Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga
Plate 1. Houses and Implements.
A. Old-type house with side supporting posts and crossbeams, low eaves, and open walls with coconut leaf screens let down on left; sole survival of type, on Rakahanga.
B. Houses of Rarotongan type on Rakahanga, with lauhala thatch: 1, house with end sloping out to form veranda, closed walls of horizontal pieces of wood; 2, house with vertical ends and open walls, used as assembly house.
C. Thatching implements: 1, roof sheet needle (tuiau) of ngangie wood (C. 2811) (fig. 10); 2, thatching needle of ngangie wood (C. 2810) (fig. 11).
D. Hand graters (tuai) of pearl shell, front surface with grating edge up: 1 short grater (C. 2788) (fig. 20, a); 2, grater (C. 2784) with serrated edge, length, 6.5 inches and greatest width, 1.4 inches; 3, grater (C. 2783) with serrated edge, length, 7.1 inches and greatest width, 1.2 inches; 4, grater (C. 2785) with part of shell hinge included in grip end, length, 8.1 inches and greatest width, 1.6 inches.
E. Wooden food pounder (reru) with knobbed handle (C. 3020) (fig. 21).
Plate 2. Coconut Leaf Mats.
A. Sitting mat (pora) of open leaflets plaited in check (C. 3074), from two midrib strips shown in back view of lower edge, finished above with spaced three-ply braid: width at top, 27 inches; width at bottom, 33 inches; depth, 20 inches.
B. Wall screen (pataro) or sitting mat (pataro noho) (C. 3109) formed of leaflets from both sides of unsplit midrib at lower edge: extra leaflets introduced; leaflets kept closed; horizontal rows of twilled-twos formed in lower part, followed by vertical twilled-twos, then horizontal twilled-fours and twilled-threes and finally check; side edges formed by upward half-turns on left and direct bends on right; three-ply braid finish at top commencing from left with braid tail tucked back on right; width at top, 30 inches; width at bottom, 35 inches; depth, 27 inches.
C. Oven cover (pataro umu) (C. 3108): twisted two-strip commencement with closed leaflets; technique from bottom, horizontal row of dextral check, horizontal sinistral twilled-two, horizontal dextral check, vertical twilled-twos, horizontal twill and finishing rows of check; three-ply braid finish at upper edge with braid tail tucked through plaiting on right; width at top, 18.5 inches; width at bottom, 30 inches; depth, 19 inches.
Plate 3. Coconut Leaf Mat and Cooking Receptacles.
A. Large sitting mat (tapakau) (C. 3075) made of separate leaflets plaited in on either side of three-ply mesial braid 45 inches long: closed leaflets plaited in horizontal and vertical twills converted to check at outer edges and finished off with three-ply braid; under surface shown to illustrate mesial braid commencement; length of braid finishing edges, 42 inches; width of each half, 23 inches.
B. Large puraka cooking receptacle (raurau papa) (C. 3072): simple two-strip commencement, open leaflets, check plait; leaflet left out on either side to act as tying strip when upper end folded down over food; top finishing end has leaflets tied together in pairs; top width, 16 inches; bottom width, 11 inches; length, 22 inches; width of wefts, 1.2 inches.
C. Fish receptacle (raurau to ika) (C. 3069): roughly made from two strips with open leaflets in check; free leaflets left out on ends of midrib strips to serve as ties; ends of leaflets tied at upper end into overhand knots; depth and width, about 10 inches.
D. Small cooking receptacle (raurau kapukapu) (C. 3069): simple two-strip commencement, open leaflet, check plait; ends of leaflets brought around back of midrib strips in two sets after doubling receptacle over, and tied in reef knot; width, 9.5 inches; depth, 6.5 inches.
Plate 4. Coconut Leaf Platters, Receptacles, Eye Shade, and Baskets.
A. Serving platters, pite receptacles, and eye shade. 1, ordinary serving platter (raurau) (C. 3073): simple two-strip commencement, open leaflets, check plait, braid finish; bottom width, 12 inches; top width, 10 inches; depth, 13 inches. 2, fish platter (raurau rava ika) (C. 3064): simple four-strip commencement, open leaflet with pared edges, check plait, braid finish; bottom width, 12 inches; top width, 9 inches; depth, 15 inches; weft width, 0.6 inch or 0.7 inch. 3, modern plate platter (raurau mereki) (C. 3073): simple two-strip commencement, open leaflet, check plait, braid finish produced as two free tails which are tied behind midrib strips; 8 inches by 8 inches. 4, four-cornered receptacle (pite pupu) (C. 3069): simple two-strip commencement, open leaflet, check plait, braid finish; width, 8 inches; depth, 5 inches. 5, pointed receptacle (pite pahua) for Tridacna shellfish (C. 3070): technique similar to pite pupu, but point formed instead of corners; top width, 7.5 inches; depth, 7 inches. 6, eye shade (taumata) (C. 3071): midrib strip carrying six open leaflets, check plait; width, 17 inches; depth, 6 inches.
B. Round baskets, 1, introduced basket (tongini) (C. 3067): open leaflet, check plait, and single looped handle; rim dimensions, 13.5 inches by 10 inches; depth, 8.5 inches; width of wefts, 1.9 inches. 2, local basket (kete) page 235 (C.3066), side view with rim above, showing two braids from bottom finish tucked through plaiting at ends: twisted two-strip commencement, closed leaflet, horizontal twilled ows; rim not quite circular; diameters, 19 inches and 16 inches; depth, 7 inches. 3, local basket (kete) (C.3065), botom view showing concentric narrowing by combining pairs of wefts as single elements: braid finish forms transverse line; rim diameter, 11 inches; greatest diameter below rim, 13.25 inches; depth, 6 inches.
Plate 5. Satchels and Fans.
A. Satchels. 1, coconut leaflet clothes satchel (kete ngahengahe): twilled technique with split leaflets braided together at rim and finished with threeply braid at bottom; ornamented with wrapped splints, tou bast, and pearl-shell pendants; bottom width, 12 inches; rim width, 9 inches; depth, 7.8 inches. 2, two-cornered lauhala satchel (C.3059): wefts, five to the inch; check plati with overlaid geometrical figures in red; serrated rim and single longitudinal handle; width, 10.5 inches; depth, 9.75 inches. 3, fine coconut leaflet satchel (C.3059):two-cornered, twill plait, serrated rim, transverse handle; modern note, insertion of colored ribbons and rosette ornamentation. 4, four-cornered lauhala satchel (C.3041): wefts, seven to the inch; check plait with overlaid geometrical figures; turned, even rim; single transverse handle; width of sides, 9.5 inches; widh of ends, 2 inches; depth, 5–5 inches. 5, four-cornered square lauhala satchel (C.2861), side view: wefts, six and a half to the inch; check plait with overlaid geometrical figures; seized rim; two longitudinal handles; rim, 7 inches square; dept, 5.75 inches. 6, four-cornered square lauhala satchel (C.2861), end view showing overlaid ornamentation of ends as well as sides.
B. Fans. 1, fan (C.3028) of white prepared coconut leaf: Plaite in twilled-twos, finished in check, end fringe of tou bast dyed red; lenght, 2.75 inches; wooden handle, 4.25 inches long, 0.6 inch in diameter, with distal prolongation 6.35 inches long, thinned down to diameter of 0.3 inch proximally and 0.2 inch distally to afford support for white wefts which are doubled around in at their middle and crossed above in check; plaited portion, 6.3 inches long mesially and 6.75 inches long at widest part. 2, back view of fan similar but slightly larger (C.3028): thinned distal prolongation of wooden handle projects beyond end of plaiting; plaiting, twilled-threes and twilled-twos. 3, two-section coconut leaf fan (C.3027):longer upper midrib section, 13.75 inches long with seven pairs of leaflets; shorter under midrib section, 10 inches long with six pairs of leaflet; leaflets crossed in check over front of upper midrib, plaited in twilled-twos on either side of midrib, and finished off at end in check; total lenght, 23 inches; greatest width, 10 inches.
Plate 6. Poncho, Kilt, and Mat.
A. Plaited poncho (tiputa) of lauhala: nine or ten wefts to the inch; width, 19 inches; depth in mesial line to neck, 16.25 inches; neck opening square, 8 inches wide and 4 inches deep in position shown; fringe of tou bast dyed red, 3.75 inches deep.
B. Kilt (tipora or mahere) of a plaited band 40 inches long and 2.75 inches deep: six wefts to the inch; check; overlaid dyed wefts; fringe of tou bast 2.75 inches deep on lower border and 1.5 inches deep on upper border; lower pendent lauhala strips, 13 inches long and 2.5 inches wide.
C. Lauhala sleeping mat (moenga): double wefts in check plaiting, pattern in overlaid plaiting of papa material dyed red; lenght, 9 feet 6 inches; width, 7 feet 10 inches.
Plate 7. Canoes and Bailer
A. Modern outrigger canoe of sawn planks, both ends pointed: two outrigger booms with float on left, right ends projecting beyond gunwale; indirect connection by means of two staves between booms and floats; bow and stern pieces to which ends of planks are nailed project above bow and stern covers; canoe small for one man, who is holding flying fish net.
B. Large modern plank outrigger canoe to seat two or more men: outriggerfloat turned to right for convenience in photographing; upward-projecting modern bow and stern posts; man in stern holds bamboo bonito rod and faces astern to illustrate method of bonito fishing.
C. Double canoe model (B.3475): three triangular sails and masts go with model; bows and stern reversed in the two canoes; elaborate inlay with pearl shell; lauhala bulwarks; lenght, 36 inches; width between outside gunwales, 9 inches; depth from ground level, bow, 8 inches and stern, 8.25 inches.
D. Bailer (C.3022): lenght, 10.5 inches; front width, 5.3 inches; back width, 5.9 inches; side depth in front, 3.5 inches; side depth at back, 4.3 inches; mesial back depth, 6 inches; thickness, 0.15 inch in front, increasing toward back to 0.5 inch; back meets bottom and sides at sharp angles and is 1.1 inches thick; handle projects forward from upper part of back in mesial line and is 6.9 inches long, 1.3 inches wide, and 1.7 inches thick.
Plate 8. Fish Nets and Netting Needle.
A. Baited bag net (kupanga tata): hoop of ngangie wood about 14 inches in diameter; depth of net, 12 inches; suspensory cords from hoop; coral sinker.page 237
B. Flying fish net (rupanga maroro) showing handle, frame, crossbar, and net (fig. 76).
C. Wooden netting needle (hika), 11.2 inches long (fig. 72).
Plate 9. Paddles and Hooks.
A. Paddles (hoe) 1, front view of paddle (C. 2924) showing typical blade with shoulder angles and long point: total lenght 65 inches; blade lenght 31:25 inches; greatest blade with, 5.1 inches; greates width to handle jucnction, 4.5 inches; length of rib on back, 7.5 inches; 2, side view paddle (C. 1444) showing handle rib on back of upper part of blade, projection on back of point, and longitudinal point concavity: total length, 67–25 inches; blade length, 30.6 inches; greatest blade width, 5.4 inches; greatest width to handle junction, 5.2 inches; length of rib on back, 5.8 inches. 3, front view of paddle (C. 1446) showing pearl shell inaly of disces triangles: total lenght, 62.25 inches; blade lenght, 24.75 inches; greatest blade width, 5.15 inches; greatest width to handle junction, 3 inches; length of rib on back, 7.25 inches. 4, back view of paddle (6104) showing pearl-shell discs inlaid on handle rib: total lenght, 66 inches; blade length, 32.5 inches; greatest blade width, 4.8 inches; greatest width to handle junction, 9.1 inches; length of rib on back, 7.4 inches. 5, paddle probably erroneously attributed to Manihiki: total length, 68.5 inches; length of blade, 25.25 inches; greatest blade width, 9.6 inches; distance of greatest width from bottom, 4.5 inches; handle surmounted by flattened knob 2.1 inches wide and 1.1 inches thick; handle averages 1.5 inches in width and 1.4 inches in thickess and widens out to 2.8 inches at shoulders below, diminishes to 1.2 inches in thickness; blade, 2.3 inches wide at handle junction and 0.75 inch thick at side edges; blade diminishes in thickness in middle line from 1.2 inches at handle junction to 0.3 inch near lower end; side edges diminish in thickness from 0.75 inch at junction to average of 0.3 inch.
B.Pearl-shell hooks: 1, one-piece wide U-shaped hook (tope) (C. 2841) (fig. 83, a); 2, one-piece narrower U-shaped hook (matau riokio) (C.2844) (fig. 83, b); 3, one-piece circular hook (roma) (C.2843) (fig. 83, c); 4, bonito hook, back view, showing two lashings of point, width hackle secured by turns of second distal lashing; 5, bonito hook, side view, showin form of point with proximal projection and two holes for lashings to shank, snood loop passing around base of point, characteristic shape of shank head, hole and head lashing to snood, snood slack between point and head; 6, bonito hook, front view, showing snood passing along mesial line in front of shank, hackle removed on left side (figs. 86–88).
C. Ruvettus hooks: 1, small hook (C. 2806) with pearl-shell point and wide bend, snood of three-ply braid (fig. 80); 2, large hook (C. 2805) with page 238 wooden point and sharp bend, attached to three-ply twisted line of coconut fiber (fig. 77).
Plate 10. Weapons and Adzes.
A. Short korare club (C. 3019) made of tou wood, inlaid with pearl sheel, and ornamented with three tassels of tou bast (fig. 109, b).
B. Long club (Am. Mus. Nat. History. S. 5113): pearl-shell discs inlaid and stuck on with some white substance: club fairly round in section but at head swells and is elliptical in section; total length, 60.5 inches; maximum width, butt, 3 inches and middle, 3.5 inches.
C. Adzes: 1, triangular adz (C. 2744) without tang, basalt cover with patina, 6 oz. (fig. 51); 2, tringular tanged adz (C. 2743), basalt covered with patin. 18 oz. (fig. 50); 3 quadrangular adz (C.2742) with tang and bilateral lugs, grey basalt, 46 oz, (fig. 52); 4, adz (C. 2767) of Tridacna shell, lashed to movavle socket to permit rotation of blade (figs. 54, 57); 5, adz (C.2768) of Tridacna shell, simple hafting (fig. 54, 56).
Plate 11. Wooden Gongs and Historical Play.
A. Double wooden gong (koriro) (6977): length of slot surface, 15.25 inches: width, middle of slot surface, 2.25 inches; width, ends of slot surface, 2.5 inches and 2.75 inches respectively; length of slot opening, 10 inches; width of slot opening, 0.9 inch to 1.1 inches; cavity depth, 2 inches; Ornamentation: six pearl-shell discs at either end, disc diameter, 0.4 inch: nicks cut on outer edges at ends, 17 to 20 nicks on each edge. side view: depth in middle, 5.1 inches; depth, ends, 5.2 and 5.4 inches; transverse longitudinal goroove midway down, constriction, 2.1 inches. Slot also on under surface of lower part.
B. Wodden gong (C. 2838): diameter from slot to bottom, 3.8 inches; cross diameter, 3 inches; ends slope down and outward outward slot surface, making upper length 14 inches and bottom length 16.5 inches; slot opening, 10.5 inches long and 1 inch wide; beating stick, 14.5 inches long, 0.9 inch in diameter, one end pointed.
C. Historical play, depicting discovery of Rakahanga; chief actor represents Huku, the discoverer; his body plastered over with light mud; wears headdress of netting and beard of coconut husk; plaited coconut leaf, supported as high as waist by cord passing over shoulder, represents canoe; coconut leaflet basket on ground represents upgrowth (topua) fished up from bottom of sea to become land; play took place on village road.