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Mangaian Society

Temporal Lord of Mangaia

Temporal Lord of Mangaia

The leader of a war party, by securing the victory, was said to have acquired the mangaia (temporal power). As Temporal Lord of the island of Mangaia, he was the equivalent of a military dictator, and his power was passed on, not through hereditary succession, but through defeat in war. Each battle led to a confirmation or change of the Temporal Lord. The victor, if he let the office go to someone else for political or other reasons, remained as the military support (toko) of the Temporal Lord.

The list of Temporal Lords and the battles through which they came into power (Table 5) is slightly altered from that of Gill (12, pp. 308-311) in the placing of the ninth and tenth battles, and adds the names of the tribes to which the Temporal Lords belonged.

The office of Temporal Lord, which started in the Ngariki tribe with a tendency to become hereditary in that tribe, through their successive defeats became an open position to be won by success in war.

It is evident that after the second battle when the office passed to Te-akatauira, a brother of Rangihough Mata-tau-kiu as leader of the Tui-kura tribe was the real victor—the Nigariki regarded the office as one to be held by them and not by the real military leader. After the third battle the office passed to Vaeruarangi, a son of Moko-iro, so that all three families of the Ngariki enjoyed office in turn. In the fourth battle, Amu, the Ruler of Food, was victor, but he allowed the office to be held by another member of the Ngariki. In the fifth battle Te-ao as victor took office as Temporal Lord. In the sixth, seventh, and eighth battles, Tirango of the Tongaiti tribe was the real victor as head of the combined forces, but the Ngariki kept the office to themselves. After the treacherous massacres that followed, the two Ngariki chiefs responsible for organizing the destruction of Ngati-Tane took office. The eleventh battle was won by a Ngariki page 35
Table 5.—Temporal Lords of Mangaia
BattleVictorsVanquishedInstalled Lord of Mangaia
6.ParainuiTirangoTongaiti and NgarikiTe-kama?Ngariki
7.RangiueTirangoTongaiti and NgarikiTe-kama?Ngariki
8.AreutuTirangoTongaiti and NgarikiTe-kama?Ngariki
9.Tutaeuu, Putoa (First oven)UngakuteNgarikiNgati-TaneUngakuteNgariki
10.Angaitu (Second oven)KaveutuNgarikiNgati-TaneKaveutuNgariki
11.Vaikakau (Maungarua)RuarikiNgarikiTirangoTongaitiTe-nauNgariki
12.TaaongaOneTongaitiRuaikaNgariki VaeruarangiOneTongaiti
13.KumekumeOne PanakoTongaitiVeteTe-KamaPanako IAkatauira
14.KouramaitiOneAkarauiraMokoraTe-KamaPanako IIAkatauira
15.TepapaOneAkarauiraKotaaNgarikiPanako IIIAkatauira
16.Terua-kere-tongaNgautaAkarauiraRuaikaAkatauiraNgauta I and TaiaTongaiti
17.ArakoaNgautaTongaitiTata PanakoTeipeNgauta IITongaiti
18.AuruiaNgautaTongaitiMaruataitiAkatauiraNgauta IIITongaiti
19.IotepuiNgautaTongaitiMotuoroTuma (N)Ngauta IVTongaiti
20.PunangaNgautaTongaitiTiauruNgarikiNgauta VTongaiti
21.Terua-noniangaNgautaTongaitiTeipeNgauta VITongaiti
22.IkuariNgautaTongaitiArepeeTongaitiTerea (consent of Ngauta)Tongaiti
23.Murders by slavesNgangatiTongaitiNgautaTongaiti Ngariki TeipeTuinui (consent of Ngangati)Ngariki
25.Ariki (1st)NgangatiNgarikiNamuTangiiaNgangati INgariki
26.Ariki (2d)NgangatiNgarikiKanaeNgangati IINgariki
27.Ariki (3d)NgangatiNgarikiPongaitiNgangati IIINgariki
28.Te-au-papa (1st)NgangatiNgarikiKotukuVaeruarangiNgangati IVNgariki
29.Te-au-papa (2d)NgangatiNgarikiKaoaNgarikiNgangati VNgariki
31.TapatiuTe-uanukuNgarikiAkataraTuokuraNot conferredNgati-Vara
32.AriraTe-uanukuSons of MautaraTeipeTe-uanuku INgati-Vara
33.PukuotoiTe-uanukuNgati-VaraRuanaeNgariki?Te-uanuku IINgati-Vara
35.Tuopapa Seized without battlePotikiNgari-VaraTongaitiUarau NgaraNgati-Vara
38.Akaoro Seized without battlePotikiNgati-VaraPotaiNgarikiPotiki MarokoreNgati-Vara
40.Rangiura Seized without battleMakitakaNgati-VaraKoroaNgati-VaraMakitaka Pangemiro INgati-Vara Manaune
41.AraevaPangemiroManaune Ngati-TaneMakitakaNgati-VaraPangemiro II Pangemiro IIIManaune Manaune
page 36 but he passed the office of Temporal Lord over to a fellow tribesman as he himself held the office of Inland High Priest. Thus for eleven battles the office was apparently considered hereditary and was held by the Ngariki.

In the twelfth battle One obtained revenge for the death of Tirango and evidently took office, though belonging to the Tongaiti tribe. Evidently One was not altogether sure of the right of anyone outside the Ngariki to keep the mangaia. He became allied with Panako of the Akatauira division of the Ngariki and relinquished the mangaia to him. In three battles he acted as Panako's military support. Then commenced a series of victories by the Tongaiti under Ngauta. Ngauta felt that Panako had been holding office on the sufferance of the Tongaiti. When he succeeded his uncle One, he determined to enjoy the fruits of victory himself and in spite of the attempts of the Ngariki held the office six times. The principle that victors should enjoy the mangaia by holding office thus became established.

Three times the office passed without bloodshed because the people were dissatisfied with the Temporal Lord. Thus Ngara took the office from Uarau, Marokore from Potiki, and Pangemiro from Makitaka.