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The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771 [Volume Two]

September 1770

September 1770

1. Distant as the land was a very Fragrant smell came of from it realy in the morn with the little breeze which blew right off shore, it resembled much the smell of gum Benjamin;1 as the sun gatherd power it dyed away and was no longer smelt. All the latter part of the day we had calms or light winds all round the compass, the weather at the same time being most intolerably hot.

2. Fresh breeze again at E. In the morn the sweet smell of yesterday was observd tho in a much smaller degree. In the even it was almost calm and again intensely hot.

3. After having saild all night along shore with a brisk breeze we found ourselves in the morn not far from it: It appeard as it had done whenever we had seen it before, uncommonly flat and low, not having so much as a slope in any part, the whole one grove of trees very thick and pleasant to all appearance. This was the sixth day we had now coasted along still upon the same bank of mud, which by its shoalness prevented our approaches near enough to make going ashore convenient. This delay and the loss of so many days fair wind when we well knew the Se Monsoon was nearly at an end was irksome to us all: it was therefore resolvd to run the ship in as near the shore as possible and then send off the pinnace, which might go ashore while the ship ply'd off and on and learn whether the produce of the countrey or the usage she might meet with from the inhabitants would be such as might induce us to search farther. We accordingly stood right in shore and at ½ past 8 had less than 3 fathm water 5 or 6 miles from the shore. The Captn Dr Solander and myself with the Boats crew and my servants, consisting in all of 12 men well armd, went in her and rowd directly towards the shore but could not get nearer than about 200 yards on account of the shallowness of the water; we quickly however got out of the boat and waded ashore leaving two in her to take care

1 The corrupt form of gum benzoin, the odoriferous gum of the ‘Benjamin tree’, Styrax benzoin, a native of Malacca, Sumatra and Java.

page 142 of her.1 We had no sooner landed than we saw the prints of naked feet upon the mud below High water mark, which convincd us that the Indians were not far off tho we had seen yet no signs of any. The nature of the countrey made it necessary for us to be very much upon our guard: the close thick wood came down to within less than 100 yards of the water, and therefore so near might the Indians come without our seeing them, and should they by numbers overpower us a retreat to the boat was impossible as she was so far from the shore. We proceeded therefore with much caution, looking carefully about us, myself and the Dr looking for plants at the edge of the wood and the rest walking along the Beach. In about 200 yards from our landing we came to a grove of Cocoa nut trees of a very small growth but well hung with fruit standing upon the banks of a small brook of brackish water. Near them was a small shed hardly half coverd with cocoa nut leaves, in and about which were infinite Cocoa nut shells, some quite fresh. We stayd under these trees some time admiring and wishing for the fruit, but as none of us could climb it was impossible to get even one2 so we even left them and proceeded in search of any thing else which might occur. We soon found Plantains and a single Bread fruit tree but neither of these had any fruit on them, so we proceeded and had got about a quarter of a mile from the boat when on a sudden 3 Indians rushd out of the woods with a hideous shout, about 100 yards beyond us and running towards us. The formost threw something out of his hand which flew on one side of him and burnd exactly like gunpowder,3 the other two immediately threw two darts at us on which we fird. The most of our guns were loaded with small shot which at the distance they were from us I suppose they hardly felt, for

1 The ship, having turned False Cape, was now in the large bight on the western coast of New Guinea, very sketchily laid down in eighteenth century charts, and not at all well-known, though mapped, even today. The landing appears to have been made at a bay which appears on some maps as Cook's Bay, with the Cook River running into it (about latitude 6° 20′ S), names no doubt based on this visit of 1770; but the identification made may be rather conjectural. It is really impossible to reconcile the maps to which Cook refers, those in de Brosses's Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes, with the present-day chart, though Banks and Cook describe the nature of the country and its seaward approaches accurately enough.

2 Cook refused to have the trees cut down—‘nothing but the utmost necessity would have oblige'd me to have taken this Method to come at refreshments’—in spite of later suggestions from his officers.—p. 410.

3 On the ship this activity was at first taken for the discharge of fire-arms, as Banks later notes; ‘by what means this was done or what purpose it answer'd we were not able to guess’, says Cook (p. 409). ‘I thought the Combustible matter was containd in a Reed or peice of small Bamboo which they gave a swing round in the hand and caused it to go off.’ This was accurate observation: the natives carried smouldering tinder in hollow canes for their fire-making, utilization of which was no doubt part of their demonstration of force. The technique of carrying fire was a sort of refinement on the live firebrands carried about by other New Guinea people.

page 143 they movd not at all but immediately threw a third dart on which we loaded and fird again. Our Balls I suppose this time fell near them but none of them were materialy hurt as they ran away with great alacrity. From this specimen of the people we immediately concluded that nothing was to be got here but by force, which would of course be attended with the destruction of many of these poor people, whose territories we had certainly no right to invade either as discoverers or people in real want of provisions; we therefore resolvd to go into our boat and leave intirely this coast to some aftercomer who might have either more time or better opportunities to gain the freindship of its inhabitants. Before we had got abreast of her however we saw the two people in her make signals to us that more Indians were coming along shore, and before we had got into the water we saw them come round a point about 500 yards from us. They had met probably the three who first attackd us for on seeing us they halted and seemd to wait till the main body should come up, nor did they come nearer us all the while we waded to her; they continued however with their fire to defy us and shouted very loud. When we were embarkd and afloat we rowd towards them and fird some musquets over their heads into the trees, on which they walkd gradualy off continuing to throw abundance of their fires (whatever they migh[t] be designd for). We guessd their numbers to be about 100. After we had lookd at them and their behaviour as long as we chose we returnd to the ship, where our freinds had sufferd much anziety for our sakes imagining that the fires thrown by the Indians were real musquets, so much did they resemble the fire and smoak made by the firing of one.

The place where we landed we judgd to be near Cabo de la Colta de Santa Bonaventura, as it is calld in the French charts,1 about 9 or 10 lgs to the Southward of Keer Weer.2 We were not ashore upon the whole more than two hours so can not be expected to have made many observations.

The Soil had all the appearance of the highest fertil[it]y but was coverd with a prodigious quantity of trees which seemd to thrive

1 These charts were those drawn by the well-known cartographer, Robert de Vaugondy, for de Brosses. It is impossible to identify this cape with real confidence, but I think it was De Jong's Point, to the north-eastward of the opening of Prinses Marianne Strait. ‘Colta’ is a corruption of ‘Costa’, found on older charts. I have discussed these maps in my introduction to Cook I, pp. clvii-xi, and in the notes to pp. 409–11; but the subject still needs some clarification.

2 This was a name conferred on an indentation in the coast—I think probably Flamingo Bay—and dates from Carstenz's expedition of 1623 with the yachts Arnhem and Pera, the main result of which was the discovery of the Australian Arnhem Land. See Wieder, Monumenta Cartographica, pl. 126. Keer Weer: ‘blind alley’ or ‘turn about’.

page 144 luxuriantly. Notwithstanding this the cocoa nut trees bore very small Fruit and the Plantains did not seem very thriving; the only breadfruit tree that we saw however was very large and healthy. There was very little variety of plants: we saw only 23 species every one of which was known to us, except perhaps the Ist and 2nd may prove upon comparison to be different from any of the many Species of Cyperus we have still undetermind from New Holland. Had we had axes to cut down the trees or could we have venturd into the woods we should doubtless have found more, but we had only an opportunity of examining the beach and edge of the wood. I am of opinion however that the countrey does not abound in variety of species, as I have been in no one before where I could not on a good soil have gatherd more by far with the same time and opportunity. Here follows the list:1
Cyperus …. Eugenia Butonica Mscr.
Commelina communis Linn. Vitex trifolia Linn.
Convolvulus Brasiliensis Linn. Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn.
Solanum nigrum Linn. Glycine speciosa Mscr.
Morinda citrifolia Linn. Dolichos giganteus Mscr.
Chaitea Tacca Mscr. Abrus precatorius Linn.
Lobelia Plumierii Linn. Hedysarum umbellatum Linn.
Arum macrorizum Linn. Sitodium altile Mscr.
Coix Lacryma Jobi Linn. Casuarina equisetifolia Mscr.
Guilandina Bonduccela Linn. Musa Paradisaica Linn.
Cocos nucifera Linn.
The people as well as we could judge were nearly of the same colour as the New Hollanders, some thought rather lighter, they were certainly stark naked. Their arms that they made use of against us were very light ill made darts of Bamboo cane pinted with hard wood in which were many barbs; they may be shot them with bows but I am of opinion that they threw them with a stick something in the manner of the New Hollanders;2 they came beyond us about 60 yards, but not in a point blanc direction. Besides these many among them, may be a fifth part of the whole, had in their hands a short peice of stick may be hollow cane, which they swung sideways from them and immediately fire flew from it perfectly

1 The only New Guinea specimen from this list detected in B.M.[N.H.] Herbarium by Mr Eric Groves is Coix lacrymi-jobi, which coll. was also noticed by Britten, who pencilled the fact in the Banks Catalogue (p. 20, Ms). Perhaps such well known strand spp. were not preserved by Banks since they had been observed and collected earlier on the voyage.

2 This opinion is probably correct: these Papuans have now the bow and arrow, but it seems to have been a comparatively late acquisition, and some variety of throwing stick to have been used earlier.

page 145 resembling the flash and smoak of a musquet and of no longer duration; for what purpose this was done is far above my guessing. They had with them several dogs who ran after them in the same manner as ours do in Europe.

The house or shed that we saw was very mean and poor. It consisted of 4 stakes drove into the ground, 2 being longer than the other two: over these were layd cocoa nut leaves loose and not half enough to cover it. By the cutting of these stakes as well as of the arrows or darts which they threw at us we concluded that they had no Iron among them.

As soon as ever the boat was hoisted in we made sail and steerd away from this land to the No small satisfaction of I beleive thre[e] fourths of our company, the sick became well and the melancholy lookd gay. The greatest part of them were now pretty far gone with the longing for home which the Physicians have gone so far as to esteem a disease under the name of Nostalgia;1 indeed I can find hardly any body in the ship clear of its effects but the Captn Dr Solander and myself, indeed we three have pretty constant employment for our minds which I beleive to be the best if not the only remedy for it.

4. Brisk trade and fine weather. The alterd Countenances of our common people were still more perceivable than they were yesterday. Two thirds allowance had I beleive made the cheif difference with them, for our provisions were now so much wasted by keeping that that allowance was little more than was necessary to keep life and soul together.

5. During last night a low Island was seen and in the morn another, of a flat appearance but tolerably high. We supposd that these might be the Arow Isles as the latitude agreed very well, but if they were these Isles must be far nearer the Coast of New Guinea than any of our draughts place them.2 Many very large Blubbers (medusas) were seen, also Egg Birds, Bonitos and one Turtle. In the Eve we deepned our water to 50 fathm and saw then some small

1 This is an early use of the word in non-technical writing. The O.E.D. gives it the date 1678 as a modern Latin translation of the German heimweh, and 1780 as its entrance into literature (‘Homesickness’ is dated 1756). It is of course precisely the sort of word that Banks, with his ranging scientific mind, would pick up, though he was by no means a good Latinist. The 1780 example is from James Thacker's Military Journal during the American war, 1775–83 (London 1823): ‘many perplexing instances of indisposition, … called by Dr. Cullen nostalgia’. The Scotsman William Cullen (1710-90) was for many years the greatest teacher of medicine in Britain. The doctors may have caught on to the word generally, and some of them passed it on to Banks, or he may have got it from Solander. A minor problem is why Hawkesworth ignored this picturesque bit.

2 Probably Karang and Enu, the most southerly of the Aru Islands.

page 146 Mother Careys chickens (Proc. Fregata)1 about us which we always have lookd upon as a mark of being at a good distance from the Land. We saw also a man of war Bird,2 many Nectris's3 and Gannets; towards night a Booby (Pel) settled on our rigging and was caught, the first we have met with in the voyage.4

6. Pleasant trade: our water deepned to 180 fathm. A tropick bird5 and 2 black and white Gannets6 seen about the ship. At Noon a large high Island was in sight, possibly Timor Land, tho if so the charts have laid it down much too far to the Southward.7 The supposition of its being so made us think of Timor, which had been visited by our countrey man Dampier;8 this thought made home recur to my mind stronger than it had done throughout the whole voyage: the distance I now conceivd to be nothing very great.

7. Trade as brisk and pleasant as ever. Infinite flying fish about the ship, some nectris's and Man of War Birds, many Gannets also seen; at Night 2 Bobies were caught.

8. Much less wind today; many Gannets and Bobies were seen. At Night 2 of the latter were taken.

9. Light breezes and almost calm. Myself in my small boat a shooting killd 3 dozn. of Bobies and gannets; the last provd to be the Pelicanus Piscator of Linnæus.9 At night a strong appearance of very high Land was observd to the Westward which causd many different opinions; the Seamen however in general insisted on its being clouds, an opinion which its unusual hight above the horizon considerd with respect to the faintness with which it appeard seemd much to favour.

10. Quite calm. The appearance of Land to the West was again seen and most of the seamen by it Convincd that it realy was such;

1 Probably Wilson's Petrel, Oceanites oceanicus, which occurs commonly here (see D. L. Serventy, Emu, 52, 1952, p. 105).

2 Fregata sp. The commonest here is F. ariel.

3 This is a puzzling record, as shearwaters are apparently completely absent from this area nowadays (D. L. Serventy, personal communication).

4 There appears to be no note or description that tallies with this specimen.

5 Probably the Red-tailed Tropic Bird.

6 Both the Blue-faced and the Red-footed Booby occur in this region. Banks distinguished Sula species with brown upper parts as boobies, and the mainly white birds as gannets.

7 Timorlaut, now called the Tanimbar islands, east of Timor.

8 Dampier visited Timor in September 1699 and May 1700, on his voyage in the Roebuck.

9 Sula piscator was a valid name for the Red-footed Booby (Townsend and Wetmore, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 63, No. 4, p. 167, 1919); Solander's brief description (p. 21), although undated, clearly refers to this species, as he gives the page and date of the revision of the species by Linnaeus himself, which is discussed by the above authors.

page 147 some however still held to their former opinion. Many Dolphins were about the ship and one shark was caught at Sunset. The Land appeard again in exactly the same place which at last convinc'd our most sturdy unbeleivers.

11. By day Break in the morn another shark was caught: the two together weighing 126 lb were servd to the ships company and every man in her, I may venture to affirm, from the Captn to the Swabber dind heartily upon it. Many smoaks ashore.

12. As soon as the light was pretty clear the Land again appeard 5 or 6 Lgs off; by 7 the Wind came to west so we stood in for it. It was very high rising in gradual slopes from the hills which were in great measure coverd with thick woods; among them however we could distinguish bare spots of a large extent which at least look's as if cleard by art; many fires were also seen on all parts of the hills, some very high up. At night fall we were within 1 and ½ miles of the Beach just abreast of a little inlet. The countrey seemd to answer very well the description which Dampier has given of Timor,1 the land close to the beach being coverd with high spiring trees which he likens to Pines (Casuarina) behind which was great appearance of Salt water creeks and many mangroves; in Parts however were many Cocoa nut trees close down to the Beach. The flat land seemd to reach in some places 2 or 3 miles before the rise of the first hill. We saw no appearance of Plantations or houses near the sea but the land lookd most fertile, and from the many fires we had seen in different parts we could not help having a good opinion of its population.

13. With the wind as foul as ever we continued to ply along shore, not gaining much and being too far off to see any thing but large fires of which were several ashore. Our Croakers began now to talk of the westerly monsoon, and say that they had sometime

1 In his Continuation of a Voyage to New Holland, Chap. I (Voyages, ed. Masefield, II, pp. 464–5). Banks goes close to quoting him. He writes, ‘the low land bounds the sea hath nothing but red Mangroves [Bruguiera], even from the Foot of the Mountains till you come within a hundred and fifty or two hundred paces of the Sea: and then you have Sandbanks, cloath'd with a sort of Pine; so that there is no getting Water on this side, because of the Mangroves’. His illustration of Casuarina, 1729 ed. III (Masefield, II at p. 448), pl. 4, fig. 1, is unmistakable. Mrs H. N. Clokie has kindly examined the Dampier specimen (labelled as from Australia, not Timor) in the Sherardian Herbarium, at Oxford, and writes: ‘A note in Professor Osborn's hand says "this is probably the actual specimen used in drawing the figure referred to". The specimen is identified as C. equisetifolia by C. A. Gardner. There can therefore be no doubt about it’. Cf. T. G. B. Osborn and C. A. Gardner, ‘Dampier's Australian plants’, Proc. Linn. Soc., Session 151: 44–50. 1939.

page 148 thought that the unusual Briskness of the Trade wind for some days before we fell in with this Island was a sure prognostick of it.1

14. Our Westerly wind still continued and we plyd with our usual success. Infinite albecores and bonetos2 were about the ship attended (as they always are when near land) by some species of Sterna; these were Dampiers New Holland Noddies3 which flew in large flocks hovering over the shoals of fish. Many Man of War birds also attended and Entertaind us by very frequently stooping at albecores so large that 20 times their strengh could not have lifted them, had they been dextrous enough to seize them which they never once effected.

15. Wind came fair today and left our melancholy ones to search for some new occasion of sorrow. There was much less of it than we could have wishd and yet enough to alter the appearance of the countrey very sensibly. The Island was now Hilly tho not near so high as it had been; the Hills in general came quite down to the sea and where they did not, instead of flats and mangrovy land, were immense groves of Cocoa nut trees; about a mile up from the Beach began the plantations and houses almost innumerable standing under the shade of large grovesof Palms appearing like the Fan Palm (Borassus);4 the Plantations which were in general enclosd with some kind of Fence reach'd almost to the tops of the Hills, but near the Beach were no certain marks of habitations seen. But what surpr[i]zd us most was that notwithstanding all these indisputable marks of a Populous countrey we saw neither people nor any kind of cattle stirring all the day, tho our glasses were almost continualy employ'd.

16. Trade rather fresher than yesterday. Soon after breakfast the small Island of Rotte5 was in sight and soon after the opening appeard plain which at last convincd our old unbeleivers that the Island we had so [long?] been off was realy Timor. Soon after

1 i.e., the ship having had a favourable wind over a long period, the professional grumblers were now sure it had betrayed them before they could reach a port for refreshment. Cook's great fear at the Endeavour River had been that the delay to the voyage there might mean his being caught by the change of monsoon and prevented for a whole season from getting to Batavia.

2 The most plentiful shoaling tunnies in this area are Kishinoella tonggol (Bleeker) and Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque) which are commonly attended by terns; other species include Nethunnus macropterus and Katsuwonus pelamis (D. L. Serventy, personal communication).

3 Dampier describes this noddy at length in his Voyage to New Holland (Masefield ed., II, p. 437), and gives a cut of it. Possibly these were not Brown-winged or Bridled Terns (cf. p. 660, n. 2 above) but the Wide-awake or Sooty Tern, Sterna fuscata, which breeds in Java and New Guinea. The two species are easily confused on the wing.

4 Lontar, Borassus flabellifer, the widely distributed Palmyra or Fan palm.

5 Roti is a small island off the south-west end of Timor.

page 149 dinner we passd the Streights.1 The Island of Rotte was not mountanous or high like Timor but consisted of Hills and vales: on the East End of it some of our people saw Houses but I did not: the North side had frequent sandy beaches near which grew some few of the Fan Palm, but the greatest part was coverd with a kind of brushy trees which had few or no leaves upon them.2 The opening between Timor and the Island calld by Dampeir Anabao3 we plainly saw which appeard narrow. Anabao itself lookd much like Timor, only was rather less high: we saw on it no signs of cultivation, but as it was misty and we were well on the other side of the streights, which we judgd to be 5 Lgs over, we saw it but very indifferently. Off the Western end of it was a small low sandy Island4 coverd with trees; before night however we had left all behind us.

About 10 O'Clock a Phænomenon appeard in the heavens in many things resembling the Aurora Borealis but differing materialy in others: it consisted of a dull reddish light reaching in hight about 20 degrees above the Horizon: its extent was very different at different times but never less than 8 or 10 points of the compass. Through and out of this passd rays of a brighter colourd light tending directly upwards; these appeard and vanishd nearly in the same time as those of the Aurora Borealis, but were entirely without that trembling or vibratory motion observd in that Phænomenon. The body of it bore from the ship Sse: it lasted as bright as ever till near 12 when I went down to sleep but how much longer I cannot tell.5

17. In the morn an Island in sight6 very imperfectly if at all laid down in the Charts. By 10 we were very near the East end of it; it was not high, but composd of gently sloping hills and vales almost

1 i.e., between Roti and Timor—Roti Strait.

2 According to Professor C. G. G. J. van Steenis, these ‘brushy trees’ were Schleichera oleosa Merr.

3 Semau or Samau, north of Roti and lying off Kupang, the old Concordia, Dutch capital of Timor; it is separated from Timor by the narrow Semau Strait.

4 Tebui.

5 The description here given can fit nothing but a display of the Aurora Australis. Auroral displays are seldom observed in low latitudes, and as the latitude of Timor is only about 10° S, this particular display must have been tremendous indeed. There can be no doubt about it, because Parkinson (p. 161) also gives a short description, and the possibility is attested by the record of the display seen from Samoa in 1921. The cause of the aurora seems to be some form of electrical discharge, attested otherwise by rapid and sometimes (when the display is not brilliant) violent variation of the magnetic needle, and linked with the appearance of sun-spots. There was light solar activity in 1770 and in September of that year. It is perhaps odd that nothing of the sort was seen earlier in the year by the Endeavour’s company, or in 1769, a year of sun-spot maximum, when the ship was in much higher latitudes.

6 The island of Savu.

page 150 intirely cleard1 and coverd with innumerable Palm trees; near the Beach were many Houses, but no people were seen stirring. Soon after we passd the Ne point, and saw on the beach a large flock of sheep, but still no people: the North side of the Isle appeard scarce at all cultivated, but like that of Rotte coverd with thick brush wood almost or quite destitute of Leaves: among these as we pass'd along we saw numerous flocks of sheep, but no houses or plantations. At last however one was discoverd in a grove of Cocoa nut trees, and it was resolvd to send a boat in order to attempt a commerce with people who seemd so well able to supply our many Necessities. The ship ply'd off and on and a Lieutenant went:2 before he returnd we saw on the Hills 2 men on horseback, who seemd to ride as for their amusement, looking often at the ship — a circumstance which made us at once conclude that their were Europeans among the Islanders by whoom we should be receivd at least more politely3 than we were us'd to be by uncivilizd Indians.

After a very short stay he returnd bringing word that he had seen Indians in all respects as colour, dress &c. much resembling the Malays; that they very civily invited him ashore and conversd with him by signs but neither party could understand the other; they were totaly unarmd except the knives which they wore in their girdles and had with them a Jackass, a sure sign that Europeans had been among them.

In Plying off and on we had had no ground tho very near a Coral shoal which ran off from the Island, so had no hopes of anchorage here; it was therefore resolvd that we should go to the lee side of the Isle in hopes there to find a Bank;4 in the mean time however the boat with some truck should go ashore at the Cocoa nut grove in hopes to purchase some trifling refreshments for the sick in case we should be disapointed. It accordingly put off and Dr Solander went in it; before it reachd the shore we saw two new Horsemen, one of whoom had on a compleat European dress, Blue coat, white waiscoat and lac'd hat: these as the Boat lay ashore seemd to take little notice of her but only Saunterd about looking much at the ship. Many more horse-men however and still more footmen gatherd round our people who were ashore, and we had the satisfaction of

1 S has here the note, ‘cleared of wild Woods. The Palms being what they encouraged much as possible’.

2 It was Gore that Cook sent on this reconnaissance.

3 Banks has had some difficulty with his adverb here: he first writes a word now indecipherable, superimposes on it ‘humanely’, and then crosses that out heavily in favour of the conventional ‘politely’.

4 Presumably a sand-bank or shelf giving good anchorage.

page 151 seeing several cocoa nuts brought into the boat, a sure sign that peace and plenty reignd ashore.

After a stay of about an hour and a half the boat made a signal of having had intelligence of a harbour to Leeward and we in consequence bore away for it. The boat following soon came on board and told us that the people had behavd in an uncommaly civil manner; that they had seen some of their principal people who were dressd in fine linnen and had chains of gold round their necks; that they had not been able to trade, the owner of the Cocoa nut trees not being there, but had got about 2 dozn of Cocoa nuts given as a present by these principal people, who accepted of Linnen in return and made them plainly understand by drawing a map upon the sand that on the Lee side of the Island was a bay in which we might anchor near a town and buy Sheep, hogs, fruits, fowls &c; they talkd much of the Portugese and of Larntuca on the Island of Ende,1 from which circumstance it was probable that the Portugese were somewhere on the Island tho none of the natives could speak more than a word or two of the Language, and the more so as one of the Indians in speaking of the Town made a sign of something we should see there which would shew us that we were right, by crossing his fingers, which a Portugese who was in the boat immediately interpreted into a cross, a supposition that appeard very probable;2 that just before they put off the man in a European dress Came towards them, but the officer in the boat not having his commission about him thoug[h]t proper to put off immediately without staying to speak to him or know what countrey man he was.

We saild along shore and after having passd a point of Land found a bay shelterd from the trade wind in which we soon discoverd a large Indian town or village, on which we stood in hoisting a Jack on the foretopmast head.3 Soon after to our no small surprize Duch Colours were hoisted in the town and 3 guns fird. We however proceeded and just at dark got soundings and anchord about 1½ miles from the shore.

18. In the morn the Boat with the 2nd Lieutenant went ashore and was receivd by a guard of 20 or 30 Indians armd with musquets,

1 This is very confused. Both Larantuka and Ende are on the large island of Flores, midway in the chain of islands (the Lesser Sunda Islands) between Timor and Java. Ende was a bay and village on the south coast, and Larantuka on the easternmost point. Savu is due south of Flores, about halfway between Roti and Sumba. The phrase ‘somewhere on the Island’ seems to refer to Savu, where the ship now was, and not to the ‘Island of Ende’.

2 This was a bad guess on Emanuel Pereira's part—cf. p. 153 below.

3 This seems to have been the roadstead of Seba, inland a little distance from which, at Seba village, the rajah of Savu still has his residence.

page 152 who conducted him to the town about a mile in the countrey, marching without any order or regularity and carrying away with them Duch Colours which had been hoisted upon the beach opposite to where the ship lay. Here he was introduc'd to the Radja or Indian King who he told by a Portugese interpreter that we were an English man of war who had been long at sea and had many sick on board, for whoom we wanted to purchase such refreshments as the Island afforded. He answerd that he was willing to supply us with every thing we should want, but being in alliance with the Duch East Indian Company he was not allowd to trade with any other people without their consent, which however he would immediately apply for to a Duchman belonging to that Company who was the only white man residing upon the Island. A letter was accordingly dispatchd immediately and after some hours waiting answerd by the man in Person, who assurd him with many Civilities that we were at liberty to buy of the natives whatever we pleasd. He express'd a desire of coming on board, as well as the King and several of his attendants, provided however that some of our people might stay on shore, on which two were left and about 2 they arrivd. Our dinners were ready and they readily agreed to dine with us. At setting down however the King excusd himself, saying that he did not imagine that we who were white men would suffer him who was black to set down in our company. A complement however removd his scruples and he and his prime minister sat down and eat sparingly. During all dinner time we receivd many professions of freindship from both the King and the European who was a native of Saxony by name Johan Christopr Lange. Mutton was our fare: the King expressd a desire of having an English sheep; we had one left which was presented to him. An English dog was then askd for and my greyhound presented to him. Mynheer Lange then hinted that a spying glass would be acceptable and was immediately presented with one. We were told that the Island abounded in Buffaloes, sheep, hogs, and fowls, all which should the next day be drove down to the Beach and we might buy any quantity of them. This agreable intelligence put us all into high spirits and the liquor went about full as much as either Mynheer Lange or the Indians could bear, who however expressd a desire of going away before they were quite drunk. They were receivd upon deck as they had been when they came on board, by the marines under arms: the King expressd a desire of Seeing them excersise, which accordingly they did and fird 3 rounds, much to his majesties satisfaction, who expressd great surprize particularly at their page 153 so speedily cocking their guns, which he expressd by striking a stick upon the side of the ship saying that all the locks made but one click. Dr Solander and myself went ashore in the Boat with them; as soon as we put off they saluted the ship with three chears which the ship answerd with five guns.

We landed and walkd up to the town which consisted of a good many houses, some tolerably large, each being a roof of thach covering a boarded floor supported by Pillars 3 or 4 feet from the ground. Before we had been long there it began to grow dark and we returnd on board, having only just tasted their Palm wine which had a very sweet taste and suited all our palates very well, giving us at the same time hopes that it might be servicable to our sick, as being the fresh and unfermented juice of the tree it promisd antescorbutick virtues.

19. In the morn we went ashore and proceeded immediately to the house of assembly, a large house which we had yesterday mistaken for the Kings Palace. This as well as 2 or 3 more in the Town or Negree1 as the Indians call it have been built by the Duch East Indian Company; they are distinguishd from the rest by 2 peices of wood, one at each end of the ridge of the house, resembling cows horns — undoubtedly the thing designd by the Indian who on the 17th made a sign of the mark by which we were to know the town by crossing his fingers, which our Catholick Portugese interpreted into a cross, from whence cheifly we were assur'd that the settlement was originaly Portugese. In this house of Assembly we met My[n]heer Lange and the Radja A Madocho Lomi Djara attended by many of the Principal people: we told them that we had in the boat an assortment of what few goods we had to truck with and desird leave to bring them ashore which was immediately granted and orders given accordingly. We then attempted to settle the Price of Buffaloes, sheep, hogs, &c. which were to be payd in money, but here Mynheer Lange left us and told us that we must settle that with the natives who would bring down large quantities to the Beach. By this time the morning was pretty far advanc'd and we, resolving not to go on board and eat salt meat when such a profusion of fresh was continualy talkd of, petitiond his majesty that we might have liberty to purchase a small Hog, some rice &c. and employ his subjects to cook them for our dinner. He answerd that if we could eat victuals dressd by his subjects, which he could hardly

1 Malay negeri, country but used loosely of any settlement, town or land. Below, pp. 158–9, Banks calls them ‘principalities’. Presumably if the island were divided into several independent rajahdoms, each would be a negeri.

page 154 suppose, he would do himself the honour of entertaining us; we expressd our gratitude and sent immediately on board for liquors. About 5 O'Clock dinner was ready, consisting of 36 dishes or rather baskets containing alternately Rice and Boild Pork, and 3 earthen ware bowls of Soup or rather the Broth in which the Pork had been boild; these were rangd on the floor and matts laid round them for us to set upon. We were now conducted by turns to a hole in the floor near which stood a man with a basket of water1 in his hand; here we wash'd our hands and then rang'd ourselves in order round the victuals waiting for the King to set down. We were told however that the custom of the countrey was that the entertainer never sets down to meat with his guests, however if we suspected the victuals to be poisoned he would willingly do it; we suspected nothing and therefore desire'd that all things might go as usual; all then sitting down we eat with good appetites, the Prime Minister and My[n]heer Lange partaking with us. Our wine passd briskly about, the Radja alone refusing to drink with us saying that it was wrong for the master of the feast to be in liquor. The pork was excellent, the Rice as good, the broth not bad, the spoons only which were made of leaves were so small that few of us had patience to eat it: every one however made a hearty dinner and as soon as we had done removd, as the custom it seems was to let the Servants and seamen take our Places. These could not dispach all, but when the women came to take away they forcd them to take away with them all the Pork that was left.

Before dinner Mynheer Lange had mentiond to us a letter which he had in the morn receivd from the Governor of Timor: the particulars of it were now discussd. It acquainted him that a ship had been seen off that Island and had Steerd from thence towards that which we were now upon: in case such ship was to touch there in any distress she was to be supplied with what she wanted but was not to be allowd to make any stay more than was necessary, and was particularly requird not to make any large presents to the inferior People, or to leave any with the Principal ones to be distributed among them after he was gone. This we were told did not at all extend to the Beads or small peices of cloth which we gave the Natives in return for their small civilities, as bringing us palm wine &c. Some of our Gentlemen were of opinion that the whole of this Letter was an imposition but whether it was or not I shall not take upon myself to determine.

1 S has the note, ‘A Basket made of Palm leaves.’

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In the Evening we had intelligence from our trading place that No Buffelloes or hogs had been brought down, a few sheep only, which were taken away before our people who had sent for money could procure it; some few fouls however were bought and a large quantity of a kind of Syrup made from the Juice of the palm tree,1 which tho infinitely superior to melasses or treacle sold at a very small price. We complaind to Mynheer Lange. He said that as we had not ourselves been down upon the Beach the Natives were afraid to take money of any one else least it should be false. On this the Captn went immediately down but could see no cattle. While he was gone Mr Lange complaind that our people had yet offerd no gold for any thing; this he said the Islanders were dis-pleasd at who had expected to have gold for their stock.

20. In the morning early the Captn went ashore himself to purchase Buffeloes. He was shewn two, one of which they valued at five guineas the other a musquet; he offerd 3 guineas for the one and sent for a musquet to give for the other. The money was flatly refus'd and before the Musquet could be brought off Dr Solander, who had been up at the town in order to speak to Mr Lange, returnd followd by 86 Spearmen and 20 musqueteers sent by the King to tell us that this day and no more would be allowd us to trade, after which we must be gone. This was the message that Dr Solander had from the Radja by Mr Lange's interpretation, but a Portugese Indian who came from Timor, probably Next in command to Mr Lange, carried it much farther, telling us that we might stay ashore till night if we pleasd but none of the natives would any more be allowd to trade with us; after which he began to drive away those who had brought hens, syrup &c. To remedy this an old sword which lay in the Boat was given to the Prime minister as I have calld him, Mannudjame, who in an instant restord order and severely chid the officer of the guard, an old Portugese Indian, for haveing gone beyond their orders.2 Trade now was as brisk as ever, fowls and syrup were bought cheap and in vast plenty, but now we will see what treatment Dr Solander met with in the Town.

1 A number of different palms were used to produce palm-wine or toddy and the syrup derived from it—the Sugar-palm, the Coconut, and what is probably meant here, to judge from Banks's later description, p. 162 below, the Fan palm, Borassus flabellifer.

2 Cook, whose account of Savu is briefer and less circumstantial than Banks's, is here a little more dramatic: ‘There happen'd to be an old Raja at this time upon the beach whose Intrest I had secure'd in the Morning by presenting him with a Spy glass, this man I now took by the hand and presented him with an old broad sword, this effectually secure'd him in our Intrest for the Moment he got it he began to flourish it over the old Portuguese and made him and the officer that commanded the party to set down at his backside’.—pp. 420–1.

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In the morn when he arriv'd there it was a long time before he could find the Radja; at last however he did and receivd many civilities from him. Mr Lange was however not to be found so no conversation could pass for want of an interpreter. After some time a number of men came and taking their arms rangd themselves in the yard; the Radja then appeard cross but shewd nothing but civility to the Dr.

One of our servants who was trading now came into the yard, having a garter tied over his shoulder for which he askd a cock: the Radja went to him and askd him for it: he, ignorant of his quality, refusd unless he had a Cock on which he was orderd to be turnd out of the yard, as were all our people but the Dr who still was in the assembly house totaly ignorant of what was going on. The Radja however now told him that Mr Lange was at such a house, a hint to be gone but which was not taken as such, for the Dr wanted nothing so much as to see Mr Lange and consequently went directly to him. Mr Lange returnd to the Radjas with him and told him that the People were almost in rebellion on account of the Radjas permitting us to trade with goods instead of money, and that this day was positively the last on which we could be allowd to do so, that he was much offended also at the servant who had refus'd the garter. These storys were too ridiculous to be taken much notice of therefore he still stayd in hopes of learning something more. The guards were orderd to exercise which they did clumsily enough with their spears: the Dr pleasd with the sight desird he might see the excersise of their Sabres also. You had better not desire it, said the duch man, the People are very much enrag'd. Now the Dr found Mr Lange's intention which was to frighten him and us: it however had no part of the design'd effect, we were too well convinc'd that both King and people desird nothing so much as to trade with us to regard these political menaces.

The Dr However set out for the Beach in order to tell us who were there the state of the Case and with him came this formidable troop who behavd as before mentiond. The state of the case appeard now Plain: Mr Lange was to have a share of what the Buffeloes were sold for and that share was to be paid in money; the Captn therefore, tho sore against his will, resolvd to pay 5 guineas apeice for one or 2 Buffeloes and try to buy the rest for musquets. Accordingly no sooner had he hinted his mind to the Portugese Indian than a Buffeloe was brought down but a very small one, and five guineas given for it; 2 more larger followd immediately for one of which a musquet and for the other 5 guineas was given. There was now no page 157 more occasion for money, 2 large herds of Buffeloes were brought down and we pickd them just as we chose for a musquet apeice. We bought nine, as many we thought as would last us to Batavia, especialy as we had little or no victuals, but so ill were we provided with cords that 3 of the nine broke from us; 2 of these the Indians recoverd but the third got quite off tho our people assisted by the Indians followd him 3 hours.

In the Evening Mr Lange came down to the Beach softned by the money which no doubt he had receivd: he who was in the morn as sour as verjuice was now all sweetness and softness. The Dr who spoke German but little was loth to mention to him any of the transactions of the morning, he however took frequent occasions of letting us know that if we pleasd we might come ashore the next day. Our business was However quite done, so to fullfill a promise we had made he was presented with a small cagg of Beer and we took our leave as good freinds as possible.

The refreshments we got consisted of 8 Buffeloes, 30 Dzn of fowls, 6 sheep, 3 hogs, some few but very few limes and cocoa nuts, a little garlick, a good many eggs above half of which were rotten, an immense quantity of Syrup which was bought for trifles, several hundred gallons at least—upon the whole more than live stock enough to carry us to Batavia and syrop for futurity.

I have been very diffuse and particular in mentioning every trifling circumstance which occurd in this transaction, as this may perhaps be the only opportunity I shall ever have of visiting an Island of great consequence to the Duch and scarce known to any other Europaeans even by name. I can find it in only one of the Draughts and that an old one printed by Mount and Page1 the Lord knows when, which has it by the name of Sou but confounds it with Sandel Bosch2 which is layd down very wrong. Rumphius mentions an Island by the name of Saow and say[s] it is that which is calld by the Duch Sandel Bosch, but no chart that I have seen lays either that, Timor or Rotte, or indeed any Island that we have seen hereabouts in any thing near its right place.

While we were here an accident hapned by the imprudence of Mr Parkinson my Draughtsman which might alone have alterd our intended and at first promisd reception very much, indeed I am of opinion that it did. He desirous of knowing whether or not this Island producd spices carried ashore with him nutmeg, cloves

1 Mount and Page were a well-known firm of stationers and map and chart publishers, c. 1733–86. Their shop was on Tower Hill.

2 Sandel Bosch, Sandalwood Island, a name given to Sumba, many times the size of Savu, and to the west of it.

page 158 &c. and questiond the inhabitants about them without the least precaution, so that it immediately came to Mr Lange's ears. He complaind to the Dr that our people were too inquisitive, particularly says he in regard to spices, concerning which they can have no reason to wish for any information unless you are come for very different purposes than those you pretend. The Dr not well vers'd in the German language in which they convers'd, immediately conceivd that Mr L. meant only the questions which he himself had askd concerning the cinnamon, nor did we ever know the contrary till the day after we had left the place, when Mr Parkinson boasted of the knowledge he had got of these people certainly having a knowledge of the spices as they had in language names for them.1

I shall proceed now to give such an account of the Island as I could get together during our short stay, which short as it was was so taken up with procuring refreshments, in which occupation every one was obligd to exert himself, that very little I confess is from my own observation; almost every thing is gatherd from the Conversation of Mr Lange who at first and last was very free and open and I am inclind to beleive did not deceive us in what he told us, how much soever he migh[t] conceal, except perhaps in the strengh and warlike disposition of the Islanders, which account seems to contradict itself, as one can hardly imagine those people to be of a warlike disposition who have continued in peace time out of mind. As for the other Islands in this neighbourhood his information alone was all we had to go upon; I would not however neglect to set it down, tho in general it was of little more consequence than to confirm the policy of the duch in confining their spices to particular Isles, which being full of them cannot furnish themselves with provisions.2

The little Island of Savu, which trifling as it is appears to me to be of no small consequence to the Duch East India Company, is situate in Lat. and Long 3 from the meridian of Greenwich; its lengh and breadth are nearly the same viz. about 6 German or 24 English miles. The whole is divided into 5 principalities, Nigries4 as they are calld by the Indians, Laai,

1 We can well believe this anecdote of the conscientious but in this case tactless Parkinson. He would naturally have roused suspicion, for the Dutch were most jealous of their control of spice production and trade, and Lange was evidently a faithful servant in this respect.

2 S has the note, ‘The Dutch keep the Spices upon small Islands, that they may be able to defend them easily: and keep other Islands in the Neighbourhood, to furnish those Spice Islands with Provisions.’

3 The position of Tanjong (cape) Merebu, a few miles from the western extremity of the island, has been fixed as lat. 10° 37′ S, long. 121° 50′ E.

4 Negeri; cf. p. 153, n. 5 above.

page 159 Seba, Regeeuwa, Timo, and Massārā, each governd by its respective Radja or King. It has 3 harbours, all good: the best is Timo, situate somewhere round the Se point of the Isle; the next Seba where we anchord, situate round the Nw point; the third we learnt neither the name or situation of, only guess it to be somewhere on the South side. Off the West end of the Island is another calld Pulo with some additional name which in the hurry of business was forgot and never again askd for.1

The appearance of the Island especialy on the windward side where we first made it was allowd by us all to equal in beauty if not excell any thing we had seen, even parchd up as it was by a drought which Mr Lange informd us had continued for seven months without a drop of Rain interveening, the last rainy season having intirely faild them. Verdure indeed there was at this time no signs of, but the gentle sloping of the hills which were cleard quite to the top and planted in every part with thick groves of the fan Palm, besides woods almost of Cocoa nut trees and Arecas2 which grew near the sea side, filld the eye so compleatly that it hardly lookd for or missd the verdure of the earth, a circumstance seldom seen in any perfection so near the line. How beautifull it must appear when coverd with its springing crop of Maize, Millet, Indigo &c. which covers almost every foot of ground in the cultivated parts of the Island imagination can hardly conceive: the verdure of Europe set of by the stately pillars of India—Palms I mean, especialy the Fan palm3 which for streightness and proportion both of the stem to itself and the head to the stem far excells all the Palms that I have seen—requires a poetical imagination to describe and mind not unaquainted with such sights to conceive.

The productions of this Island are Buffaloes, sheep, hogs, fowls, Horses, Asses, Maize, Guinea corn, Rice, Calevanses,4 Limes, oranges, Mangoes, Plantains, Water melons, Tamarinds, Sweet sops (annona squamosa),5 Blimbi (Averhoa Bilimbi),6 besides Cocoa

1 There are in fact two islands: Rai Jua, separated from Savu by a channel 2½ miles wide, and Dana, about 18 miles south-westward of Rai Jua. Banks no doubt refers to Rai Jua. Pulo or pulau simply means island.

2 Areca, a sort of palm; the name is also given to its fruit or nut. It is the nut of Areca cathecu, the betel palm or Pinang, which is rolled up in betel-leaves and chewed; S has the note, ‘Areca Tree which bears the Nut they are so fond of chewing with Betle etc.’ The binomial is often spelt Areca catechu, which Merrill and others accept as intended orthography, but Moore and Fosberg retain the original spelling (cf. Gentes Herbarum 8: 449, 1956).

3 Borassus flabellifer.

4 Pulse or small beans, Dolichos spp.

5 The text, with its deletions and alterations, displays some uncertainty over this fruit, hesitating between sweet sops (Anona squamosa) and custard apples (Anona reliculata), finally settling for the former.

6 Bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, the acid fruits of which are used in a variety of dishes.

page 160

nuts and Fan palm which last is in sufficient quantities should all other crops fail to support the whole Island, people, stock and all, who have been at times oblig'd to live upon its sugar Syrup and wine for some Months. We saw also a small quantity of European garden herbs as Cellery, Marjoram, Fennel and garlick and one single sugar cane. Besides these necessaries it has for the supply of luxury Betel1 and Areca, Tobacco, Cotton, Indigo, and a little Cinnamon—only planted for curiosity said Mr Lange; indeed I almost doubt whether or not it was genuine cinnamon as the Duch have been always so carefull not to trust any spices out of their proper Islands. Besides these were possibly many other things which we had not an opportunity of seeing and Mr Lange forgot or did not chuse to inform us of.

All their Produce is in amazing abundance, so we judgd at least from the Plantations we saw, tho this year every crop had faild for want of Rain. Most of them are well known to Europeans. I shall however spend a little Ink in describing such only as are not, or as differ at all in appearance from those commonly known. To begin then with Buffaloes of which they have good store, these beasts differ from our Cattle in Europe in their ears which are considerably larger, their skins which are almost without hair, and their horns which instead of bending forwards as ours do bend directly backwards, and also in their total want of Dewlaps. We saw of these some as big as well sizd European oxen and some there must be much larger, so at least I was led to beleive by a pair of horns which I measurd; they were from tip to tip 3 feet 9½; across their widest diameter 4 ft 1½; the whole sweep of their semicircle in front 7 ft 6½. One caution is however exceedingly necessary in buying these beasts, which is that one of them of any given size does not weigh above half as much as an ox of the same size in England; by this we who were ignorant of the fact were very much deceivd, those which we guessd at 400 1b, the larger sort that were bought, not weighing above 250, and the smaller which we guessd at 250 not above 160. This vast difference proceeded first from total want of fat, of which there was not the least sign, but more especialy from the thinness of the flanks and thin peices which were literaly nothing but skin and bone. Their flesh notwi[th] standing this was not bad, it was well tasted and full of gravy, not that I can put it upon a footing with the leanest beef in England yet I should suppose it better than a lean ox would be in this burnt up climate.

1 Piper betle, the leaf of which, with the red fruit of the betel palm, makes the favourite masticatory.

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Mr Lange told us that when the Portugese first came to this Island there were horses upon it, an opinion from which I confess I rather apostatize, 1but to wave the dispute Horses are now very plentifull. They are small, generaly 11 or 12 hands high, but very brisk and nimble especialy in Pacing which is their common step. The inhabitants seem to be tolerable Horsemen riding always without a saddle and generaly with only a Halter instead of a bridle. This is not however the only Benefit that these Islanders receive from them, for they use them as food and preferr their flesh to that of Buffaloes and every other sort but swines flesh, which holds the highest rank in their opinion.

Their sheep are of that kind which I have seen in England under the name of Bengall sheep; they differ from ours in having hair instead of wool, in their ears being very large and flapp down under their horns almost streight, and in their noses which are much more arch'd than those of our European sheep. These sheep are I beleive very frequently calld Cabritos from their resemblance to goats, which tho I cannot say appeard to me at all striking yet had such an effect upon the whole ships company, officers and seamen, that not one would beleive them to be sheep till they heard their voices, which are precisely the same as those of European ones. Their flesh was like the Buffaloes, lean, and void of flavour, to me the worst mutton I have ever eat. Their fowls are cheifly of the game breed and large but the eggs the smallest I have ever seen.

Besides these animals here are vast plenty of dogs, some cats and rats and a few Pidgeons—I saw 3 or 4 pair—nor are any of these animals exempted from furnishing their part towards the support of Polyphagous man except the Rats which alone they do not eat.

Fish appeard to us to be scarce, indeed it was but little valued by these Islanders, none but the very inferior people ever eating it and these only at the times when their duty or business requird them to be down upon the sea beach. In this case every man was furnishd with a light Casting net which was girt round him and servd for a part of his dress; with this he took any small fish that might happen to come into his way. Turtles are scarce; they are esteemd a good food but are taken only seldom.

Of the vegetables most are well known. The sweet Sop is a pleasant fruit2 well known to the West Indians. Blimbi alone is not mentiond

1 Horses were not endemic here but possibly some had been brought from India or China before Europeans arrived.

2 Altered from ‘the custard apple is a delicious fruit’: this uncertainty argues that Banks may not have been writing from personal experience. See p. 159, n. 5 above.

page 162 by any voyage writer I have met with.1 well known to the West Indians. Blimbi alone is not mentiond is a small oval fruit thickest in the middle and tapering a little to each end, 3 or 4 inches in Lengh and scarcely so large as a mans finger; the outside is coverd with a very thin skin of a light green colour and in the inside are a few seeds disposd in the form of a star; it[s] flavour is a light but very clean and pleasant acid. It cannot be eat raw but is said to be excellent in Pickles; we stewd it and made sower sauce to our Stews and bouilli which was very gratefull to the taste and no doubt possest no small share of antescorbutick virtues. But what seems to be the genuine natural production of the Island and which they have in the greatest abundance and take the most care of is the Fan Palm or Toddy tree (Borassus flabellifer). Large groves of these trees are to be seen in all parts of the Island, under which other crops as Maize, indigo &c are planted, so that in reality they take up no room tho the[y] yeild the treble advantage of fruit, Liquor and sugar, all but especialy the two last in great profusion; besides which the leaves serve to thatch their houses and to make baskets, umbrellas or rather conical bonnets, Cups, Tobacca-pipes &c &c.

The Fruit, which is least esteemd, is also in the least plenty. It is a nut about as big as a childs head coverd like a cocoa nut with a fibrous coat, under which are 3 Kernels which must be eat before they are ripe, otherwise they become to[o] hard to chew; in their proper state they resemble a good deal in taste the kernel of an unripe Cocoa nut and like them probably afford but a washy nutriment. The excellence of the Palm wine or Toddy which is drawn from this tree makes however ample amends for the poorness of the fruit: this is got by cutting the buds which are to produce flowers soon after their appearance and tying under them a small basket made of the leaves of the same tree, into which the liquor drips and must be collected by people who climb the trees for that purpose every morning and evening. This is the common drink of every one upon the Island and a very pleasant one. It was so to us even at first only rather too sweet; its antescorbutick virtues as the fresh unfermented juice of a tree cannot be doubted.

Notwi[th] standing that this Liquor is the Common drink of both Rich and poor, who in the morning and evening drink nothing else, a much larger quantity is drawn off daily than is sufficient for that use; of this they make a Syrop and a coarse sugar both which are far more agreable to the taste than they appear to the sight. The Liquor is calld in the Language of the Island Dua or Duac, the

1 Rumpf mentioned its use in Bali, and before him Jacob de Bondt, in Java.

page 163 syrup and sugar by one and the same name, Gula. It is exactly the same as the Jagara Sugar on the Continent of India1 and prepard by only boiling down the liquor in earthenware pots till it is sufficiently thick. In appearance it exactly resembles Mollasses or Treacle only it is considerably thicker; in taste however it much excels it having instead of the abominable twang which treacle leaves in the mouth only a little burnt taste which was very agreable to our palates. The Sugar is of a reddish brown but more clear tasted than any Cane sugar I have tasted which was not refind, resembling mostly brown sugar candy. The syrup seemd to be very wholesome for tho many of our people eat enormous quantities of it it hurt nobody, only gently opning the body and not as we feard bringing on fluxes.
Fire wood is very scarce here. To remedy therefore that inconvenience as much as possible they make use of a contrivance which is not unknown in Europe tho seldom practisd but in camps. It is a burrow or pipe dug in the ground as long as convenient, generaly about 2 yards, and open at each end: the one opening of this into which they put the fire is large, the other which serves only to cause a draught is much smaller. Immediately over this pipe circular holes are dug which reach quite down into it: in these the earthen pots are set, about 3 to such a fire, which are large in the middle and taper towards the bottom by which means the fire acts upon a large part of their surface. It is realy marvelous to see with how small a quantity of fire they will keep these pots boiling, each of which Contains 8 or 10 gallons, a palm leaf or a dry stalk now and then is sufficient; indeed it seemd in the part of the Island at least where we were that the palms alone supplyd sufficient fuel not only for boiling this sugar but for dressing all their victuals beside, all which are cookd by this contrivance. How many parts of England are there where this contrivance would be of material assistance to not only the poor but the better sort of people who daily complain of the dearness of fuel, a charge which this contrivance alone would doubtless diminish at least one third: but it is well known how averse the good people of England, especialy of those degrees that may be supposd to be not above want, are to adopt any new custom which savours of Parsimony. I have been told that this very

1 Jagara, an Indo-Portuguese word, whence the English ‘jaggery’, for a coarse dark brown sugar made by evaporation from the sap of palms—e.g. Borassus flabellifer; but principally (in India) the wild date Phoenix sylvestris, in part of the Ganges valley north of Calcutta. Elsewhere the received importance for the purpose of Borassus flabellifer is witnessed by its alternative name, Toddy tree, used by Banks. Both the words jagara and sugar are derived from the Sanskrit sakar. The interested tourist may still see lumps of the stuff exposed for sale in the less respectable markets of Colombo.

page 164 method was proposd in the Gentlemans Magazine Vol. p. 1 many years ago but have not the book on board. Frezier in his Voyage to the South Sea describes a contrivance of the Peruvian Indians upon much the same principles, planch[e] 31. p. 273; but his drawing and plan are dificult to understand if not actualy very faulty and his description is nothing; the drawing may serve however to give an Idea to a man who has never seen a thing of the kind.

The Syrup or Gula which they make in this manner is so nourishing that Mr Lange told us it alone fed and fatned their hogs, dogs and fouls, and that even the men themselves could and had sometimes livd upon it alone for a long time when by bad seasons or their destructive feasts which I shall mention by and by they have been deprivd of all other nourishment. We saw some of the swine upon this Island whose uncommon fatness surprizd us much, which very beasts we saw one evening serv'd with their suppers consisting of nothing but the outside husks of Rice and this syrup disolvd in water, and this they told us was their constant and only food. How far it may be found consonant to truth that sugar alone should have such nourishing qualities I shall leave to others to determine; I have only accounts not experience to favour that opinion.

The people of this Island are rather under than over the midling size, the women especialy most of whoom are remarkably short and generaly squat built. Their colour is well ting'd with brown, in all Ranks and conditions nearly the same, in which particular they differ much from the inhabitants of the South sea Isles where the better sort of people are universaly almost whiter than their inferiors. The men are rather well made and seem to be active and nimble; among them we observd a greater variety of features than usual; the women on the other hand are as I said before generaly low and clumsey, are far from hansome and have a kind of sameness of features among them which might well account for the chastity of the men for which virtue this Island is said to be remarkable. The Hair of Both sexes is universaly Black and lank; the men wear it long and fastned upon the tops of their heads with a comb, the women have theirs also long and tied behind into a kind of club, not very becomeing.

Both men and women dress in a kind of Blew and white clouded cotton cloth which they manufacture themselves: of this two peices about 2 yards long each serve for a dress. One of these is worn round the middle: this the men wear pretty tight, it covering no lower than their backsides but above making a kind of loose belt 1

1 I have looked in vain through the Gentleman's Magazine for the article referred to.

page 165 in which they carry their knives &c. and often many other things so that it serves intirely the purpose of Pockets; the other peice is tuckd into this girdle and reaching over the shoulders passes down to the girdle on the other side, so that by opening or folding it they can cover more or less of their bodies as they please. The arms, legs and feet of both sexes are constantly bare, as are the heads of the women which is their cheif distinction by which at once they are known from the men, who always wear something wrap'd round theirs which tho small is generaly of the finest material they can procure. Many we saw had them of silk hankercheifs which seemd to be much in fashion.

The distinction of the womens dress except only the head consists merely in the manner of wearing their cloths, which are of the same materials and in the same quantity as the mens: their waist cloths reach down below their knees and their body cloths are tied under their arms and over their breasts Keeping up the strictest decency. Both sexes eradicate the Hair from under their armpits, a custom in these hot climates almost essential to cleanliness; the men also pluck out their beards, for which purpose the better sort carry always a pair of silver pincers hanging round their necks. Some however wear a little hair on their upper lips but that they never suffer to grow long.

Ornaments they had many: some of the better sort wore gold chains round their necks but these were cheifly made of Platted wire of little value, others had rings which by their appearance seemd to have been worn out some generations ago. One had a silver headed Cane on the top of which was engravd 1 so that it had probably been a present from the east Indian Company. Besides these they wore beads: the men cheifly of distinction round their necks in the form of a solitaire, others had them round their wrists &c, but the women had the largest quantity which they wore round their waists in the form of a girdle serving to keep up their waistcloths.2 Both sexes had their ears bord universaly but we never saw any ornaments in them; indeed we never saw any one man dressd the whole time we were there in [any] thing more than his ordinary cloths. Some boys of 12 or 14 years of age wore also circles of thick brass wire which pass'd screw fashion 3 or 4 times round their arms above the elbow, and some men wore rings of ivory, convex, 2 inches in breadth and above an inch in thickness, in the

1 The monogram of the Dutch East India CompanyVereenighde Oost-Indische Compagnie.

2 For this word S substitutes ‘petticoat’; no doubt Sophia (or should one refer to her as Sarah ?) thought she had superior knowledge on the garb of women.

page 166 same manner above the joint of the elbow: these we were told were the sons of Radjas who alone had the priviledge of wearing these cumbersome badges of high birth.

Almost all the men had their names tracd upon their arms in indelible characters of Black; the women had a square ornament of flourishd lines on the inner part of each arm just under the bend of the elbow. On enquiring into the antiquity of this custom, so consonant with that of Tattowing in the South Sea Islands, Mr Lange told us that it was among these people long before the Europeans came here but was less us'd in this than in most Islands in the neighbourhood, in some of which the people usd to mark circles round their necks, breasts &c.

Both Sexes are continualy employd in chewing Betle and Arec, the consequence of which is that their teeth as long as they have any are dyed of that filthy black colour which constantly attends the rotteness of a tooth; for it appears to me that from their first use of this custom which they begin very young their teeth are affected and continue by gradual degrees to waste away till they are quite worn to the stumps which seems to happen before old age. I have seen men in appearance between 20 and 30 whose fore teeth were almost intirely gone, no two being of the same lengh or the same thickness but every one eat into unevenesses as iron is by rust. This loss of the teeth is attributed by all whose writings upon the subject I have read to the tough and stringy coat of the Areca nut but in my opinion is much easier accounted for by the well known corrosive quality of the lime, which is a necessary ingredient in every mouthfull and that too in no very insignificant quantity. This opinion seems to me to be almost put out of dispute by the manner in which their teeth are destroyd: they are not loosned or drawn out as they should be by the too frequent labour of chewing tough substances but melt away and decay as metals in strong acids, the stumps always remaining firmly adhering to the jaws just level with the gums. Possibly the ill effects which sugar is beleivd by us Europeans to have upon the teeth may proceed from the same cause as it is well known that refin'd or loaf sugar contains in it a large quantity of lime.1

To add flavour I suppose to the Betel and Arec some use with it a small quantity of tobacco, adding the nauseous smell of that herb

1 S has here a reference foward to the remarks on the chewing habits of the Bat-avians (p. 222 below) and their use of slaked lime: ‘which shows that at Batavia at least, Arec is not prejudicial to the teeth. I can hardly suppose the difference of climate, and food, etc. makes its qualities so totaly opposite: but think (without a doubt) that at Savu the decay of their teeth is owing to their using unslacked Lime. Don't know whether at Savu they could prevent if they pleased the blackness of their teeth, but at Batavia they can clean it off at pleasure.’

page 167 to the not less disagreable look of the other as if they were resolvd to make their mouths disgustfull to the sence of smelling as well as that of sight.1 They also smoak, rolling up a small quantity of tobacco in one end of a tube made of a palm leaf about as thick as a quil and 6 inches long; of this not above one inch is filld with tobacco so that the quantity is very small, to make amends for which the women especially often swallow the smoak which no doubt increases its effects in no small degree.

Their houses are all built upon one and the same plan differing only in size according to the rank and riches of the proprietors, some being 3 or 400 feet in lengh and others not 20. They consist of a well boarded floor raisd upon posts 3 or 4 feet from the ground; over this is raisd a roof shelving like ours in Europe and supported by pillars of its own independent of the floor; the Eaves of this reach within 2 feet of the floor but overhang it as much; this open2 serves to let in air and light and makes them very cool and agreable. The space within is generaly divided into two by a partition which takes off one third. From this partition forward reaches a loft shut up close on all sides and raisd about 6 feet from the ground, which occupies the center third of the house; besides this are sometimes one or two small rooms taken off of the sides of the house. The uses of these different apartments we did not learn only were told that the loft was appropriated to the women.

The shortness of our stay and few opportunities we had of going among these people gave us no opportunities of seing what arts or manufactures they might have among them. That they spin, weave and dye their cloth we however made a shift to learn for tho we never saw them practise any of these arts yet the instruments of them accidentaly fell in our way: first a machine for clearing cotton of its seeds which was made in miniature much upon the same principles as ours in Europe, it consisting of 2 cylinders about as thick as a mans thumb the one of which was turnd round by a plain wynch handle, and that turnd the other round by an endless worm at their extremities. The whole was not above 7 inches high and about twice as long; how it answerd I know not but know that it had been much workd and that there were many peices of cotton hanging on different parts of it, which alone inducd me to beleive

1 A side-light on the personal habits of Banks—it appears that he was no smoker. The reader who can tolerate any other viewpoint on ‘betel-chewing’ is recommended to the delightful pages of E. M. Forster on ‘Pan’, in Abinger Harvest, pp. 309–14.

2 Sic; he may have meant ‘opening’, but ‘open’ makes sense. S and P open. The word could still be used as a substantive in this sense in the eighteenth century, though rather archaic.

page 168 it a real machine, otherwise from its slightness I should have taken it for no more than a Duch toy of the best sort. Their spinning geer I also once saw: it consisted of a bobbin on which a small quantity of thread was wound and a kind of distaff filld with cotton from whence I conjecture that they spin by hand, as our women in Europe did before wheels were introducd and I am told still do in some parts of Europe where that improvement is not receiv'd. Their Loom I also saw: it had this merit in preference to ours that the web was not stretchd on a frame but only extended by a peice of wood at each end, round one of which the cloth was rolld as the threads were round the other. I had not an opportunity of seing it usd so cannot at all describe it, only can say that it appeard very simple, much more so than ours and that the shuttle was as long as the breadth of the web which was about ½ a yard; in all probability from this circumstance and the unsteadiness of a web fixd to nothing the work must go on very slow. That they dyed their own cloth we first guessd by the indigo which we saw in their plantations, which guess was afterwards confirmd by Mr Lange; we likewise saw them dye womens girdles of a dirty reddish colour. Their Cloth itself was universaly dyed in the yarn with blue, which being unevenly and irregularly done gave the cloth a Clouding or waving of colour not unelegant even in our eyes.

One Chirurgical operation of theirs Mr Lange mentiond to us with great praises which indeed appears sensible: it is a method of curing wounds which they do by first washing the wound in water in which Tamarinds have been steepd, then pluging it up with a pledget made of fat of fresh pork; in this manner the wound is thouroughly cleans'd and the pledget renewd every day: he told us that by this means they had a very little while ago curd a man in three weeks of a wound of a lance which had peircd his arm and half through his body. This is the only part of either their medicinal or chirurgical art which came to our knowledge, indeed they did not seem to outward appearance to have much occasion for either, but on the contrary appeard healthfull and did not shew by scarrs of old sores or any scurvyness upon their bodies a tendency to disease. Some indeed were pitted with the small pox which Mr Lange told us had been now and then among them; in which case all who were seizd by the distemper were carried to lonely places far from habitations where they were left to the influence of their distemper, meat only being daily reachd to them by the assistance of a long pole.

How the police of their villages is carried on I cannot say I saw, page 169 but must allow that they excelld in the article of cleanliness both in their houses and without. In one thing particularly, which is their ordure, they are certainly very clever, for during our stay of 3 days not one among us that I could find out saw the least signs of it notwithstanding the populousness of the countrey, a circumstance which I beleive few of the most polishd cities in Europe can boast of.

Their religion according to the account of Mr Lange is a most absurd kind of Paganism, every man chusing his own god and also his mode of worshiping him, in which hardly any two agree. Notwithstanding this their morals are most excellent, Mr Lange declaring to us that he did not beleive that during his residence of ten years upon the Island a theft had been committd. Polygamy is by no means permitted, each man being allowd no more than one wife to whoom [he] is to adhere during life; even the Radja himself has no more. In favour of their chastity he also said that he did not beleive that a Duch man had ever receivd a favour from a woman of this Island.

The Duch boast that they make many converts to Christianity, 600 sayd Mr L. in the township of Seba where we were: what sort of christians they are I cannot say as they have neirther clergyman nor church among them. The Company have however certainly been at the expence of Printing versions of the New Testament, cathechism &c. &c. in this and several other Languages, and actualy keep a Duch Indian or half bred Duchman whose name is Fredrick Craay1 in their Service who is paid by them for instructing the youth of this Island in reading, writing and the principles of the Christian religion. Dr Solander was at his house and saw not only the Testaments and Catechisms before mentiond but also the copy books of the scolars, about 50 in number, many of whoom wrote a very fair and good hand.

The Island is divided into 5 Principalities each of which has its respective Radja or King. What his power may be we had not an opportunity of Learning: in outward appearance he had little respect shewd him yet every kind of Business which was done seemd to center in him and his cheif councelor, so that in reality he seemd to be more regarded in essentials than shewy useless ceremonies. The Reigning Radja while we were there was calld Madocho Lomi Djara; he was about the age of 35, the fattest man we saw upon the whole Island and the only one also upon whose body grew any quantity of hair, a circumstance very unusual among Indians. He

1 Hawkesworth gives the name as Craig. P Craay, S Craaig.

page 170 appeard to be of a dull heavy disposition and I beleive was governd almost intirely by a very sensible old man Calld Mannu djame who was belovd by the whole principality. Both these were dis-tinguishd from the rest of the natives by their dress which was always a nightgown generaly of coarse Chintz; once indeed the Radja receivd us in form in one of Black Princes stuff1 which I suppose may be lookd upon as more grave and proper to inspire respect. If any differences arise between the people they are setled by the Radja and his councelors without the least delay or appeal, and sayd Mr L. always with the strictest justice. So excellent is the disposition of these people that if any dispute arises between any two of them they never, if it is of consequence, more than barely mention it to each other, never allowing themselves to reason upon it least heat should beget ill blood but referr it immediately to this court.

After the Radja we could hear of no ranks of People but Landowners, respectable according to their quantity of land more or less, and slaves the property of the former, over whoom however they have no other power than that of selling them for what they will fetch when convenient, no man being able to punish his slave without the concurrence and approbation of the Radja. Of these slaves some men have 500, others only 2 or 3; what was their price in general we did not learn, only heard by accident that a very fat hog was of the value of a slave and often sold and bought at that price. When any great man stirs out he is constantly attended by 2 or more of these slaves, one of whoom carries a sword or hanger whose hilt is comm[o]nly of Silver and ornamented with large tassels of horse hair; the other carries a bag which contains Beetle, Areca, Lime, Tobacco &c. In these attendants all their Idea of Shew and grandeur seems to be centerd for the Radja himself had on no occasion which we saw any more.

The pride of descent, particularly of being sprung from a family which has for many generations been respected is by no means unknown here. Even the living in a house which has been for generations well attended is no small honour: in consequence of this it is that few articles either of use or luxury bear so high a price as those stones which by having been very much set upon by men have contracted a bright polish on their uneven surfaces; those who can purchase such stones or who have them by inheritance from their ancestors place them round their houses where they

1 This has nothing to do with the Black Prince, as one might infer: ‘prince's stuff’ was a corded textile material, used for academic gowns or other such civil uniforms, and would therefore have for Banks an appearance of formality.

page 171 serve as benches for their dependants, I suppose to polish still higher and higher.

Every Radja during his life time sets up in his capital town or Nigrie a large stone which serves futurity as a testimony of his reign—in the Nigrie Seba where we lay were 13 such stones, besides many fragments the seeming remains of those which had been devourd by time. Many of these were very large, even so much so that it would be dificult to conceive how the strengh of man alone unassisted by engines had been able to transport them to the top of a hill where they now stand, were there not in Europe so many far grander instances of the Perseverance as well as strengh of our own forefathers. These Stones serve for a very peculiar use. Upon the Death of a Radja a general feast is proclaimd throughout his dominions and in consequence all his subjects meet about these stones. Every living Creature that can be caught is now killd and the feast lasts a longer or shorter number of weeks or months according to the stock of Provisions the kingdom happens to be furnishd with at the time, the stones serving for tables on which the whole, Buffaloes &c, are servd up. After this madness is over the whole kingdom is obligd to fast and live upon syrup and water till the next crop, nor are they able to eat any flesh meat till some years after when the few animals that escapd the general slaughter, were preserv'd by policy, or acquird from the Neighbouring kingdoms have sufficiently Encreasd their species.

The five kingdoms say'd Mr Lange of which this Island consists have been for time immemorial not only at peace but in strict alliance with each other, notwithstanding which they are of a warlike disposition, Constant freinds but implacable Enemies and have always courageously defended themselves against foreign invaders. They are able to raise on a very short notice 7300 men armd with musquets, Lances, spears and Targets: of these the different kingdoms bear their different proportions: Laai 2600, Seba 2000, Regëeuä 1500, Timo 800, and Massara 400. Besides the arms before mentiond every man is furnishd with a large chopping knife like a streigh[t]ned wood Bill1 but much heavier, which must be a terrible weapon if these people should have spirit enough to come to close quarters. Mr L upon another occasion took an opportunity of telling us that they heave their Lances with surprizeing dexterity, being able at the distance of 60 feet to strike a mans heart and peirce him through.

1 ‘Bill’ in the sense of knife, for pruning or cutting wood; its edge was concave. He may also have had a bill-hook in mind.

page 172

How far these dreadfull accounts of their martial prowess might be true I dare not take upon myself to determine: all I shall say is that during our stay we saw no signs either of a warlike disposition or such formidable arms. Spears and Targets indeed there were in the Duch house about 100, the greatest part of which Spears servd to arm the people who came down to intimidate us; but so little did these doubty heroes think of fighting or indeed keeping up apearances that instead of a Target each was furnishd with a cock, some tobacco or something of that kind which he took this opportunity of bringing down to sell. Their spears seemd all to have been brought to them by Europeans, the refuse of old armories, no two being of any thing near the same lengh, the whole verying in that particular from 6 feet to 16; as for their Lances not one of us saw one of them; their musquets tho clean on the outside were honey-combd with rust on the inside; few or none of their Cartridge boxes had either powder or ball in them and to compleat, all the swivels and patereroes1 at the Duch house were all laying out of their carriages, and the one great gun which lay before it on a heap of stones was not only more honeycomb'd with rust than any peice of artillery I have ever seen but had the touchhole turnd downwards, probably to conceal its size which might not be in all probability much less than the bore of the gun itself.

The Duch however use these Islanders as auxiliaries in their wars against the inhabitants of Timor where they do good service, their lives at all events not being2 near so valuable as those of Duchmen.

This Island had been setled by the Portugese almost from their first coming into these seas. When the Duch first came here they were however very soon wormd out by the machinations of these artfull new comers, who content with that did not attempt to settle themselves in the Island but only sent Sloops occasionaly to trade with the Natives, by whoom they were often cut off, as often I suppose as they cheated them in too great a proportion. This However and the probably increasing value of the Island at last temptd them to try some other way of securing it and running less risques, which took place about ten years ago when a treaty of Alliance was signd between the five Radjas and the Duch Company; in consequence of which the Company is yearly to furnish each of these kings with a certain quantity of fine linnen and silk, Cutlery

1 A version of a word more often spelt in English ‘pederaro’, from the Spanish pedrero; it was a small gun mostly used on ships, originally to discharge stones (hence the name) but also any sort of small or broken iron, and to fire salutes.

2 S here has a note, ‘to Europeans’.

page 173 ware &c, in short all species of goods which he wants, all which is deliverd in the form of a present accompanied with a certain Cask of Rack1 which the Radja and his principal people never cease to drink as long as a drop of it remains.

In return for this each Radja agrees that neither he nor his subjects shall trade with any person except the company unless they had the permission of their resident; that they should yearly supply a certain quantity of Rice, Maize and Calevanses, so many sloop loads. The Maize and Calevances are sent off to Timor in sloops which are kept on the Island for that purpose, each navigated by ten Indians; the Rice is taken away by a ship which at the time of that harvest comes to the Island annualy bringing the companies presents and anchoring by turns in each of the three bays.

In consequence of this treaty Mr Lange, a Portugese Indian who seems to be his second, and a Duch Indian who serves for schoolmaster, are permitted to live among them. Mr Lange himself is attended by 50 Slaves on horseback, attended by whoom he once every two months makes the tour of the Island visiting all the Radjas, exhorting those to plant who seem Idle, and observing where the Crops are got in which he immediately sends Sloops for, Navigated by these same slaves, so that the crop proceeds im-mediately from the ground to the Duch storehouses at Timor. In these excursions he always carries certain bottles of Rack which he finds of great use in opening the hearts of the Radjas with whoom he is to deal; but notwithstanding the boasted honesty of these people it requires his utmost diligence to keep it from his slaves who notwithstanding all his care often ease him of a great part of it. During the ten years that he has resided on this Island no European but himself has ever been here, except at the time of the arrival of the Duch ship which had saild about 2 months before we came here. He is indeed distinguishable from the Indians only by his colour—like them he sets upon the ground and chews his Beetle &c. He has been for some years married to an Indian woman of the Island of Timor who keeps his house in the Indian fashion, and he excusd himself to us for not asking us to his house, telling us that he was not able to entertain us any other way than the rest of the Indians whoom we saw; he speaks neither german his native Language nor dutch without frequent hesitations and mistakes, on the contrary the Indian language seems to flow from him with the utmost facility. As I forgot to mention their language in its proper place

1 Arrack, distilled from rice, sugar and coconut-juice. The Endeavour was supplied with too gallons, at Cook's request, as part of her stores when she left England.

page 174 I shall take this opportunity to write down the few observations I had an opportunity of making during our short stay. The genius of it seems much to resemble that of the South Sea Isles: in several instances words are exactly the same and the numbers are undoubtedly derivd from the same source. I give here a list of words:
Momonne a man Tooga the thighs
Mobunnee a woman Rootoo the knees
Catoo the Head Baibo the legs
Row Catoo the Hair Dunceala the feet
Matta the eyes Kissooei yilla the toes
Row na Matta the eyelashes Camacoo the arms
Sivanga the nose Wulaba the Hand
Cavaranga the cheeks Cabaon A Buffaloe
Wo deeloo the ears Djara a horse
Vaio the Tongue Vavee a hog
Lacoco the neck Doomba a sheep
Loosoo the breasts Kesavoo a goat
Caboo Soosoo the nipples Gnaca a dog
Dulloo the belly Maio a cat
Assoo the navel Mannu a fowl
Rangoretoo the beak Carow the tail
Ica a fish 1. Usse
Unjoo a turtle 2. Lhua
Nieu Cocoa nut 3. Tullu
Boacoree Fan palm 4. Uppah
Calella areca 5. Lumme
Canana Beetle 6. Unna
Aou Lime 7. Pedu
Maänadoo a fish hook 8. Arru
Tata Tattow 9. Saou
Lodo the Sun 10. Singooroo
Wurroo the moon 11. Singooring Usse &c
Aidassee the Sea 20. Lhuangooroo &c
Ailei water 100. Sing Assu &c
Aee Fine 1000. Setuppah &c.
Maate to dye 10000. Selacussa &c.
Tabudje to sleep 100000. Serata &c
Ta teetoo to rise 1000000. Sereboo &c
In the course of conversation Mr Lange gave us little accounts of the neighbouring Islands: these I shall set down just as they came to me merely upon his authority. First then beginning with the small Island to the westward of Savu calld Pulo…,1 this said he

1 Rai Jua. Cf. p. 159, n. 1 above.

page 175 produces Nothing of consequence except Areca nuts of which the Duch annualy receive two sloop loads in return for their presents to the Islanders.

Timor is the cheif Island in these parts belonging to the Duch,1 all the others in the neighbourhood being subject to it so far as that the residents on them go there once a year to pass their accounts. It is now in nearly the same state as it was in Dampiers time. The Duch have their fort of Concordia where are storehouses which according to Mr L's account would have supplyd our ship with every article we could have got at Batavia, even salt Provisions and Arrack. The Duch are however very frequently at war with the natives even of Copang2 their next neighbours in which case themselves are obligd to send to the neighbouring Isles for provisions. The Portugese still possess their towns of Laphao and Sesial on the North side of the Island.

About two years ago a French ship was wreckd upon the East coast of Timor; she lay some days upon the shoal when a sudden gale of wind coming on broke her up at once and drown'd most of the Crew among whoom was the Captn. Those who got ashore among whoom was one of the lieutenants made the best of their way towards Concordia,3 where they arrivd in four days having left several of their party upon the road. Their number was then above 80 who were supplyd with every necessary and had assistance given them in order to go back to the wreck and fish up what they could; this they did and recoverd all their Bullion which was in chests and several of their guns which were large. Their companions which they had left upon the road were all missing; the Indians it was supposd had either by force or persuasion kept them among them, they being very desirous of having Europeans among them to instruct them in the art of war. After a stay of two months at Concordia their company was dimini[s]hd more than half by sickness's, cheifly in consequence of the great fatigues they had endurd on those days when they got ashore and traveld to that place; these were then furnishd with a small ship in which they saild for Europe.

We enquird much for the Island of Anabao or Anamabao mentiond by Dampier. He assurd us that he knew of no Island of that name

1 The Dutch made good their ownership only of the western part of Timor, the eastern part remaining to the Portuguese, who had settled early in the sixteenth century. The first Dutch landing was in 1613, and the Raja of Kupang allowing them to settle, their presence has been continuous since 1616. Kupang, at the south-west end of the island, remained the Dutch capital.

2 Kupang or Koepang, is the present name of the old Dutch fortified town of Concordia. Banks seems here to be speaking of it as a district.

3 See previous note. Concordia remained the name of the Dutch fort.

page 176 any where in these seas. I since have observd that it is laid down in several charts by the name of Selam which is probably the real name of it.1 Rotte is upon much the same footing as Savu— a Duchman resides upon it to manage the natives; its produce is also much like that of Savu; it has also some sugar which was formerly made by only bruising the canes and boiling the juice to a syrup as they do the Palm wine, lately however they have made great improvements in that manufactory. Their are three Islands of the name of Solor2 laying to the eastward of Ende or Flores:3 these Islands are flat and low abounding with vast plenty of provisions and stock; they are also managd in the same manner as Savu; on the middlemost of them is a good harbour, the other two are without Shelter. Ende is still in the hands of the Portugese who have a town and good harbour calld Larntuca4 on the Ne corner of it; the old harbour of Ende situate on the South side of it is not near so good and therefore now intirely neglected.

The inhabitants of each of these different Islands speak different languages and the cheif Policy of the Duch is to prevent them from learning each others language, as by this means they keep each to their respective Island, preventing them from entering into trafick with each other or learning from mutual intercourse to plant such things as would be of greater value to themselves than their present produce tho at the same time less beneficial to the Duch East Indian Company; and at the same time secure to themselves alone the benefit of supplying all their necessities at their own rates, no dout not very moderate. This may possibly sufficiently account for the expence they must have been at in printing Prayer books, catechises &c. at their expence and teaching them to each Island in its own language rather than in Duch, which in all probability they might have as easily done, but at the risque of Dutch becoming the common language of these Islands and consequently the natives by its means gaining an intercourse with each other.

21. Notwithstanding our Freind Mr Lange invited us very kindly last night to come ashore again in the morn and we saw divers Jarrs of Syrup and sheep &c. waiting for us upon the Beach, a sure

1 Cook, ’Seman as it is call'd in the Charts’. Banks has a marginal note, ’the real name is Seman’. See p. 149, n. 3 above.

2 The Solor Islands, Adunara, Solor and Lomblen.

3 On the name Ende see p. 151, n. 1 above.

4 Larantuka.

page 177 sign that the Radjas prohibition was not intended to prejudice trade in the least, We who had now got plenty of all the refreshments which the Isle afforded thought it most prudent to weigh and sail directly for Batavia; all our fears of Westerly winds being dissipated By Mr Lange's assuring us that the Easterly Monsoon would prevail for two Months longer. Accordingly we did so and soon passd by the small Island laying to the W about a leag[u]e from Savoo— its name has been unluckily forgot, Pulo Samiri, or some thing like it may be.1 In the Evening a small Island was in sight to the Southward;2 trade rather slack. One of the Buffaloes who was kild weig'd only 166 1b, which was a great draw back on our expectations, who thought that even that tho much the least of our stock would not weigh less than 300 1b.

22. Still but little wind. Many very large Albecores were leaping about the ship at night; some bobies but none were fools enough to settle on the Rigging.

23. Weather, Bobies and Albecores much as Yesterday. These light winds which would have been almost intolerable to empty stomachs sat pretty easily on our full ones.3

24. Breeze freshning by very gradual degrees together with a long swell heaving in from the Southward, sure sign that there was now no more land to interrupt us in that direction, was an agreable subject of conversation. Infinite flying fish and bobies; some Gannets seen.

25. Trade, fish, Gannets, bobies and Conversation much as yesterday.

26. Trade rather slacker than it had been. Eat today a buttock of Buff- aloe which had been 3 days in salt: it eat so well and had so thouroughly taken salt that it was resolvd to Salt meat for the ships company when our biggest Buffaloes who would weigh above 300 1b were killd.

27. Trade fresher and more to the S. Men of War birds, Gannets and Black Shearwaters4 in abundance.

28. Squally in the night with rain and fine fresh trade shov'd us on Merrily. Our beef experiment was this day tried and succeeded

1 The island was Rai Jua, already mentioned. I do not know what other name Banks was guessing at, if any other.

2 Dana.

3 This sentence has nothing to do with sea-sickness, but refers to the ship's speed: if they had been short of food her slow progress would have been intolerable.

4 Possibly the Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus pacificus (Gm.).

page 178 but scurvily. The meat which had been killd on the 26th was not salted till Cold: it hardly stunk: the outside which had been in absolute contact with the salt was quite good but under that which formd a crust of various thickness the meat was in a wonderfull manner corrupted; it lookd well but every fibre was destroyd and disolv'd so that the whole was a paste of the consistence of soft putty yet this hard[1]y stunk. Some Gannets and Man of War birds were about the Ship.

29. Fresh trade. More Gannets and Man of War birds than usual were seen, and one tropick bird which seemd to be of a brownish or buff colour but stayd a very short time about the ship.

30. Two more Buff colourd Tropick birds were about the ship in the morn in company with a white one which was one third at least larger than they were; From thence I am inclind to think that they may be the Paille-en-cul fauve of Brisson, Vol. VI, p. 489 and realy a distinct species.1 Besides these many Birds were about the ship, Man of War, Bobies, Gannets &c, who all flew nearer the ship and shewd less fear of her than usual; in the Eve many very small whiteish birds were seen which flew in flocks.2 We had all this day stood in directly for the Land, yet night came and tho many had seen Capes and Headlands in the air yet no real land was seen which made us rather uneasy, as we had great reason to suppose that we had overshot the Mouth of the Streights, no very agreable Idea. We had made 15’ 30" of Longitude from the South end of Timor and thought our selves quite safe as La Neptune Oriental3 makes the difference to be 18’ 40", yet when we recollected that our Countrey man Dampier makes only 144 we had reason to be uneasy; so at sun set we clap'd close upon a wind in order to make the best of our bargain howsoever it might turn out.

1 This ’buff’ tinge is well known in tropic birds, particularly in the White-tailed. Brisson's bird is considered to be one of these.

2 A description too vague for the purpose of identification.

3 J. B. N. D. d'Après de Mannevillette, Le Neptune Oriental, ou routier général des côles des Indes Orientales et de la Chine (ed. 1, 1745; ed. 2, 1775). This was freely copied by British hydrographers, e.g. in A New Directory for the East Indies, by William Herbert (1758 and later editions), The East India Pilot or Oriental Navigator (c. 1780), etc

4 A slip for 140. In fact, Cook's longitudes were erroneous; he had been unable to check by astronomical observation since leaving Savu, and the westerly current had put his dead reckoning out. Hence the uneasiness which prevailed.