Temporal Lord of Mangaia
Temporal Lord of Mangaia
The leader of a war party, by securing the victory, was said to have acquired the mangaia (temporal power). As Temporal Lord of the island of Mangaia, he was the equivalent of a military dictator, and his power was passed on, not through hereditary succession, but through defeat in war. Each battle led to a confirmation or change of the Temporal Lord. The victor, if he let the office go to someone else for political or other reasons, remained as the military support (toko) of the Temporal Lord.
The list of Temporal Lords and the battles through which they came into power (Table 5) is slightly altered from that of Gill (12, pp. 308-311) in the placing of the ninth and tenth battles, and adds the names of the tribes to which the Temporal Lords belonged.
The office of Temporal Lord, which started in the Ngariki tribe with a tendency to become hereditary in that tribe, through their successive defeats became an open position to be won by success in war.
It is evident that after the second battle when the office passed to Te-akatauira, a brother of Rangihough Mata-tau-kiu as leader of the Tui-kura tribe was the real victor—the Nigariki regarded the office as one to be held by them and not by the real military leader. After the third battle the office passed to Vaeruarangi, a son of Moko-iro, so that all three families of the Ngariki enjoyed office in turn. In the fourth battle, Amu, the Ruler of Food, was victor, but he allowed the office to be held by another member of the Ngariki. In the fifth battle Te-ao as victor took office as Temporal Lord. In the sixth, seventh, and eighth battles, Tirango of the Tongaiti tribe was the real victor as head of the combined forces, but the Ngariki kept the office to themselves. After the treacherous massacres that followed, the two Ngariki chiefs responsible for organizing the destruction of Ngati-Tane took office. The eleventh battle was won by a Ngariki page 35
page 36 but he passed the office of Temporal Lord over to a fellow tribesman as he himself held the office of Inland High Priest. Thus for eleven battles the office was apparently considered hereditary and was held by the Ngariki.
Table 5.—Temporal Lords of Mangaia Battle Victors Vanquished Installed Lord of Mangaia Leader Tribe Leader Tribe Person Tribe 1. Te-rua-nonianga Rangi Ngariki Tongaiti Rangi Ngariki 2. Tangi-kura Rangi-Tamatapu Tui-kura Ivi-tu Ngati-Tane Te-akatauira Ngariki 3. Rua-matangi Moke Ngariki? Katea-te-oru Rarotongan Vaeruarangi Ngariki 4. Iotepui Amu Ngariki? Toapini Aitutakian Teina-o-vatea Ngariki 5. Ikuruaka Te-aio Ngariki? Matatia Atiuan Te-aio Ngariki 6. Parainui Tirango Tongaiti and Ngariki Te-kama ? Ngariki 7. Rangiue Tirango Tongaiti and Ngariki Te-kama ? Ngariki 8. Areutu Tirango Tongaiti and Ngariki Te-kama ? Ngariki 9. Tutaeuu, Putoa (First oven) Ungakute Ngariki Ngati-Tane Ungakute Ngariki 10. Angaitu (Second oven) Kaveutu Ngariki Ngati-Tane Kaveutu Ngariki 11. Vaikakau (Maungarua) Ruariki Ngariki Tirango Tongaiti Te-nau Ngariki 12. Taaonga One Tongaiti Ruaika Ngariki Vaeruarangi One Tongaiti 13. Kumekume One Panako Tongaiti Vete Te-Kama Panako I Akatauira 14. Kouramaiti One Akarauira Mokora Te-Kama Panako II Akatauira 15. Tepapa One Akarauira Kotaa Ngariki Panako III Akatauira 16. Terua-kere-tonga Ngauta Akarauira Ruaika Akatauira Ngauta I and Taia Tongaiti 17. Arakoa Ngauta Tongaiti Tata Panako Teipe Ngauta II Tongaiti 18. Auruia Ngauta Tongaiti Maruataiti Akatauira Ngauta III Tongaiti 19. Iotepui Ngauta Tongaiti Motuoro Tuma (N) Ngauta IV Tongaiti 20. Punanga Ngauta Tongaiti Tiauru Ngariki Ngauta V Tongaiti 21. Terua-nonianga Ngauta Tongaiti Teipe Ngauta VI Tongaiti 22. Ikuari Ngauta Tongaiti Arepee Tongaiti Terea (consent of Ngauta) Tongaiti 23. Murders by slaves Ngangati Tongaiti Ngauta Tongaiti Ngariki Teipe Tuinui (consent of Ngangati) Ngariki 24. Maueue Tauii Ngariki Arekare Vaeruarangi Tauii Ngariki 25. Ariki (1st) Ngangati Ngariki Namu Tangiia Ngangati I Ngariki 26. Ariki (2d) Ngangati Ngariki Kanae Ngangati II Ngariki 27. Ariki (3d) Ngangati Ngariki Pongaiti Ngangati III Ngariki 28. Te-au-papa (1st) Ngangati Ngariki Kotuku Vaeruarangi Ngangati IV Ngariki 29. Te-au-papa (2d) Ngangati Ngariki Kaoa Ngariki Ngangati V Ngariki 30. Aua Akatara Ngariki Ngangati Ngariki Akatara Ngariki 31. Tapatiu Te-uanuku Ngariki Akatara Tuokura Not conferred Ngati-Vara 32. Arira Te-uanuku Sons of Mautara Teipe Te-uanuku I Ngati-Vara 33. Pukuotoi Te-uanuku Ngati-Vara Ruanae Ngariki? Te-uanuku II Ngati-Vara 34. Aua Mautara Ngati-Vara Raei Ngariki Mautara Ngati-Amai 35. Tuopapa Seized without battle Potiki Ngari-Vara Tongaiti Uarau Ngara Ngati-Vara 36. Teopu Kirikovi Ngati-Vara Tongia Ngati-amai Kirikovi Ngariki 37. Taukuara Pai Ngati-Vara? kirikovi Tongaiti? Pai Ngariki 38. Akaoro Seized without battle Potiki Ngati-Vara Potai Ngariki Potiki Marokore Ngati-Vara 39. Teatuapai Koroa Ngati-Vara Marokore Ngati-Vara Koroa Ngati-Vara 40. Rangiura Seized without battle Makitaka Ngati-Vara Koroa Ngati-Vara Makitaka Pangemiro I Ngati-Vara Manaune 41. Araeva Pangemiro Manaune Ngati-Tane Makitaka Ngati-Vara Pangemiro II Pangemiro III Manaune Manaune 42. Putoa Numangatini Christian Tereavai Ngati-Vara umangatini Ngariki
In the twelfth battle One obtained revenge for the death of Tirango and evidently took office, though belonging to the Tongaiti tribe. Evidently One was not altogether sure of the right of anyone outside the Ngariki to keep the mangaia. He became allied with Panako of the Akatauira division of the Ngariki and relinquished the mangaia to him. In three battles he acted as Panako's military support. Then commenced a series of victories by the Tongaiti under Ngauta. Ngauta felt that Panako had been holding office on the sufferance of the Tongaiti. When he succeeded his uncle One, he determined to enjoy the fruits of victory himself and in spite of the attempts of the Ngariki held the office six times. The principle that victors should enjoy the mangaia by holding office thus became established.
Three times the office passed without bloodshed because the people were dissatisfied with the Temporal Lord. Thus Ngara took the office from Uarau, Marokore from Potiki, and Pangemiro from Makitaka.