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Tuatara: Volume 11, Issue 2, June 1963

Keys to New Zealand Lichens

page 98

Keys to New Zealand Lichens

Part 3

(continued from Vol. 11, p. 56)

75 Thallus all cellular, of horizontal hyphae; algae Scytonema; rhizines present; apothecia lecideine; spores simple Coccocarpia
Thallus not all cellular — 76
76 Upper surface distinctly white, tomentose: apothecia terminal Erioderma
Upper surface not macroscopically tomentose: apothecia laminal — 77
77 Fruit a pyrenocarp; algae ‘Polycoccus’, blue-green Coriscium
Fruit apothecium; thallus otherwise — 78
78 Thallus medium to large, foliose, grey-blue-green to brown; not sorediate nor grey-blue with biatorine apothecia; spores septate, fusiform — 79
Thallus squamulose to small foliose, if foliose, with soredia or apothecia biatorine — 80
79 Apothecia lecanorine, laminal, corticate beneath Lobaria
Apothecia lecideine, adnate on lower surface; ± ecorticate beneath Nephroma
80 Spores 1-septate; apothecia biatorine; brown squamules among mosses on soil Massalongia
Spores simple; if brown squamules, apothecia lecanorine 81
81 Apothecia lecanorine; spores rough-walled Pannaria
Apothecia biatorine; spores usually smooth Parmeliella
82 Thallus a more or less effuse loose mat of hyphae and algal cells, more or less powdery and structureless; sterile; grey-white or yellow Lepraria
Thallus crustose, effuse or placodioid, or a byssoid or felted mass — 83page 99
83 Thallus like white cotton wool (similar to Lepraria but more distinctly lobed). or black or green felt of single-celled algal strands with investing hyphae; commonly fertile — 84
Thallus crustose, effuse or placodioid, sometimes almost absent — 86
84 Thallus white; apothecia white pruinose, lecideine; spores fusiform, septate Sagenidium
Thallus green or blackish, of Trentepohlia or ? — 85
85 Thallus green felted; apothecia biatorine, orange-yellow; spores 1-septate Coenogonium
Thallus blackish hair-like; fungal hyphae dark brown; sterile Cystocoleus (= fungus)
86 Thallus with prominent purple to brown or reddish cephalodia; placodioid; shades of white, flesh or rusty brown; apothecia lecanorine (or aspicilioid) with cylindrical asci and simple spores Placopsis
Thallus without or with inconspicuous dark cephalodia or, if orange, thallus ecorticate — 87
87 Spores formed in a loose mass (mazedium); apothecia stalked or sessile, open; on wood or other lichens, rarely rock, always fruiting (or not recognisable as lichen) — 88
Spores not so released, or if asci disappear early, fruit perithecium — 92
88 Apothecia stalked, long or short; thallus hardly visible 89
Apothecia sessile; spores dark, 2- (rarely 3-) celled; thallus evident — 91
89 Stalk short; spores ellipsoid, simple, dark; parasitic on Pertusaria Sphinctrina
Stalk relatively long, or if short, 2-celled — 90
90 Spores simple, nearly hyaline; head globose Coniocybe
Spores simple, or 2-celled, dark; head usually turbinate Calicium
91 Apothecia saucer-shaped or convex, sessile, immarginate; algae trebouxioid Cyphelium
Apothecia with dark cylindrical margin; algae Trentepohlia Pyrgillus
page 100
92 Thallus yellow to orange-red and/or disc yellow to red or rarely dark, due to physcion which is K+ crimson or purple; spores hyaline, simple or more commonly polaribilocular; ± ecorticate — 93
Thallus and disc if this colour, not K+ purple (a few spp. have red biatorine apothecia and are K+ red); spores simple or several septate — 95
93 Apothecia lecanorine; spores bilocular; may be placodioid or subfruticose Caloplaca
Apothecia lecideine; thallus effuse or rarely placodioid 94
94 Spores simple (Protoblastenia)
Spores 1-septate or polaribilocular Blastenia
95 Thallus clear yellow or blackish, thin, K− C−; apothecia clear yellow, lecanorine, sessile (never innate); spores single or pseudoseptate, 8 or many per ascus Candelariella
Thallus and fruits otherwise; if thallus lemon yellow then C+ orange or apothecia lecideine or aspicilioid — 96
96 Apothecia dark, elongate or irregular (not deformed by pressure), or punctiform and arranged in lines; thallus effuse; usually algae Trentepohlia and spores septate — 97
Ascocarps round apothecia or perithecia — 111
97 Apothecia immarginate, adnate; (asci saccate); spores septate; algae Trentepohlia — 98
Apothecia with distinct proper margin (and sometimes thalline) — 99
98 Spores longitudinally septate, rarely pale brown Arthonia
Spores muriform, hyaline Arthothelium
page 101
Plate 5 Fig. 42, Haematomma sp. Fig. 43, Ochrolechia parella. Fig. 44, Placopsis parellina. Fig. 45, Lecanora pachypholis. Fig. 46, Megalospora marginiflexa. Fig. 47, Graphis tenella. Fig. 48, Thelotrema lepadinum. Fig. 49, Lecidea dunedina. Plates 2-5 drawn by Miss Nancy M. Adams.

Plate 5
Fig. 42, Haematomma sp. Fig. 43, Ochrolechia parella. Fig. 44, Placopsis parellina. Fig. 45, Lecanora pachypholis. Fig. 46, Megalospora marginiflexa. Fig. 47, Graphis tenella. Fig. 48, Thelotrema lepadinum. Fig. 49, Lecidea dunedina. Plates 2-5 drawn by Miss Nancy M. Adams.

page 102
99 Thallus distinctly corticate; on rock; apothecia rounded, innate to adnate Dirina
Thallus ecorticate; if on rock, apothecia long — 100
100 Spores simple; apothecia ellipsoid to oblong; algae green,? Trebouxia Lithographa
Spores septate; algae Trentepohlia or Phycopeltis — 101
101 Spores longitudinally septate — 103
Spores muriform — 102
102 Spores hyaline Graphina
Spores dark Phaeographina
103 Spores 1-septate, finally dark — 104
Spores 3- or more septate or if 1-, hyaline — 105
104 Paraphyses branched and anastomosing; spores brown, constricted; on rock; algae green? Encephalographa
Paraphyses simple; spores becoming brown, not constricted; on bark; algae trentepohlioid Melaspilea
105 Spores thin-walled, cells cylindrical; paraphyses anastomosing and thin — 107
Spores thick-walled, cells ± lentiform; paraphyses simple, unjoined — 106
106 Spores hyaline Graphis
Spores soon brown Phaeographis
107 Proper margin hardly developed, pale; hypothecium pale; apothecia sunken Enterographa
Proper margin brown or carbonaceous — 108
108 Excipulum originally covering apothecium which breaks through it; on leaves (Aulaxina)
Excipulum not formed in this way; on rock, bark or leaves — 109page 103
109 Margin lacking beneath apothecium; hypothecium hyaline; apothecia roundish; on leaves (author has noted here ‘put in Lecanactis!’) (Mazosia)
Margin continued beneath apothecium; hypothecium brownish; apothecia elongate — 110
110 Apothecia not in thalline stroma Opegrapha
Apothecia immersed in thalline stroma Chiodecton (uncertain)
111 Fruit a perithecium — 112
Fruit an apothecium — 131
112 Spores simple — 113
Spores septate — 115
113 Thallus with cellular cortex; algae Pleurococcus; thallus thick, areolate Dermatacarpon
If corticate, cortex not cellular
114 Thallus on rock, on damp areas, dark; perithecial wall well developed, brownish and/or involucrellum present; usually maritime Verrucaria
Thallus white or pink on a bank or soil debris and subalpine; no involucrellum; wall hyaline; spores very large Coccotrema
115 Spores acicular, several-celled, thin-walled; on bark; algae Trentepohlia Leptorhaphis
Spores ellipsoid to fusiform — 116
116 Spores brown — 117
Spores hyaline — 120
117 Spores 2- or more celled — 118
Spores muriform Anthracothecium
118 Spores cells cylindrical, thin-walled, usually 2-celled; paraphyses anastomosing and branched, soon disappearing Microthelia
Spore cells lentiform, usually more than 2; paraphyses simple and persistent; on bark — 119page 104
119 Perithecia immersed in thalline stroma Melanotheca
Perithecia not in stroma Pyrenula
120 Spores muriform — 121
Spores 2-many septate — 124
121 Hymenium containing small algal cells; algae Pleuracoccus; thallus thick, ± squamulose; on ground or rock Endocarpon
Hymenium without algal cells; on bark; algae Trentepohlia 122
122 Paraphyses branched and anastomosing (or absent); spore cells cubic — 123
Paraphyses simple, persistent?; spore cells thick-walled? Clathroporina
123 Perithecia ± immersed in thallus, scattered Polyblastiopsis
Perithecia arranged 2-many in stroma Laurera
124 Parapnyses soon gelifying; spores 1- to 3-septate, thickish-walled; on rock; algae Pleurococcus Thelidium
Paraphyses usually persistent; algae Trentepohlia or Cephaleuros or? — 125
125 Paraphyses anastomosing and branched; spore cells lentiform or thick-walled — 126
Paraphyses simple or branched, not anastomosing; spore cells cubic, thin-walled — 128
126 Perithecia in a stroma, spores several celled, longish Trypethelium
Perithecia not in a stroma; spores 1- to 5-septate — 127
127 Paraphyses usually gelifying; asci clavate or pyriform; spore cells uneven if 2-, rarely 3- or more septate Pseudopyrenula
Paraphyses persistent; asci cylindrical; spores in 1 series, cells 2, even in size Acrocordia
128 Perithecia with long setae; spores muriform; on leaves Trichothelium
Perithecia glabrous — 129
129 Paraphyses distinctly branched; on leaves Raciborskiella
Paraphyses simple — 130page 105
130 Algae Cephaleuros; on leaves; thallus lobulate, subcutaneous Strigula
Algae Trentepohlia or Phycopeltis; thallus effuse; on rock or log Porina
131 Algae blue-green — 132
Algae green or trentepohlioid — 136
132 Algae Xanthocapsa; thallus thick, on rock; apothecia lecanorine — 133
Algae Nostoc or ? Scytonema; spores simple — 134
133 (Key not filled in here, but preceding characters lead to genus) Pyrenopsis
134 Thallus homoeomerous, ecorticate, lobulate; apothecia lecanorine; spores rough Molleropsis
Thallus distinctly corticate, subsquamulose — 135
135 Apothecia lecanorine; spores rough-walled Pannaria
Apothecia biatorine; spores smooth Parmeliella
136 Apothecia with distinct double margin, an inner proper one and outer, often crateriform thalline one; spores 2-septate to muriform; paraphyses simple — 137
Apothecia with single margin, or if sunken in thallus, spores simple or 1-septate, dark — 141
137 Algae green; on rock or soil Diploschistes
Algae Trentepohlia; on bark — 138
138 Spores several-septate — 140
Spores muriform — 139
139 Spores hyaline Thelotrema (incl. Chroodiscus?)
Spores brown Leptotrema
140 Spores hyaline Ocellularia
Spores brown ? (Phaeotrema)
141 Apothecia lecanorine (or immersed in thallus), proper margin rudimentary or absent; algal layer under hypothecium — 142
Apothecia lecideine, or if partly immersed, with dark margin or algae not present under apothecia — 156page 106
142 Spores simple, hyaline — 143
Spores septate — 149
143 Apothecia sunken in thallus or rarely emergent — 144
Apothecia sessile or adnate — 147
144 Spores many, small; yellow or brownish; thallus, usually areolate—subsquamulose, ± corticate; on rock Acarospora
Spores 8 or less in ascus — 145
145 Apothecia several in elevated stroma, disc may be punctiform. spores large, thick-walled; paraphyses thin, branched (see also Coccotrema) Pertusaria
Apothecia not in stroma; paraphyses medium, septate; spores thin-walled; on rock — 146
146 Algae green Lecanora subgen. Aspicilia
Algae Trentepohlia, large celled Ionaspis
147 Paraphyses thin, flexuous; spores large — 148
Paraphyses shorter and thicker, simple or sparingly branched; spores medium Lecanora
148 Spores thin (<203BC) walled; hypothecium ± subtended Ochrolechia
Spores thick-walled; hypothecium excipulum thin Pertusaria
149 Spores brown. 1-septate. ± polaribilocular Rinodina
Spores hyaline — 150
150 Spores parallel septate — 151
Spores muriform; paraphyses simple — 155
151 Apothecia sunken in thallus, sometimes irregular, pale; spores with lentiform cells; on trees — 152
Apothecia sessile — 153
152 Paraphyses simple Phlyctella
Paraphyses branched and anastomosing Phylctidia
153 Apothecia scarlet; K+ soluble; spores 6+ celled; thallus corticate; on trees Haematomma page 107
Apothcia shades of brown or yellowish, K-; ecorticate; spores few celled — 154
154 Thallus effuse; pycnidia with exobasidial fulcra Lecania
Thallus determinate; pycnidia with endobasidial fulcra Solenospora
155 Apothecia sunken in thallus. pale Phylctis
Apothecia sessile, orange Myxoclictyon
156 Spores very manv in ascus. small, simple Biatorella
Spores 8. rarely 16, or less — 157
157 Paraphyses branched and anastomosing; spores septate; algae Trentepohlia or micareoid — 158
Paraphyses not anastomosing or if so spores ± muriform and algae otherwise — 161
158 Apothecia innate, immarginate: may appear to have thalline margin; several-celled spores: algae Trentepohlia; on trees Schismatomma
Apothecia marginate — 159
159 Algae micareoid; spores 1-septate; on soil etc. Micarea
Algae Trentepohlia or Phycopeltis; spores fusiform 3± septate: on trees — 160
160 Algae Trentepohlia; margin complete; on bark Lecanactis
Algae Phycopeltis; margin at top, formed by rupture of initial covering; on leaves (Mazosia)
161 Algae Trentepohlia; apothecia yellow to orange; excipulum pale, K-; spores small, ellipsoid, mostly I-septate; thallus green, ± shining, thin Dimerella
Algae green; fruit characters usually otherwise — 162
162 Spores simple, paraphyses various — 163
Spores septate — 164
163 Spores small, thin-walled. 8 (lor 16) per ascus Lecidea
Spores large, thick-walled; 1-2 per ascus Mycoblastuspage 108
164 Spores I-septate, ± oblong, brown, without sheath; Buellia
Spores otherwise, or if as above, thallus I — 165
165 Apothecia orange to reddish with radiate hyaline excipula, sessile; K dissolves to red solution (not yellow); hypo-thecium hyaline — 166
Apothecia otherwise — 167
166 Spores small to medium, simple to I-septate to submuriform with thin walls Miltidea
Spores 4- or more septate with lentiform or thick-walled cells Bombyliospora
167 Spores I-septate, hyaline — 168
Spores more than I-septate. or if I-septate hyaline; thallus I ± blue — 169
168 Spores small, thin-walled Catillaria
Spores large, wall thickened, ± oblong, 1-8 ascus Megalospora
169 Hypothecium purple; paraphyses branched; foliicolous Tapellaria
Hypothecium not purple, or if so paraphyses simple — 170
170 Excipulum of loose intricate hyphae; spores parallel septate; on leaves Byssoloma
Excipulum of ± cellular structure or structureless; spores septate to muriform — 171
171 Spores parallel septate, hyaline, fusiform to acicular Bacidia
Spores muriform or dark — 172
172 Algal cells in epithecium; foliicolous; spores hyaline (Sporopodium)
No algal cells in epithecium — 173
173 Paraphyses branched; spores usually brown: hypothecium dark; on rock Rhizocarpon
Paraphyses simple or branched; spores hyaline; hypothecium pale; not on rock Lopadium
page 109

Sterile Crustose Species

1 Thallus white or grey-white or pinky-yellow-white —2
Thallus yellow, yellow-green, brown or black —6
2 Placodioid, coastal Buellia canescens
Effuse —3
3 On bark, powdery or with soredia —4
On coastal rock, chalky usually —5
4 Soredia in ± circular soralia Pertusaria sp.
Powdery or ± smooth, very thin Phlyctella uncinnata
5 K + yellow becoming orange-red Pertusaria dinota
k -Pertusaria antarctica or Pertusaria graphica
6 Yellow-green areoles on black hypothallus Rhizocarpon geographicuc agg.
Not on black hypothallus —7
7 Yellow or yellow-green —8
Brown or black —9
8 Continuous, thin Rinodina thiomela
Areolate or subsquamulose. thickish Acarospora sp.
9 Brown or red-brown areoles Acarospora sp.
Black, continuous or rimose, maritime or aquatic Verrucaria sp.

The End