Samoan Material Culture
The Separate Funnel Trap
The Separate Funnel Trap
The separate funnel traps ('enu) resemble the preceding lobster pot type in the principle of the funnel entrance and being made of 'ie'ie aerial root material, but differ widely in being made in two pieces. A wrapped twine stroke is used instead of single pair twining. In principle, it forms a link between the manipulated trap and the self-acting traps. The bottom and body of the trap are made and finished off at a rim opening as in the manipulated tu'u'u trap. The self-acting principle embodied in the funnel-shaped opening projecting inwards is then made as a separate piece. The funnel piece is fitted to the rim opening of the body and the two lashed together. The body of the trap is thus commenced at the bottom as owing to the funnel entrance being made separately, no complication will occur with it. In the lobster pot trap which combines both funnel and body in one piece, the trap commences with the funnel and ends at the bottom. Two types of trap made with the same technique, but of different shape, are both termed 'enu, which name has also been applied to certain manipulated nets on frames and to the palolo scoop. The tendency to interchange the n and ng sounds is particularly noticeable in the modern use of the term 'engu for these traps. The word 'engu does not occur in Pratt's dictionary. The two forms of trap may be classified according to shape as the lobster pot and the domed cylinder forms.page 455
The warps consist of single elements of 'ie'ie root arranged in an outer and an inner series in relation to the passive element of the weft. The weft is compound, consisting of two or three strips of 'ie'ie root and a single length of three-ply sennit braid. The root elements are kept close together and, except for passing spirally in spaced rounds between the two sets of warps, are entirely passive. The braid is the active element which, by passing obliquely over the crossings of the warp with the passive weft elements, binds them firmly together with a wrapped twine.
The method of commencing at the bottom with the outer and inner series of warps, the stroke technique, the body, rim finish, and the separate construction of the funnel are shared by both forms of trap. (See figure 262.)
The lobster pot type of 'enu (Plate XLIII, D) commenced with two sets of five warps in each series. Immediately after reaching its maximum diameter it was narrowed down gradually to its rim diameter of 20.5 inches. The narrowing was brought about by gradually bringing the warps closer together. This technique influenced the shape and gave it the typical lobster pot appearance. The funnel technique and fitting are as described in figure 262 except that it is a little smaller.
The lobster pot 'enu is still made in Tutuila and Manua, where it is used for catching i'a sina, a fairly small fish. The technique of the wrapped twine was an alternative to the frame net 'enu used in Savaii for the same fish. The trap is set with the opening upwards and a bait is used.
The domed cylinder type of 'enu (Plate XLIII, E) commenced with two sets of five and four warps in each series. The fresh warps were added quickly, 12 fresh pairs being looped over the first round. By the time the eighth ground had been reached, 72 additional pairs in all had been added. The trap was then 6 inches deep with a diameter of 17 inches. After forming the dome end, very few fresh warps were added, which resulted in the trap continuing in a cylindrical form. Between the 8th and the 27th (last) rounds only four new pairs of warps were added, which increased the diameter from 17 inches to 19 inches at the rim. Of the total length of 28 inches, 6 inches were occupied by the dome-shaped part and 22 inches by the cylindrical part. The funnel and attachment were described in figure 262.
The domed cylinder trap is used at Vaimoso and Vaiusu in Upolu in connection with the plaited coconut leaf sheets used in the puni method of fishing described on page 434. The traps are set opposite the openings made for them. They are laid on the sides and attached to stakes. Fish returning to sea on the falling tide, pass through the openings into the trap. The method resmbles somewhat the use of the net 'enu with leaf weirs in Savaii but the enu of 'ie'ie roots is self-acting.page 456
Figure 262.—Technique of 'enu fish trap:
a, five long pieces (1) of 'ie'ie root are crossed in their middle at right angles to four others (2) to form the foundation warps of the outer set of 18. A second series of 5 and 4 is crossed similarly below them to form the inner set of 18 warps. The crossings of both sets treated as one are lashed together by transverse and diagonal turns of sennit braid (3). The braid is fixed with a half hitch or overhand knot and left long to continue as the active element of the weft. In the figure, the outer layer only is shown. b, The two passive weft elements (4) are passed between the outer and inner warps on the left. The nearest of the transverse warps (1) is bent downwards to bisect the angle between the transverse and longitudinal sets of the outer layer. For convenience the root elements of the weft will be referral to as the weft and the active element simply as the braid. The braid (3) is carried from the central lashing (6) along the first warp (1) to take a turn over the weft (4). Appearing on its right side, it crosses over the front of the outer warp (1) from right to left and runs obliquely from left to right over the back of the first warp (1') of the inner series. Appearing on the right of the weft (4) it repeats the oblique turn over the next upper warp (2) and at the back over the next inner warp (2'). c, The wrapped twine is continued, taking the next warp alternately from the two series and bending them as shown to spread the whole outer series of 18 warps evenly while the inner series appear in the spaces. The weft (4) was originally spaced on warp (1) at about 1 inch from the central lashing and this distance is maintained with each warp until the starting warp (1) is neared, when the weft diverges outward in order to continue the rounds as spiral. The spiral is continued after crossing the warp (1) with 0.5 inch space between the weft rounds. d, Fresh warps are added as the foundation warps diverge, by doubling a long piece of root round the preceding weft round to form two warps, one going to each series. The space between the inner warp (4') and the outer warp (5) has diverged on the second weft round (2). When the next round (3) reaches the inner warp (4'), a long piece is doubled over the preceding weft round (2) between the warps (4', 5) and one part (6) is brought down on the outer side of the third weft around (3.) to be wrapped as an outer warp while the other part (6') comes down under the weft round to be page 457wrapped as an inner wrap. The wrapped twine goes on the next outer warp (5) and the addition of 2 new warps is completed. Fresh warps were added in the lobster pot 'enu as follows: third round, 6; fourth, 8; fifth, 8; sixth, 10; seventh, 12; and so by regular spacing the symmetry of the work was maintained. The space between the weft rounds continued at less than 0.5 inch. The lobster pot ('enu) reached its maximum diameter of 25 inches at about half its depth of 18 inches and then there were 184 warps counting both series. The warp interspace in the outer series was 0.75 inch. On reaching the maximum diameter, the technique varies. The lobster pot begins to decrease the diameter by lessening the inter-warp space until it reaches the rim diameter of 20.5 inches. The dome cylinder type continues with the maximum diameter by keeping the same interwarp space and the same number of warps. e, The passive elements of the weft are reinforced by simply adding another element (2) to the shortening one (1) with an overlap and including the 3 elements in the twine until the short weft (1) drops out. f, A shortening warp (1) has a fresh warp (2) added to it, two or more rounds above its end and the two elements (1, 2) are included in the twine or successive weft rounds (3, 4, 5) until the short weft (1) drops out and the fresh weft (2) carries on. g, When an outer (1) and an inner (2) warp both fall short, a fresh strip (3) is doubled over a weft round before the ends are reached and one limb (4) reinforces the outer warp (1) while the other limb (5) reinforces the inner warp (2). h, The rim. When the depth or length of the trap is reached, the rim is formed by cutting the long warps, bending the short ends down at right angles to the right on the weft and lashing them to the weft by close transverse turns of the braid. Thus, after the braid (7) passes the inner standing warp (3), the outer warp (4) and the inner warp (4') are bent down on the weft and lashed by the close transverse turns of the braid. When the braid reaches the next warps (5, 5') they are bent down and so the braid will lash the warps successively to the last round of the weft to form a smooth wrapped rim. As the close turns of wrapping approaches its commencement, the weft is made to gradually approach the preceding round and coincide with it at the commencement when the last standing warp (3) is bent down. The weft elements are cut off and the seizing overlaps its commencement to conceal both the bent down warp (3) and the end of the weft. The braid is tied with an overhand knot and cut off. k, The funnel technique is the same for both traps and commences at the inner opening. The funnel described is that of the dome cylinder trap in which the passive weft elements consisted of 3 pieces of root. The 3 elements (1) are tied together with the braid (7) at the slip knot (2). The warp elements are added as shown by the simple wrapped twine, the first 3 pairs (3, 4, 5) being doubled and the others single until 30 pairs are attached to the weft in alternate outer and inner series. m, The weft is bent round and tied so that the 30 pairs of warp are spaced around the first weft round and their short ends form the rim of the inner opening, which is 4 inches in diameter. From the point tied (1) the weft gradually diverges in its spiral around until the space between rounds is 1.1 inches, which is maintained throughout. Fresh warps are added in the same manner as in the body of the trap. Commencing with the second round, the pairs added to the successive rounds are as follows: 1, 3, 8, 7, 9, 4, 4, 10, 8, 10, o. The weft rounds were 12 in all. By the end of the last round, 64 pairs had been added to the original 30 pairs making 188 warps at the rim. The rim was formed in the same way as the body rim and the last round coalesced with the preceding (2). The funnel was 14 inches deep with an outer rim diameter of 19 inches. n, Joining funnel to trap. In finishing the funnel, the diameter of the rim is made the same as that of the trap to which it belongs. The rim of the trap is turned upwards and the funnel fitted so that its rim rests on the rim of the trap. The binding braid of the funnel left long takes a few transverse turns around both rims and is then fixed with an overhand knot. The braid (7) is carried round the circumference in a chain knot with overhand knots (3) about 5 or 8 inches apart around the trap rim (1) and the funnel rim (2). In the figure the funnel rim is below.