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The Discovery of New Zealand

Notes on the Sources

page 95

Notes on the Sources

Reference has been made in the text to the general historical conditions, and the state of geographical knowledge at different periods, determining the process by which New Zealand was discovered. For a fuller discussion of these I may perhaps mention my Exploration of the Pacific (2nd ed., London, 1947); or the General Introduction to The Journals of Captain James Cook, Vol. I, The Voyage of the Endeavour (Cambridge, 1955).

1. The Polynesians

The best popular general account of the wanderings of the Polynesian race is by Sir Peter Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa), Vikings of the Sunrise (New York, 1938; Christchurch, 1954); Book I of the same author's Coming of the Maori (Wellington, 1949) gives the traditional account with moderation and great learning. S. Percy Smith's Hawaiki (4th ed., Auckland, 1921) has considerable importance in the history of Polynesian scholarship, but is now in some respects out of date. Elsdon Best, in his 'Maori Voyagers and their Vessels', in Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, Vol. XLVIII (1916), pp. 447-63, gives a fascinating account, touched with his usual poetry, of the material means of Maori navigation; his Land of Tara (New Plymouth, 1919) will be found interesting for its account of Kupe and other voyagers at Port Nicholson. The Introduction to Dr. Roger Duff's Moa-Hunter Period of Maori Culture (2nd ed., Wellington, 1956) is a very useful summary. For the most recent consideration of Polynesian navigation and its possibilities in discovery, Andrew Sharp's Ancient Voyagers in the Pacific (Wellington, 1956; Pelican, 1959) must be read.

2. Tasman

Too much on Tasman is out of print. The leading authority in English is the folio edition of his Journal by J. E. Heeres (Amsterdam, 1898), difficult to find outside libraries. More conveniently handled is Robert McNab's Historical Records of New Zealand, Vol. II (Wellington, 1914), pp. 1-38 of which print documents and extracts from journals. There is a later, and better, translation of the New Zealand portion of Tasman's journal by M. F. Vigeveno in Abel Janszoon Tasman and the Discovery of New Zealand (Wellington, 1942). McNab's page 96accounts in his Murihiku (Wellington, 1909) and From Tasman to Marsden (Dunedin, 1914) are useful. E. H. McCormick's Tasman and New Zealand (Wellington, 1959) is a masterly analysis of the process by which Tasman's own account was transmitted to the world, and incidentally helps in disentangling what actually happened in New Zealand.

3. Cook

On Cook the best writer is Cook. His own accounts of his voyages have been published by the Hakluyt Society, edited by the present writer: The Journals of Captain James Cook, Vol. I, The Voyage of the Endeavour (Cambridge, 1955); Vol. II, The Voyage of the Resolution and Adventure (Cambridge, 1960). A third volume is in preparation for his third voyage. Banks's whole journal of the first voyage has never been published, except in a much shortened and garbled version by Sir Joseph D. Hooker (London, 1896), now out of print; a full edition, edited from the original MS in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, is now to appear. The New Zealand portion, however, has been well edited from an MS copy in the Alexander Turnbull Library by Professor W. P. Morrell, under the title Sir Joseph Banks in New Zealand (Wellington, 1958). For the first voyage Sydney Parkinson's Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas (London, 1773) adds some interesting details. The material in McNab's Historical Records, Vol. II, pp. 44 ff., bears on all three voyages, and is most valuable. A good discussion of the first landing is that by W. L. Williams, 'On the Visit of Captain Cook to Poverty Bay and Tolaga Bay', Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. XXI (1889), pp. 389-97; while J. A. Mackay's Historic Poverty Bay (Gisborne, 1949), Chaps. III-VII, is detailed as well as good. The account of the visit to Mercury Bay given by Te Horeta Taniwha is printed in John White's Ancient History of the Maori, Vol. V (Wellington, 1888), pp. 121-8; a shorter account is given in the same volume, pp. 128-30. The Endeavour is vividly and charmingly described in G. Arnold Wood's The Voyage of the Endeavour (Melbourne, 1926).

Of the eighteenth-century editions of Cook, two out of the three volumes of Hawkesworth's Voyages (London, 1773) are devoted to the first voyage, and can still be read with interest, though they are more Banks than Cook; they have been reprinted and adapted innumerable times. The Voyage towards the South Pole and Round the World (2 vols., London, 1777) sticks much more closely to Cook's words than anything else over his name. The interest of A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean . . . for making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere (3 vols., London, 1784) is great, but not, so far as New Zealand is concerned, one of discovery.

page 97

The New Zealand portions of Cook's journals—for the first voyage, from Wharton's imperfect edition of 1893, now long out of print; for the others, from the eighteenth-century texts—have been brought together in A. H. and A. W. Reed's Captain Cook in New Zealand (Wellington, 1951).

4. Cook to D'Urville

McNab may be again recommended, in Murihiku for the South Island, From Tasman to Marsden for the North, and Vol. II of the Historical Records for both.

Surville: Surville's own journal has never been published, and we know the voyage mainly from the journals written by P. Monneron, supercargo of the Saint Jean Baptiste {Hist. Rec., II, pp. 213-295) and Pottier de l'Horne, first lieutenant of the ship (ibid., pp. 296-347). The Abbé Rochon, in his Nouveau Voyage à la Mer du Sud (Paris, 1783), gives an account of the voyage based on Monneron and parts of Surville's journal. Other accounts are simply derived from these.

Marion Du Fresne: The journal of Roux, lieutenant on the Mascarin, is printed in French and English in Hist. Rec., II, pp. 350-443; followed by that of Captain du Clesmeur, of the Marquis de Castries (pp. 444-81). Rochon's Nouveau Voyage is in the main an account of this expedition, derived from the journal of Crozet, who took command after Marion's death. There was apparently some feeling between the officers, to judge from references in their journals. There is an English translation of Rochon (omitting the abstract of Surville's voyage) by H. Ling Roth, under the title of Crozet's Voyage to Tasmania, New Zealand, &c. (London, 1891); and Leslie G. Kelly co-ordinated all the material in his careful study, Marion Dufresne at the Bay of Islands (Wellington, 1951).

Vancouver: The standard account is Vancouver's A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean (London, 1798), of which Vol. I, pp. 58-97, are devoted to New Zealand. In Hist. Rec., II, pp. 483-95, is an exceedingly interesting extract from the journal of Archibald Menzies, the surgeon of the Discovery; and ibid., pp. 496-508, an extract from a Chatham journal, probably written by Edward Bell, the ship's clerk, the original of which is in the Alexander Turnbull Library.

Malaspina: Murihiku, pp. 100-10, and Hist. Rec., II, pp. 162-5, have a translation of the relevant pages of the Spanish Viaje de las Corbetas Descubierta y Altrevida (Madrid, 1885), to which the page 98Spanish-reading student may be referred; a copy is in the Alexander Turnbull Library.

The work of the sealers, etc., is discussed at length in Murihiku. Of the French in New Zealand waters there is a very pleasant brief account in Dr. T. M. Hocken's article, 'Early Visits of the French to New Zealand', in Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. XL (1908), PP. 137-53.

D'urville: The second volume of the Voyage de la corvette l'Astrolabe (Paris, 1830) is a full and charming account by d'Urville himself. The greater part of this is translated, most conveniently, in Olive Wright's New Zealand 1826-1827 (Wellington, 1950), which has a useful biographical introduction. There are also rather stiff translations of considerable extracts by S. Percy Smith in Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vols. XL-XLII (1908-1910), with very valuable notes on places and persons mentioned. The atlas and plates published with the French volumes are magnificent.