plate XLIV, A.)
Figure 266.—Fanga uli trap, end finish.
The twined row (7) is the last row of the funnel while the row (6) is now the last independent row of the body. The body warps on the left are cut out to show the funnel row and the same is done with the funnel warp (5') on the right. The two twined rows overlap. The warps of the funnel and the body which are the same in number are pressed close together in pairs as shown. The body weft now continues on its spiral around and includes each pair in the one half turn of the weft twine as in the row (8). This bringing together of the warps is termed ao. The weft twine is continued on for four complete rounds (8 to 11) made as close together as possible. On completing the last round (11) one weft element is cut off and its end tucked behind one of the warps. The other element makes a last round (12) by itself, passing alternately in front and behind the warp to end by being cut off and the end tucked away under a turn of the weft. The ends of the funnel wefts are also cut off and tucked behind warps.
The cover for the exit hole is made of two pieces of vine about 28 inches long which are crossed. Another piece of vine is doubled around one of them and worked in flattened circles with a single pair twine with increasing rounds to form an elliptical-shaped cover. As the twine reaches the cross pieces, it encircles them with a half turn. When the cover reaches the dimensions of 11 by 9 inches, the weft ends are tucked in under some part of the twine. The cover thus has four pieces of vine sticking out. The ends are sharpened. When the cover is applied over the exit hole, the vine ends are pushed down under the twining of the trap. Two stout pieces of vine about 20 inches long page 463(tao 'api) are crossed over the ends of the cover and their ends stuck under the warps on either side. This pegs down the door securely.
A loop handle (salatau) is made by doubling two pieces of vine around the mata rim, twisting them together, to form a loop, taking more turns with the individual vines around the rim, and knotting them with half hitches.
The trap obtained was in use at Sapapalii in Savaii where this type of trap is made. It is set inside the reef near some standing rocks (ma'a tu) with the exit opening above. After propping it in position with rocks and coral, amu (branching coral) is put over the top to disguise the trap. The wet trap is very heavy and if there is a good catch, it is hauled up into a canoe by a rope tied to the handle. The fish caught are funga, ponge, malau, male'i mutalau, lo, and ngatala.
A large trap (fanga tapi) of tuafanga vine is made in Savaii in the same shape as the lobster pot type (fanga i'a).