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The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771 [Volume One]

October 1769

October 1769

1. Very little wind and yet vast quantities of small birds are about the ship which has been to us a very uncommon sight in such fine weather; a Seal seen from the ship. Several peices of sea weed are taken and among them a peice of wood quite overgrown with sertularias;4 it must have been a long time at Sea yet more hopes are drawn from this than the sea weed, as we now have in our possession a part of the produce of our Land of Promise. Among the weed are many sea insects which are put into spirits weed wood and all, so we shall at least have this to shew. Several whales have been seen today.

2. Calm: I go in the boat and take up Dagysa rostrata,5 Serena,6

4 Sertularia, a common hydroid.

5 Thetys vagina: cf. 6 September 1768.

6 Dagysa serena: Thalia democratica; see 2–4 September 1768.

page 396 polyedra,1 Beroe incrassata,2 coarctata,3 medusa vitrea,4 Phyllodoce velella, with several other things which are all put in spirits. See a seal but cannot come near him to shoot. Shoot Diomedea exulans,5 Procellaria velox,6 pallipes,7 Latirostris,8 longipes9 and Nectris fuliginosa.10

3. Calm almost this morn. About 5 a sudden squall came on with such violence that the officer of the watch was obligd to settle the topsails, it did not however last above 5 minutes; this we look upon as a sure sign of land as such squalls are rarely (if ever) met with at any considerable distance from it. I go in the boat and kill Procellaria capensis, longipes and latirostris. In the course of the day several peices of sea weed are taken up of species very new and one peice of wood coverd with Striated Barnacles Lepas Anserina?11

Now do I wish that our freinds in England could by the assistance of some magical spying glass take a peep at our situation: Dr Solander setts at the Cabbin table describing, myself at my Bureau Journalizing, between us hangs a large bunch of sea weed, upon the table lays the wood and barnacles; they would see that notwisthstanding our different occupations our lips move very often, and without being conjurors might guess that we were talking about what we should see upon the land which there is now no doubt we shall see very soon.

4. Several small peices of sea weed are seen today but no heaps;

1 D. polyedra: a nectophore of a siphonophore, probably Stephanomia rubra (Vogt), or perhaps Agalma elegans (Sars). See Parkinson III, pl. 36a. Solander, p. 511, gives only this record.

2 Probably Beroe ovata; see 12 January 1769.

3 B. coarctata: possibly a species of Lampelia. See Parkinson III, pl. 60b, for a drawing made on this day, and Solander, p. 433, for a description.

4 Probably Aequorea sp.; see 19 September 1769.

5 Parkinson in his Journal (p. 85), and Solander, p. 7, both give the wing span of this albatross as 10 ft 7 in., and Solander records its weight as 28 lb. Murphy discusses weights in this species and quotes a maximum of 20 lb (Oceanic Birds of South America, 1936, p. 543), from which it would appear that a slip has occurred in Solander's MS. His other weights for exulans are only 12 and 16 lb.

6 The gadfly petrels taken on 2 and 7 October were possibly distinct, since Solander remarks that they were somewhat larger and heavier than his other specimens of ‘P. velox’ (see 15 February 1769).

7 P. pallipes: the Grey Petrel or Pediunker, Adamastor cinereus (Gm.), which was described by Solander, p. 71.

8 P. latirostris: the Broad-billed Whale Bird, Pachyptila vittata Forster. See Solander, pp. 61–2, who gives only this record of the species.

9 P. longipes: the Grey-backed Storm Petrel, Garrodia nereis (Gould). There is no painting by Parkinson of this species although it was taken on four occasions; Solander described one specimen as P. saltatrix, p. 49, and four others as P. longipes, p. 63.

10 Puffinus griseus (Gm.), the Sooty Shearwater or Mutton-bird. Solander records this specimen; see 15 February 1769.

11 This was probably Lepas anserifera, which is a striped barnacle and which was recorded by Solander, p. 389, on 23 October; a slip has occurred over this date, as Solander gives the ship's position as 37° S and 171° 30° W, which is close to Cook's figure for 3 October but differs considerably from the position given by Cook on 23 and 24 October.

page 397 weather pleasant, breeze rather of the gentlest. Towards evening we were entertaind by a large shoal of Porpoises like those of the 30th of last month;1 they came up to the ship in prodigious circl[in]g action leaping out of the water sometimes 2 or 3 feet high as nimbly as Bonetos; immediately after them came a number of a larger sort quite black who movd very heavy in the water;2 both these troops kept their course by the ship without taking much notice of her probably in pursuit of some prey.

5. Our old enemy Cape fly away entertaind us for three hours this morn all which time there were many opinions in the ship, some said it was land and others Clouds which at last however plainly appeard. 2 Seals passd the ship asleep and 3 of the birds which Mr Gore calls Port Egmont hens, Larus Catarrhactes,3 and says are a sure sign of our being near land. They are something larger than a crow, in flight much like one, flapping their wings often with a slow motion; their bodies and wings of a dark chocolate or soot colour, under each wing a small broadish bar of dirty white which makes them so remarkable that it is hardly possible to mistake them. They are seen as he says all along the Coast of America and in Faulklands Isles; I myself remember to have seen them at Terra del Fuego but by some accident did not note them down. Just before sun set we were much entertaind by a shoal of Porpoises like those seen yesterday; they kept in sight of the ship for near an hour, all that while as if in hot pursuit of some prey, leaping out of the water almost over each other; they might be very justly compard to a pack of hounds in full cry only their numbers which were some thousands made them a much more considerable object; sometimes they formd a line near ¼ of a mile in lengh, sometimes contracted them selves into a much smaller compass, keeping the water wherever they went in a foam so that when they were so far from the ship that their bodys could not be distinguishd any man would have taken them for breakers.

6. This morn a Port Egmont hen and a seal were seen pretty early. At ½ past one a small boy who was at the mast head4 Calld out Land.

1 There seems to be some slip here, as neither Banks nor Cook recorded porpoises on either 30 September or 30 August.

2 Possibly Pilot Whale, Globicephala sp. Since Cook was keeping nautical time, we some times find that the dates given by him and by Banks for the same observations do not agree. It is probable that Cook's note for 5 October, in which he gives a brief description of Lissodelphis perani, the Right Whale Dolphin, and mentions the presence of a larger species, covers this entry by Banks.

3 The southern form of the Great Skua. See 29 September.

4 This was Nicholas Young, on whom see Cook I, pp. ccxxxv, 173, 589.

page break page 399 I was luckyly upon deck and well I was entertaind, within a few minutes the cry circulated and up came all hands, this land could not then be seen even from the tops yet few were there who did not plainly see it from the deck till it appeard that they had lookd at least 5 points wrong.

Weather most moderate. We came up with it very slowly; at sun set myself was at the masthead, land appeard much like an Island or Islands but seemd to be large. Just before a small shark was seen who had a very piked nose something like our dog fish in England.1

7. This morn the Land plainly seen from the deck appears to be very large; about 11 a large smoak was seen and soon after several more, sure sign of inhabitants. After dinner dropd calm: myself in little boat shot Nectris munda2 and Procellaria velox,3 took with the dipping net Dagysa gemma4 and a good deal of Fucus,5 sertularia6 &c, the examination of which is postpond till we shall have more time than we are likely to have at present.

In the Evening a pleasant breeze. At sunset all hands at the mast head; Land still distant 7 or 8 leagues, appears larger than ever, in many parts 3, 4 and 5 ranges of hills are seen one over the other and a chain of Mountains over all, some of which appear enormously high.7 Much difference of opinion and many conjectures about Islands, rivers, inlets &c, but all hands seem to agree that this is certainly the Continent we are in search of.8

8. This morn the land very near us makes in many white cliffs like chalk; the hills are in general clothd with trees, in the valleys some appear to be very large; the whole of the appearance not so fruitfull as we could wish. Stood in for a large bay in hopes of finding a harbour; before we are well within the heads saw several Canoes standing across the bay, who after a little time returnd to the place they came from not appearing to take the least notice of us. Some houses were also seen which appeard low but neat, near one a good many people were collected who sat down on the beach seemingly

1 Unidentifiable.

2 The Little or Allied Shearwater, Puffinus assimilis; or perhaps the Fluttering Shearwater, Puffinus gavia (Forster). See 15 February 1769 and 16 October below. This specimen was not recorded by Solander.

3 See 15 February and 30 August 1769. This was recorded by Solander.

4 Thalia democratica. See 2 October 1768.

5 Fucus is seaweed generally, or was in Banks's time.

6 Some form of polyzoan.

7 Probably this was the Huiarau range, which rises to 4500 feet at its highest point.

8 Several of the early charts of New Zealand by Pickersgill are entitled ‘A Chart of Part of the Southern Continent’ etc.

page 400 observing us, possibly the same as we saw in the canoes as they landed somewhere near that place. On a small peninsula at the NE head we could plainly see a regular paling, pretty high, inclosing the top of a hill, for what purpose many conjectures were made: most are of opinion or say at least that it must or shall be either [a] park of Deer or a feild of oxen and sheep.1 By 4 oclock came to an anchor near 2 miles from the shore. The bay appears to be quite open without the least shelter: the two sides of it make in high white Cliffs, the middle is low land with hills graduaiy rising behind one another to the chain of high mountains inland. Here we saw many great smoaks, some near the beach others between the hills, some very far within land, which we lookd upon as great indications of a populous countrey.

In the evening went ashore with the marines &c. March from the boats in hopes of finding water &c. Saw a few of the natives who ran away immediately on seeing us; while we were absent 4 of them attackd our small boat in which were only 4 boys, they got off from the shore in a river, the people followd them and threatned with long lances; the pinnace soon came to their assistance, fird upon them and killd the cheif. The other three draggd the body about 100 yards and left it. At the report of the musquets we drew together and went to the place where the body was left; he was shot through the heart. He was a middle sizd man tattowd in the face on one cheek only in spiral lines very regularly formd; he was coverd with a fine cloth of a manufacture totaly new to us, it was tied on exactly as represented in Mr Dalrymples book2 p. 63; his hair was also tied in a knot on the top of his head but no feather stuck in it; his complexion brown but not very dark.

Soon after we came on board we heard the people ashore very distinctly talking very loud no doubt, as they were not less than two miles distant from us, consulting probably what is to be done tomorrow.

9. We could see with our glasses but few people on the beach; they walkd with a quick pace towards the river where we landed yesterday, most of these without arms, 3 or 4 with long Pikes in their hands. The captn orderd three boats to be mannd with seamen and marines intending to land and try to establish a communication with them. A high surf ran on the shore. The Indians about 50

1 The ‘paling’ was the stockading of a pa or fortified village.

2 This was the engraved ‘View of Murderers Bay in New Zeland’, in Dalrymple's Account of the Discoveries made in the South Pacifick Ocean, Previous to 1764, which he got from Valentyn's Oudt en Nieuw Oost-Indien.

page 401 remaind on the farther side of the river; we lookd upon that as a sign of fear, so landing with the little boat only the Captn Dr Solander, Tupia and myself went to the river side to speak to them. As soon almost as we appeard they rose up and every man producd either a long pike1 or a small weapon of well polishd stone about a foot long and thick enough to weigh 4 or 5 pounds,2 with these they threatned us and signd to us to depart. A musquet was then fird wide of them the ball of which struck the water, they saw the effect and immediately ceasd their threats. We though[t] that it was prudent to retreat till the marines were landed and drawn up to intimidate them and support us in case of nesscessity. They landed and marchd with a Jack3 carried before them to a little bank about 50 yards from the river, which might be about 40 broad; here they were drawn up in order and we again advancd to the river side with Tupia, who now found that the language of the people was so like his own that he could tolerably well understand them and they him. He immediately began to tell them that we wanted provisions and water for which we would give them Iron in exchange: they agreed to the proposal but would by no means lay by their arms which he desird them do: this I he lookd upon as a sign of treachery and continualy told us to be upon our guard for they were not our freinds. Many words passd the cheif purport of which was that each side desird the other to come over to them; at last however an Indian stripd himself and swam over without arms, he was followd by two more and soon after by most of the rest who brought with them their arms. We gave them Iron and beads, they seemd to set little value upon either but especialy upon the iron the use of which they certainly were totaly ignorant of. They caught at whatever was offerd them but would part with nothing but a few feathers: their arms indeed they offerd to exchange for ours which they made several atempts to snatch from us; we were upon our guard so much that their attempts faild and they were made to understand that we must kill them if they snatchd any thing from us. After some time Mr Green in turning himself about exposd his hanger, one of them immediately snatchd it, set up a cry of exultation and waving it round his head retreated gently. It now appeard nescessary for our safeties that so daring an act should be instantly punishd,

1 This must have been the ordinary Maori fighting spear or tao, six to nine feet long.

2 No doubt the mere, one of the palu class of weapons. Cook and his men (and Banks himself later) generally referred to them as ‘Pattoo Pattoos’.

3 i.e. the small-sized ship's flag of the period, the ‘Union Jack’ incorporating the crosses of St George and St Andrew.

page 402 this I pronouncd aloud as my opinion, the Captn and the rest Joind me on which I fird my musquet which was loaded with small shot, leveling it between his shoulders who was not 15 yards from me. On the shot striking him he ceasd his cry but instead of quitting his prize continued to wave it over his head retreating as gently as before; the surgeon who was nearer him, seeing this fird a ball at him at which he dropd. Two more who were near him returnd instantly, one seizd his weapon of Green talk,1 the other attempted to recover the hanger which the surgeon had scarce time to prevent. The main body of them were now upon a rock2 a little way in the river. They took the water returning towards us, on which the other three, for we were only 5 in number, fird on them. They then retird and swam again across the river. On their landing we saw that 3 were wounded, one seemingly a good deal hurt: we may hope however that neither of them were killd as one of the musquets only was loaded with ball, which I think I saw strike the water without taking effect, and Tupias gun which was the last that was fird I clearly saw strike two men low down upon their legs, who probably would be so lame as to walk with difficulty when they landed.
The Indians retird gently carrying with them their wounded and we reembarkd in our boats intending to row round the bay, see if there might be any shelter for the ship on the other side, and attempt to land there where the countrey appeard to be much more fruitfull than where we now were. The bottom of the bay provd to be a low sandy beach on which the sea broke most prodigiously so that we could not come near it; within was flat, a long way inland over this water might be seen from the mast head probably a lagoon but in the boat we could see no entrance into it.3 We had almost arrivd at the farthest part of the bay when a fresh breze came in from the seaward and we saw a Canoe sailing in standing right towards [us], soon after anotlier padling. The Captn now resolvd to take one of these which in all probability might be done without the least resistance as we had three boats full of men and the canoes seemd to be fishermen, who probably were without arms. The boats were drawn up in such a manner that they could not well escape us: the padling canoe first saw us

1 i.e. talc—nephrite or greenstone, sometimes referred to by Cook as jade.

2 Called Te Toka a Taiau—the rock of Taiau. It no longer exists, having been blasted out in the course of harbour works.

3 There is no lagoon there now; but the meandering course pursued by the Waipaoa river on that flat land could easily have produced one as the result of rain or the overflowing of an oxbow bend. There was a lagoon in the 1860's—but whether Banks's lagoon (if he indeed saw one) or not we do not know.

page 403 and made immediately for the nearest land, the other saild on till she was in the midst of us before she saw us, as soon as she did she struck her sail and began to paddle so briskly that she outran our boat; on a musquet being fird over her she however immediately ceasd padling and the people in her, 7 in all, made all possible haste to strip as we thought to leap into the water, but no sooner did our boat come up with her than they began with stones, paddles &c. to make so brisk a resistance that we were obligd to fire into her by which 4 were killd. The other three who were boys leapd overboard, one of them swam with great agility and when taken made every effort in his power to prevent being taken into the boat, the other two were more easily prevaild upon. As soon as they were in they squatted down expecting no doubt instant death, but on finding themselves well usd and that Gloaths were given them they recoverd their spirits in a very short time and before we got to the ship appeard almost totaly insensible of the loss of their fellows. As soon as they came onboard we offerd them bread to eat of which they almost devourd a large quantity, in the mean time they had Cloaths given them; this good usage had such an effect that they seemd to have intirely forgot every thing that had happned, put on chearfull and lively countenances and askd and answerd questions with a great deal of curiosity. Our dinner came, they expressd a curiosity to taste whatever they saw us eat, and did; salt pork seemd to please them better than any thing else, of this they eat a good deal. At sunset they eat again an enormous quantity of Bread and drank above a quart of water each; we then made them beds upon the lockers and they laid down to sleep with all seeming content imaginable. After dark loud voices were heard ashore as last night. Thus ended the most disagreable day My life has yet seen, black be the mark for it and heaven send that such may never return to embitter future reflection.1 I forgot to mention in its proper place that we pickd up a large pumice stone floating in the bay in returning to the ship today, a sure sign that there either is or has been a Volcano in this neighbourhood.2
10. In the middle of last night one of our boys seemd to shew more reflection than he had before done sighing often and loud; Tupia who was always upon the watch to comfort them got up and soon made them easy. They then sung a song of their own, it was not

1 Cf. Cook's entry for this date (or rather for 10 October, p.m.), I, p. 171, and the drafts, which show his troubled conscience.

2 The nearest volcano inland was Ngauruhoe, in the centre of the island, which could hardly have been the origin of this pumice. It may have been carried round by the current from White Island, in the Bay of Plenty.

page 404 without some taste, like a Psalm tune and containd many notes and semitones; they sung it in parts which gives us no indifferent Idea of their taste as well as skill in musick. The oldest of them is about 18, the middlemos[t] 15, the youngest 10; the midlemost especialy has a most open countenance and agreable manner; their names are Taáhourange, Koikerange, and Maragooete,1 the two first brothers. In the morning they were all very chearfull and eat an enormous quantity, after that they were dressd and ornamented with bracelets, ancklets and necklaces after their own fashion. The boats were then hoisted out and we all got into them: the boys expressed much joy at this till they saw that we were going to land at our old Landing place near the river, they beggd very much that they might not be set ashore at that place where they said were Enemies of theirs who would kill and eat them. The Captn resolvd to go ashore at that place and if the boys did not chuse to go from us, in the evening to send a boat with them to the part of the bay to which they pointed and calld their home. Accordingly we went ashore and crossd the river. The boys at first would not leave us. No method was usd to persuade them; it was even resolvd to return and carry them home when on a sudden they seemd to resolve to go and with tears in their eyes took leave. We then went along a swamp intending to shoot some ducks of which there was great plenty;2 the countrey was quite flat; the Sergeant and 4 marines attended us walking upon a bank abreast of us which overlookd the countrey. We proceeded about a mile when they Calld out that a large body of Indians was marching towards us, we drew together and resolvd to retreat; before we had put this in execution the 3 boys rose out of a bush in which they were hid and put themselves again under our protection. We went upon the beach as the clearest place and walkd briskly towards the boats. The Indians were in two parties, one marchd along the bank before spoke of, the other came round by the morass where we could not see them; on seing us draw togetlier they ceasd to run as they had done and walkd but gently on, a circumstance most fortunate for us, for when we came to our boats the pinnace was a mile at least from her station, (sent their by the officer ashore to pick up a bird he had shot); the small boat only

1 Te Hourangi or Haurangi, Ikirangi (Ko = it is), and Marukauiti.

2 There are several species of ducks in New Zealand, and nowadays the Gray Duck Anas superciliosa Gm. is the most common. Parkinson comments (Journal, p, 87), ‘Shot some wild ducks of a very large size’: as the Gray Duck is the largest New Zealand species, being almost as large as a mallard, and as it is common wherever there is water, even in intertidal inlets and estuaries, it is likely that this was the species taken.

page 405 remaind, which was carried over the river, and without the midshipman who was left to attend her: the consequence of this was that we were obligd to make 3 trips before we were all over to the rest of the party. As soon as we were well drawn up on the other side the Indians came down, not in a body as we expected, but 2 and 3 at a time, all armd and soon increasd to a considerable number; we now despaird of making peace with men who were not to be frightned with our small arms. As the ship lay so far from the shore that [she] could not throw a shot there, we resolvd to reembark as our stay would most likley be the cause of killing still more people: we were begining to go towards the boats when on a sudden one of the boys calld out that the people there were their freinds and desird us to stay and talk with them, we did and much conversation past but neither would the boys swim over to them nor they to the boys. The bodys both of the man who was killd yesterday, and he who was killd the day before, were left upon the beach. The first lay very near us, to it the boys went and coverd it with part of the clotlis we had given them; soon after a single man unarmd swam over to us (the uncle of Maracouete, the younger boy), he brought in his hand a green bough, probably emblem of peace; we made him many presents after having receivd his bough which he presented to Tupia our interpr[e]ter. We askd him to go onboard of the ship but he refusd so we left him, but all the 3 boys chose rather to return with us than stay with him.

As soon as we had retird and left him to himself he went and gatherd a green bough; with this in his hand he aproachd the body with great ceremony, walking sideways, he then threw the bough towards it and returnd to his companions who immediately sat down round him and remaind above an hour, hearing probably what he said without taking the least notice of us, who soon returnd to the ship. From thence we could see with our glasses 3 men cross the river in a kind of Catamaran1 and take away the body which was carried off upon a pole by 4 men.

After dinner the Captn desird Tupia to ask the boys if they had now any objection to going ashore at the same place, as taking away the body was probably a ratification of our peace. They said they had not and went most nimbly into the boat in which two midshipmen were sent; they went ashore willingly but soon returnd to the rocks, wading into the water and begging hard to be taken in again; the orders were positive to leave them so they

1 By this Banks probably means a moki or mokihi, a raft generally made of bundles of flax stalks, often used in the absence of a canoe, though its life was short.

page 406 were left. We observd from the ship a man in a catamaran go over the river and fetch them to a place where 40 or 50 were assembled: they sat till near sunset without stirring. They rose then and the 3 boys appeard who had till now been conceald by being surrounded with people, they left the party came down upon the beach and 3 times wavd their hands towards the ship, then nimbly ran and joind the party who walkd leisurely away towards the place where the boys live. We therefore hope that no harm will happen to them especialy as they had still the cloaths which we gave them on. After sunset loud voices were heard as usual in the bottom of the bay.

11. This morn We took our leave of Poverty bay1 with not above 40 species of Plants in our boxes, which is not to be wonderd at as we were so little ashore and always upon the same spot; the only time we wanderd about a mile from the boats was upon a swamp where not more than 3 species of Plants were found.

Weather this day was most moderate: several Canoes put off from shore and came towards us within less than a quarter of a mile but could not be persuaded to come nearer, tho Tupia exerted himself very much shouting out and promising that they should not be hurt. At last one was seen coming from Poverty bay or near it, she had only 4 people in her, one who I well rememberd to have seen at our first interview on the rock: these never stopd to look at any thing but came at once alongside of the ship and with very little persuasion cam[e] on board; their example was quickly followd by the rest 7 Canoes in all and 50 men. They had many presents given to them notwithstanding which they very quickly sold almost every thing that they had with them, even their Cloaths from their backs and the paddles out of their boats; arms they had none except 2 men, one of whom sold his patoo patoo as he calld it, a short weapon of green talk of this shape intended doubtless for fighting hand to hand and certainly well contrivd for splitting sculls as it weigh[s] not less than 4 or 5 pounds and has sharp edges excellently polishd.

We were very anxious to know what was become of our poor boys, therefore as soon as the people began to lose their first impressions of fear that we saw at first disturbd them a good deal we askd after them. The man who first came on board immediately

1 Cook: ‘Poverty Bay because it afforded us no one thing we wanted’. Banks heads his pages with the native name Taoneroa, which he takes for the name of the bay (cf. II, p. 3 below). Te one roa = the long beach (one, beach or shore); Te Oneroa was the beach stretching westward from the Turanganui river.

page 407 answerd that they were at home and unhurt and that the reason of his coming on board the ship with so little fear was the account they had given him of the usage they had met with among us.
The people were in general of a midling size tho there was one who measurd more than 6 feet, their colour dark brown. Their lips were staind with something put under the skin (as in the Otahite tattow) and their faces markd with deeply engravd furrows Colourd also black and forrnd in regular spirals; of these the oldest people had much the greatest quantity and deepest channeld, in some not less than 1/16 part of an inch.1 Their hair always black was tied on the tops of their heads in a little knot, in which was stuck feathers of various birds in different tastes according to the humour of the wearer, generaly stuck into the knot, sometimes one on each side the temples pointing forwards which made a most disagreable apearance; in their Ears they generaly wore a large bunch of the down of some bird milk white. The faces of some were painted with a red colour in oil2 some all over, others in parts only, in their hair was much oil that had very little smell, more lice than ever I saw before! and in most of them a small comb neatly enough made, sometimes of wood sometimes of bone, which they seemd to prize much. Some few had on their faces or arms regular scars as if made with a sharp instrument: such I have seen on the faces of negroes. The inferior sort were clothd in something that very much resembled hemp;3 the loose strings of this were fastned together at the top and hung down about 2 feet long like a petticoat; of these garments they wore 2, one round their shoulders the other about their wastes. The richer had garments probably of a finer sort of the same stuff, most beatifully made in exactly the same manner as the S. American Indians at this day, as fine or finer than one of them which I have by me that I bough [t] at Rio de Janeiro for 36 shillings and was esteemd uncommonly

1 Maori tattooing was incised, and not pricked as in the islands. Buck (The Coming of the Maori, p. 298) explains the affinity with wood-carving, in design and technique: ‘the main lines of the designs are deep or sunk below the surface so that the spaces between parallel lines appear as ridges, to some extent similar to the designs on wood…. the Maori tattooing artists took a further cue from the carving experts and ground down or sharpened some of their bone blades like an adze with a plain edge witnout teeth …. the toothed implements were used for filling in and for subsidiary motifs’. Cf. p. 495 below.

2 This was an ochre commonly obtained from streams or swamps in the form of mud coloured by oxide of iron: the mud was collected on fern fronds, moulded into balls and dried at a fire. But any red earth might be used. The oil was generally a vegetable oil, got from the berries of the tree called Titoki.

3 Probably Phormium tenax, the so-called New Zealand Flax, so important in the Maori textile crafts; but the leaves of the Kiekie, a sort of Freycinctia, and of the Ti (more than one variety of the Cordyline) were also used.

page 408 cheap at that price. Their boats were not large but well made, something in the form of our whale boats but longer; their bottom was the trunk of a tree hollowd and very thin, this was raisd by a board on each side sewd on, with a strip of wood sewd over the seam to make it tight; on the head of every one was carvd the head of a man with an enormous tongue reaching out of his mouth. These grotesque figures were some at least very well executed, some had eyes inlaid of something that shone very much;1 the whole servd to give us an Idea of their taste as well as ingenuity in execution, much superior to any thing we have yet seen.

Their behavior while on board shewd every sign of freindship, they invited us very cordialy to come back to our old bay or to a small cove which they shewd us nearer to it.2 I could not help wishing that we had done so, but the captn chose rather to stand on in search of a better harbour than any we have yet seen. God send that we may not there have the same tragedy to act over again as we so lately perpetrated: the countrey is certainly divided into many small principalities3 so we cannot hope that an account of our weapons and management of them can be conveyd as far as we in all probability4 must go and this I am well convincd of, that till these warlike people have severly felt our superiority in the art of war they will never behave to us in a freindly manner.

About an hour before sunset the canoes left us, and with us three of their people who were very desirous to have gone with them but were not permitted to return to the Canoes. What their reason for so doing is we can only guess, possibly they may think that their being on board will induce us to remain here till tomorrow when they will return and renew the traffick by which they find themselves so great gainers. The people were tolerably chearfull, entertaind us with dancing and singing after their custom, eat their suppers and went to bed very quietly.

12. During last night the ship saild some leagues which as soon as the 3 men saw they began to lament and weep very much, Tupia with dificulty could comfort them. About 7, 2 Canoes apeard; they left no sign unmade which might induce them to come to the ship. One at last venturd, out of her came an old man who seemd to be a cheif from the finenes of his garment and weapon, patoo

1 The shell of the Paua, Haliotis sp.

2 Probably the ‘small cove’ called Whareongaonga.

3 This was a good guess, though somewhat modified by Banks later when he comes to talk of a ‘king’; and ‘tribal areas’ would be a phrase more familiar to the New Zealander than the word ‘principalities’.

4 MS probabley; S P probability.

page 409 patoo, which was made of Bone (he said of a whale); he staid but a short time on board but when he went took with him our 3 guests much to our as well as their satisfaction.

In sailing along shore we could clearly see several spots of land cultivated, some fresh turnd up and laying in furrows like ploughd land, others with plants growing upon them some younger and some older; we also saw in two places high rails upon the Ridges of hills, but could only guess that they belong to some superstition as they were in lines not inclosing any thing.1 Before noon another Canoe appeard carrying 4 people; she came within about ¼ of a mile of us and there (I beleive) performd several ceremonies, the man in the bow of her sometimes seeming to ask and offer peace, at others seeming to threaten with a weapon he held in his hand, sometimes dancing sometimes singing. Tupia talkd much to him but could not persuade him to come to the ship. About this time very distant land was seen to the Southward forming a very large bay.2

About dinner time the ship was hauling round an Island calld by the inhabitants Teahoa,3 by us Portland, the ship on a sudden came into very broken ground which alarmd us all a good deal;4 the officers all behavd with great steadyness and in a very short time we were clear of all dangers; we never had less than 7 fathom but the soundings hardly ever were twice the same jumping from 11 to 7, which made us very glad once more to get deep water under us. The Island lay within a mile of us making in white cliffs, a long spit of low land running from it towards the main. On the sides of these cliffs sat a vast quantity of people looking at us, these probably observd some confusion in the manoevre of the ship for 5 Canoes almost immediately put off from the shore full of armd people; they came so near us shouting and threatning that at last we were in some pain least they [should seize]5 our small boat which had been lowerd down to sound and now towd along side. A musquet was therefore fird over them: the Effect of this was rather to encourage them than otherwise so a great gun was orderd to be prepard and fird wide of them loaded with grape, on this they

1 If this observation was correct, probably in each case what was seen was the stockading of a disused pa.

2 Which Cook called Hawke's Bay.

3 See entry for the following day.

4 This broken ground was called the Shambles. Curiously enough Cook gives the name neither in his journal nor on his charts, but it is attested by both Molyneux and Pickersgill, and was used on the second voyage and thereafter. No doubt the Shambles off the English Bill of Portland was in mind.

5 should seize omitted in the MS and supplied from P, where the words have been inserted in a blank left for the purpose by the copyist. S should take added interlinearly.

page 410 all rose in their boats and shouted but instead of continuing the chase drew all together and after a short consultation went quietly away.

About half an hour after this we hawld in with the land again and two more canoes came off, one armd the other a small fishing boat with only 4 men in her; they came tolerably near and answerd all the questions Tupia askd them very civily; we could not persuade them to come on board but they came near enough to receive several presents which we hove over board to them, with these they seem'd very much pleasd and went away. At night the ship came to an anchor; many fires were kept up on shore possibly to shew us that our freinds there were too much upon their guard to be surprizd.

13. Brisk breeze of wind: 9 Canoes came after the ship this morn, whether with war or peace we cannot tell for we soon left them behind. We found that the land within Teahoura1 or Portland Isle makes another Island or peninsula, both sides of this the natives have calld Teracaco2 so that is in all likelyhood the name of it. Before noon we were almost surrounded with land; that nearest us made in green hills without the white Clifts which we have generaly seen, the appearance more fertil tho we can not distinguish any cultivation as we did yesterday; on the tops of the hills were several palings like those seen yesterday. Towards evening stood in for a place that had the appearance of an opening which provd no harbour so stood off again with a pleasant breeze. A very large canoe soon put off carrying 18 or 20 men armd who tho they could not get within a mile of us shouted and threatned most prodigiously; after this the white cliffs and more barren land began again to appear. At night pleasant light breeze, stood along shore.

14. This morn high mountains inland were in sight on the tops of which the snow was not yet melted,3 the countrey near the shore low and unfavourable; in one place was a patch of something yellow that bore much resemblance to a corn feild, probably some kind of flaggs decayd as is common in swampy places, at a distance some detachd groves of trees upon the flat that appeard very high and tapering.4 Several canoes had put off from shore in the morning

1 Te Houra.

2 Terakako. It was what is now called the Mahia peninsula.

3 It was probably the Kaimanawa and Ruahine ranges that were thus seen.

4 Banks seems here to be reporting the appearance of some part of the district afterwards called the Heretaunga plains, which were very swampy. The ‘flaggs’ were possibly the long rushes called Toetoe (Arundo conspicua) with their yellow feathery heads. The trees seem to have been Kahikatea or White Pine (Podocarpus dacrydioides), which grow well in swampy country; possibly they were the trees known to old Hawke's Bay settlers as the White Pine Bush, the last remains of which were still visible at Mangateretere in the early years of this century. The Kahikatea grows as high as 80 feet.

page 411 and came towards us, about 10 O'Clock 5 were together seemingly holding a consultation after which they pulld towards the ship in a body as if resolvd to attack her, 4 more were coming after them from the shore. This manoevre was not to be disregarded: the canoes were large, we judgd that they could not contain less than 150 people, every one armd with a sharp pike of hard wood and their little hand instrument calld patoopatoo; were they to attempt any thing daring there could not fail to be a dreadfull slaughter among such a croud of naked men were we nesscesitated to fire among them; it was therefore though[t] proper to fire a gun over their heads as the effect of that would probably prevent any designs they might have formd from being put into execution. They were by this time within 100 yards of the ship singing their war song and threatning with their pikes; the gun was levelld a little before their first boat and had the desird effect, for no sooner had they seen the grape which scatterd very far upon the water than they paddled away in great haste. We all calld out that we were freinds if they would only lay down their arms. They did so and returnd to the ship; one boat came close under the quarter and taking off his Jacket offerd it to sale, but before any body had time to bid for it she dropd astern as did the rest, refusing to come to the ship again because they were afraid that we should kill them, so easily were these warriors convincd of our superiority.

Before noon we plainly saw that there was a small river ashore1 but no signs of shelter near it. About this time 6 more armd canoes came off from the land, they got together about ½ a mile from the ship and threatned most furiously with their lances paddles &c. After they had done this for some time they came nearer and Tupia talkd with them from the stern; they came into better temper and answerd his questions relating to the names of the countreys kings &c. very civily; he desird them to sing and dance and they, did so. He often told them that if they would come to the ship, without their arms we should be freinds with them; at last one boat venturd and soon after 3 or 4 more, they put all their arms into one boat which stayd at a distance while the others came to the ship and receivd presents, after which they went away. One of these men had hanging round his neck a peice of Green stone seemingly semitransparent, some of our people imagind it to be a Jewel, myself thought it no more than the green stone of which most of their tools and ornaments are made.

In the evening the countrey flat: upon it were 3 or 4 prodigiously

1 The Wairoa.

page 412 pretty groves of tall trees; near one of them was a square inclosure made with close and very high rails, what was within it we could not guess. Some thunder and lightning this even, weather otherwise vastly moderate. Many shoals of small fish about the ship.
15. Snow was still to be seen upon the mountains inland. In the morn we were abreast of the Southermost Cape of a large bay, the northermost of which is Portland Isle; the bay itself was calld Hawks bay. From this point several canoes came of with netts and other fishing implements in them; they came along side with a little invitation and offerd to trade, we gave them Otahite cloth for their fish which they were excessively fond of, often snatching it from one another.1 With us they dealt tolerably fairly tho they sometimes cheated us by bargaining for one thing and sending up another when they had got their prise; after they had sold all their fish they began to put the stones with which they sink their netts into baskets and sell them but this was soon stoppd as we were not in want of such commodities. About this time an armd boat came alongside and offerd to trade for their Jackets. One of them had on one made of furr,2 this the Captn wanted to buy and bargaind for it offering a peice of Red baize; the bargain was struck and the baize sent down but no sooner had the man got hold of it than he began with amazing coolness to pack up both it and his furr jacket in a basket, intirely deaf to the Captns Demands, and the canoe immediately dropd astern. A small consultation now ensued among the boats after which they all returnd alon[g]side and the fishermen again offerd fish to sale which was accepted and trade renewd. The little Tayeto, Tupias boy, was employd with several more to stand over the side and reach up what was bought: while he was doing this one of the men in a canoe seizd him and draggd him down, 2 then held him in the fore part of the Canoe and three more in her paddled off as did all the other boats. The marines were in arms upon deck, they were orderd to fire into the Canoe which they did; at lengh one man dropd, the others on seeing this loosd the boy who immediately leapd into the water and swam towards the ship; the large boat on this returnd towards him but on some musquets and a great gun being fird at them left off the chase. Our boat was lowerd down and took up the

1 It was the cloth, not the fish, they were excessively fond of. The Aute or paper mulberry of the warmer islands had been brought to New Zealand by the Maori, but was cultivated only with great difficulty, so that tapa made from it was rare and consequently highly prized.

2 It was a topuni, or dog-skin cloak, a valuable article.

page 413 boy frigh[t]ned enough but not at all hurt. What number were killd in the boats we cannot tell, probably not many as the people who fird at the boat in which the boy was were obligd to fire wide of her least they should strike him, and the other boats had only a few shots fird at them; when they attempted to return some of the gentlemen who lookd through glasses said however that they saw three carried up the beach when the boats landed who were either dead or much wounded.1 From this daring attempt the point was calld Cape Kidnappers.2

As soon as Tayeto was a little recoverd from his fright he brought a fish in to Tupia and told him that he intended it as an offering to his Eatua or god in gratitude for his escape. Tupia approvd it and orderd him to throw it into the sea which he did.

In the evening pleasant breeze. The land to the southward of Cape Kidnappers made in bare white cliffs barren enough to appearance.

16. Mountains coverd with snow were in sight again this morn3 so that there is probably a chain of them runs within the countrey. Land makes in smooth hills like downs with little or no wood in sight; after breakfast white cliffs again look as barren as ever. Vast shoals of fish were about the ship, pursued by as large flocks of brownish birds a little bigger than a pigeon Nectris munda.4 Their method of fishing was amusing enough, a whole flock of birds would follow the fish who swam fast along: they continualy plungd themselves under water and soon after rose again in another place, so that the whole flock vanishd sometimes, at others a large part of it and rose again often where you did not expect them, and in less than a minutes time they were down again and so alternately as long as we saw them. Before dinner we were abreast of another cape which made in a bluff rock, the upper part of a reddish coulourd stone or clay the lower white; beyond this the Countrey appeard pleasant with little smooth hills like downs. The Captn thought it not nescessary to proceed any farther on this side of the coast so the ships head was again turnd to the northward and the cape

1 This incident was much described by the voyagers, and its memory lasted long in Maori tradition—in which however the number killed varied. See e.g. A. G. Bagnall and G. C. Petersen, William Colenso (Wellington 1948), p. 462.

2 In Grey MS 51 Banks gives the native name for the cape as ‘Mataruwhow’ This however is wrong: Mataruahou was the name of ‘Scinde Island’, the site of the present Napier; the cape was called Matau a Maui, the fish-hook of Maui.

3 This was certainly the Ruahine range.

4 Mr Graham Turbott has suggested (personal communication) that this type of behaviour is not typical of Puffinus assimilis (see 15 February), but that the petrels seen were perhaps the Fluttering Shearwater, Puffinus gavia.

page 414 from thence call Cape Turnagain.1 At night we were off Hawks bay and saw two monstrous fires inland on the hills: we are now inclind to think that these and most if not all the great smoaks and fires that we have seen are made for the convenience of clearing land for tillage, but for whatever purposes intended they are a certain indication that where they are the countrey is inhabited.

17. Foul wind, ship turning to windward off Hawks bay. A seal was seen floating on the water asleep. At night calm.

18. Fair wind: a whale was seen this morn. In the evening a small boat with 5 people in her came off from Teracaco, the peninsula within Portland Isle; they with much difficulty overtook the ship; 2 of them who seemd to be the cheif people came on board with very little invitation and orderd the other three their servants to stay in the boat. They soon expressd satisfaction at their treatment and came down into the cabbin where they very soon informd us that they would sleep with us and not think of going ashore that night. We remonstrated much against this telling them that tomorrow morn the ship might be at a great distance from where she now was; they were however resolvd and we were obligd to let them sleep in the ship, into which they consented to have their canoe hoisted which was accordingly done. The countenance of one of these men was the most open I have ever seen, I was prejudicd much in their favour and surely such confidence could not be found in the breasts of designing people. They expressd great curiosity and surprize, attending to any thing that was shewn to them and thankfully accepted the presents which were made them but would not eat with us;2 their servants however were not at all scrupulous on that head for they eat most enormously almost every thing they could get.

19. Pleasant breeze all last night so that in the morn we were off Table cape.3 Our guests expressd some surprize at finding themselves so far from home but had their boat hoisted out and went

1 Cook writes (I, p. 179), ‘Seeing no likelyhood of meeting with a harbour and the face of the Country Vissibly altering for the worse I thought that the standing farther to the South would not be attended with any Valuable discovery, but would be loosing of time which might be better employ'd and with a greater probabillity of Success in examining the Coast to the Northward’; which Banks in Grey MS 51 renders, ‘it was resolved to stand back to the Northward where a warmer climate promised more valuable discoveries’. This is somewhat poetic licence.

2 There was evidently an ‘eating tapu’ at work here: the chiefs might have hesitated to eat with Banks and his friends for some reason, but they certainly could not eat with their own slaves, who appear to have been fed at the same time.

3 Banks has not mentioned this cape before in his text; the ship was abreast of it when ‘our 3 guests’ took their departure on the morning of the 12th. It had been so named because of its flat top.

page 415 ashore abreast of the ship. We saild very briskly, soon passd Poverty bay; the countrey beyond it seemd to be fertile with few or no cliffs. About noon we passd by a remarkable white Cliff of a triangular shape not unlike the Gable End of a farm house; this same cliff we had seen from the sea when first we made the land and from its triangular shape had compard it to a latteen sail, it was now calld Gable End Foreland. Just here 3 Canoes came off, one man from them venturd on board but soon went back and the boats dropd astern. In the evening many shoals of very small brown shrimps passd by the ship that coulurd the water as if dirt had been thrown into it.1
20. During last night it once blew very fresh: in the morn the weather was pleasant tho we felt ourselves rather cold, the Therm 50°. Several canoes followd us and seemd very peaceably inclind, inviting us to go into a bay2 they pointed to where they said that there was plenty of fresh water; we followd them in and by 11 came to an anchor. We then invited two who seemd by their dress &c. to be cheifs to come on board, they immediately accepted our invitation; in the mean time those who remaind in the canoes traded with our people for whatever they had in their boats most fairly. The cheifs who were two old men, the one Dressd in a Jacket ornamented after their manner with dogs skin, the other in one coverd almost intirely with small tufts of red feathers,3 receivd our presents and staid with us till we had dind. When we went into the boat to go ashore they accompanied us. The evening was rainy with heavy squalls of wind, we rowd almost round the bay but found so much surf every where that we were forcd to return; at last we told this resolution to our cheifs who calld to the people ashore telling them to bring off a canoe for them which was immediately done, and they went ashore in her promising to return the next morn and bring of fish and sweet potatoes &c. We returnd on board but in the course of the evening it became fair and we went ashore. We were receivd with great freindship by the natives in general who seemd carefull of giving us umbrage by collecting in too great bodies: each family or the inhabitants of 2 or 3 houses which generaly stood together were collected in a body, 15 or 20 men women and children, these sat on the ground

1 In the absence of a specimen or a more precise description it seems impossible to identify this shrimp.

2 The name of this bay is Anaura.

3 Evidently a kakukura, a very distinguished garment, in which the crimson feathers from under the wings of the Kaka parrot, (Nestor meridionalis (Gm.), were woven into the phormium base.

page 416 never walking towards us but inviting us to them by beckoning with one hand movd towards the breast. We made them small presents, walkd round the bay, and found a place for watering where the people are to land tomorrow and fill some at least of our empty cask.

21. This morn at day break the waterers went ashore and soon after Dr Solander and myself; there was a good deal of Surf upon the beach but we landed without much difficulty. The natives sat by our people but did not intermix with them; they traded however for cloth cheifly, giving whatever they had tho they seemd pleasd with observing our people as well as with the gain they got by trading with them. Yet they did not neglect their ordinary occupations: in the morn several boats went out fishing, at dinner time every one went to their respective homes and after a certain time returnd. Such fair appearances made Dr Solander and myself almost trust them. We rangd all about the bay and were well repaid by finding many plants and shooting some most beautifull birds;1 in doing this we visited several houses and saw a little of their customs, for they were not at all shy of shewing us any thing we desird to see, nor did they on our account interrupt their meals the only employment we saw them engagd in.

Their food at this time of the year consisted of Fish with which instead of bread they eat the roots of a kind of Fern Pteris crenulata,2 very like that which grows upon our commons in England. These were a little roasted on the fire and then beat with a stick which took off the bark and dry outside, what remaind had a sweetish clammyness in it not disagreable to the taste; it might be esteemd a tolerable food was it not for the quantity of strings and fibres in it which in quantity 3 or 4 times exceeded the soft part; these were swallowd by some but the greater number of people spit them out for which purpose they had a basket standing under them to receive their chewd morsels, in shape and colour not unlike Chaws of Tobacco.

1 It is curious that amongst the numerous natural history paintings of New Zealand and Australian plants and animals made by Parkinson, and to some extent by Spöring on this voyage, there is only one sketch of a land bird, the Banksian Cockatoo—which was made at Endeavour River. We know from Parkinson's journal, as well as from Banks, that many others were collected and that he noted the colours of the soft parts of some of them, which he would scarcely have done had he not already made the outline drawings according to his usual practice. It would appear that a folio of sketches of birds was mislaid on the voyage, and this is understandable, since his death and that of Spöring took place so close together (in February 1771), and there may easily have been some confusion over their belongings, especially at that time when so many other men on the Endeavour were sick.

2 The common New Zealand bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum var. esculentum (Forst.) Kuhn.

page 417

Tho at this time of the year this most homely fare was their principal diet yet in the proper seasons they certainly have plenty of excellent vegetables, tho we have seen no sign of tame animals among them except doggs, very small and ugly. Their plantations were now hardly finishd but so well was the ground tilld that I have seldom seen even in the gardens of curious1 people land better broke down. In them were planted sweet potatoes, cocos2 and some one of the cucumber kind,3 as we judgd from the seed leaves which just appeard above ground; the first of these were planted in small lulls, some rangd in rows other in quincunx4 all laid by a line most regularly, the Cocos were planted on flat land and not yet appeard above ground, the Cucumbers were set in small hollows or dishes much as we do in England. These plantations were from 1 or 2 to 8 or 10 acres each, in the bay might be 150 or 200 acres in cultivation tho we did not see 100 people in all. Each distinct patch was fencd in generaly with reeds placd close one by another so that scarce a mouse could creep through.

When we went to their houses Men women and children receivd us, no one shewd the least signs of fear. The women were plain and made themselves more so by painting their faces with red ocre and oil which generaly was fresh and wet upon their cheeks and foreheads, easily transferable to the noses of any one who should attempt to kiss them; not that they seemd to have any objection to such familiarities as the noses of several of our people evidently shewd, but they were as great coquetts as any Europeans could be and the young ones as skittish as unbroke fillies. One part of their dress I cannot omit to mention: besides their cloth which was very decently rolld round them each wore round the lower part of her waist a string made of the leaves of a highly per-fumd grass, to this was fastned a small bunch of the leaves of some fragrant plant which servd as the innermost veil of their modesty.5 Tho the men did not so frequently use paint upon their faces yet they often did: one especialy I observd whose whole body and garments were rubbd over with dry Ocre, of this he constantly kept a peice in his hand and generaly rubbd it on some part or other of him.

1 This is eighteenth century usage. Johnson gives as his fifth definition of the word, ‘Difficult to please; solicitous of perfection; not negligent; full of care’; and as his sixth, ‘Exact; nice; subtle’.

2 Yams.

3 These must have been Taro; the ‘small hollows or dishes’ which Banks goes on to mention were characteristic of Taro cultivation.

4 S has a note: ‘quincunx: the way of planting to lose the least ground, in the following form’—followed by a diagram.

5 The grass was called Karetu (Hierochloe redolens R. Br.); there were various leaves that might be used. A drying bunch of Karetu smells rather like vanilla.

page 418

One peice of cleanliness in these people I cannot omit as I beleive it is almost unexamp[l]ed among Indians. Every house or small knot of 3 or 4 has a regular nescessary house where every one repairs and consequently the neighbourhood is kept clean which was by no means the case at Otahite. They have also a regular dunghil upon which all their offalls of food &c. are heapd up and which probably they use for manure.1

In the evening all the boats being employd in carrying on board water we were likely to be left ashore till after dark; the loss of so much time in sorting and putting in order our specimens was what we did not like so we applied to our freinds the Indians for a passage in one of their Canoes. They readily launchd one for us, but we in number 8 not being usd to so ticklish a convenience overset her in the surf and were very well sousd; 4 then were obligd to remain and Dr Solander, Tupia, Tayeto and myself embarkd again and came without accident to the ship well pleasd with the behaviour of our Indian freinds who would the second time undertake to carry off such Clumsy fellows.

22. The surf being so great on the shore that water was got with great difficulty made the Captn resolve to leave the bay this morn, which he did tho the wind was foul so the whole day was spent in turning to windward.

23. This morn found ourselves gone backwards, Tegadu2 bay which we left yesterday was now to windward of us. Several canoes came alon[g]side and told us that there was a small bay to leward of us where we might anchor in safety and land in the boats without a surf where there was fresh water; we followd their directions and they soon brought us into a bay calld Tolaga3 where at 1 we anchord. Many Canoes came from the shore and all traded for fish, curiosities &c. very honestly. After dinner we went ashore and found as they had told us a small cove where the boat might land without the least surf, and water near it, so the Captn resolvd to wood and water here.4

24. This morn Dr Solander and myself went ashore botan[i]zing

1 No, they did not.

2 The origin of this name for Anaura has been more than once discussed. J. A. Mackay, Historic Poverty Bay (Gisborne 1949), p. 50, suggests Te ngaru, the heavy breakers of surf encountered there. Parkinson's version Te karu is all too Maori to be more than accidental: it would literally mean ‘the eye’.

3 The correct name was Uawa. ‘Tolaga’ (which has persisted) is perhaps a rendering of tauranga, anchorage (elsewhere found as a place-name); the dubiety about r and l being parallel with that in the Society Islands. Cf. Samoan taulaga.

4 Cook's Cove, a little within the south point of the bay.

page 419 and found many new plants. The people behavd perfectly well, not mixing with or at all interrupting our people in what they were about but on the contrary selling them whatever they had for Otahite cloth and Glass bottles, of which they were uncommonly fond.

In our walks we met with many houses in the vallies that seemd to be quite deserted, the people livd on the ridges of hills in very slight built houses or rather shedds. For what reason they have left the vallies we can only guess, maybe for air, but if so they purchase that convenience at a dear rate as all their fishing tackle and lobster potts of which they have many must be brought up with no small labour.

We saw also as extrordinary natural curiosity. In pursuing a valley bounded on each side by steep hills we on a sudden saw a most noble arch or Cavern through the face of a rock leading directly to the sea, so that through it we had not only a view of the bay and hills on the other side but an opportunity of imagining a ship or any other grand object opposite to it. It was certainly the most magnificent surprize I have ever met with, so much is pure nature superior to art in these cases: I have seen such places made by art where from an appearance totaly inland you was led through an arch 6 feet wide and 7 high to a prospect of the sea, but here was an arch 25 yards in lengh, 9 in breadth and at least 15 in hight.1 In the evening we returnd to the watering place in order to go on board with our treasure of plants, birds &c. but were prevented by an old man who detaind us some time in shewing the excercise of this countrey, arms, lance and patopato as they are calld. The lance is made of hard wood from 10 to 14 feet long very sharp at the ends,2 the patopatoo is made of stone or bone about a foot long shapd . A stick was given him for an enemy, to this he advancd with most furious aspect brandishing his lance which he held with vast firmness; after some time he ran at the stick and supposing it a man run through the body he immediately fell upon the upper end of it, laying on most unmercifull blows with his patopatoo any one of which would probably have split most sculls; from hence I should be led to conclude that they give no quarter.

1 The enthusiasm raised by this archway (which still exists) provides an interesting annotation on the eighteenth century taste for romantic prospects; no doubt certain connoisseurs would have made some reference to the Gothick, but Banks was architecturally uneducated. It is illustrated both in Hawkesworth and in Parkinson. See II, Pl. 1.

2 This is a rather puzzling weapon: the koikoi, or spear pointed at both ends, was normally six to eight feet long, but the old man may have had an exceptionally long specimen.

page 420

25. Went ashore this morn and renewd our searches for plants &c. with great success. In the mean time Tupia who staid with the waterers had much conversation with one of their preists; they seemd to agree very well in their notions of religion only Tupia was much more learned than the other and all his discourse was heard with much attention. He askd them in the course of his conversation with them many questions, among the rest whether or no they realy eat men which he was very loth to beleive; they answerd in the affirmative saying that they eat the bodys only of those of their enemies who were killd in war.

26. All this day it raind without intermission so hard that notwisthstanding our wishing neither Dr Solander or myself could go ashore. In the course of the day very few canoes came on board and not more than 8 or 10 Indians came down to the waterers.

27. Several Canoes came on board at day break and traded as usual. Dr Solander went with the Captn to examine the bottom of the bay, myself went ashore at the watering place to collect Plants. He saw many people who behavd very civily to the boats crew shewing them every thing they wanted to See; among other nicknacks he bought of a boys top shap'd like what boys play with in England which they made signs was to be whippd in the same manner;1 he found also several new plants. Myself found some plants and went to the top of the hill above the watering place to see a fence of poles which we had Observd from the ship: it was on a hill almost inaccessible by wood and steepness, we however climbd it and found several deserted houses near the rails which only consisted of Poles of 14 or 16 feet high set in two rows, each pole 10 feet from the next; the 2 rows were about 6 feet distant joind on the topps by a few sticks laid across sloping like the roof of a house; this rail work with a ditch which was paralel to it went about 100 yards down the hill in a kind of curve, but for what purpose it had been intended I could not at all guess. The people of the watering place at our desire sung their war song in which both men and women joind, they distorted their faces most hideously roling their eyes and putting out their tongues but kept very good time often heaving most loud and deep sighs.

28. This morn we went ashore in an Island on the left hand as you come into the bay calld by the natives Tubolai.2 Here we saw

1 Best has an illustration of these potaka or tops, The Maori, II, p. 124.

2 In Grey MS 51 Tuboulai; S Tubolui; P Tubolai. This is a word Maori scholars find it hard to account for. The only known name is Pourewa.

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Pl. IX. Clianthus puniceus Kaka Beak New Zealand

Pl. IX. Clianthus puniceus Kaka Beak
New Zealand

page break page 421 the largest canoe we had met with: her lengh was 68½ feet, her breadth 5, hight 3:6: she was built with a sharp bottom made in 3 peices of trunks of trees hollowd, the middlemost of which was much longer than either of the other two; Her gunnel planks were in one peice 62 ft 2 in lengh carvd prettily enough in bass releif, the head was also richly carvd in their fashion. We saw also a house larger than any we had seen tho not more than 30 feet long, it seemd as if it had never been finishd being full of chipps. The woodwork of it was squard so even and smooth that we could not doubt of their having among them very sharp tools; all the side posts were carvd in a masterly stile of their whimsical taste which seems confind to the making of spirals and distorted human faces. All these had clearly been removd from some other place so probably such work bears a value among them.

While Mr Sporing was drawing on the Island he saw a most strange bird fly over his head; he describd it about as large as a kite and brown like one, his tail however was of so enormous a [length]1 that he at first took it for a flock of small birds flying after him. He who is a grave thinking man and is not at all given to telling wonderfull stories says he judg'd it to be at least yards in lengh.2

29. Our water having been compleat the day before yesterday and nothing done yesterday but getting on board a small quantity of wood and a large supply of excellent Celary,3 with which this countrey abounds, we this morn saild tho the wind was foul. We turnd to windward all day and at night according to custom found ourselves to leward of the place we had left in the morning.

30. Fine breeze: some canoes followd the ship in the morn but could not come up with her. Before noon we passd by a Cape which the Captn judgd to be the eastermost point of the countrey and therefore calld it East Cape, at least till another is found which better deserves that name.

31. Breeze continued fair: Countrey very pleasant to appearance. Several canoes came off and threatned us at a distance which gave us much uneasiness, as we hop'd that an account of us and what we could and had done had spread farther than this; we had now our

1 Word omitted both in MS and P. S length, added interlinearly.

2 The New Zealand naturalist can cast no light on this bird, and Mr Spöring's vision must somehow have deceived him. We should at least have liked to know how many yards long the tail was. Cook named the island on his chart Sporing's Island, no doubt to celebrate the event.

3 Wild Celery, Apium prostratum and A. filifolium.

page 422 work to begin over again and heartily joind in wishing that it might be attended with less bloodshed than our late unfortunate Rencounters. After a little time one of the canoes came almost close to the ship and soon after we saw an immense large canoe coming from the shore crowded full of People, all armd with long lances. They came near and receivd signals from the boat that was near us: we Judgd there could not be less than 60 people in her, 16 padlers of a side, besides some who did not paddle and a long row of people in the middle from stem to stern crowded as close as possible. On a signal from the small canoe the[y] pulld briskily up towards the ship as if to attack. It was judgd right to let them see what we could do, least should they come to extremities we might be obligd to fire at them in which case numbers must be killd out of such a croud: a gun loaded with grape was therefore fird ahead of them: they stop'd padling but did not retreat: a round shot was then fird over them: they saw it fall and immediately took to their paddles rowing ashore with more haste than I ever saw men, without so much as stopping to breathe till they got out of sight.1 The countrey from whence they came and indeed all round about appeard to be well wooded and pleasant; several small clusters of houses were seen interspersd with trees appearing very pleasant, some had a fence of pails round them others were to appearance quite open. Towards evening 3 or 4 Canoes came off unarmd but would scarce venture within musquet shot of us.2

1 This was off Cape Runaway, so called by Cook from the incident.

2 On this and the following page of the MS Banks has the running-head ‘off White Island’. The ship was now in the Bay of Plenty.