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The Endeavour Journal of Joseph Banks 1768–1771 [Volume One]

July 1769

July 1769

1. Proceed homewards without meeting any thing new, the countrey we pass'd by and over being the same as we had gone over on the 28th of last month. The day turnd out rainy and bad, the only bad weather we have had since we left the ship, in which instance we are certainly fortunate as we had neither of us a change of Gloaths with us, so little did either of us expect to go round the Island when we set out from Matavie.

2. All our freinds crouded this morn to See us and tell us that they were rejoicd at our return, nor were they empty handed, page 306 most of them brought something or other. The Canoes were still in the river: Captn Cooke finding that there was no likelihood now of any of the stolen goods being restord resolvd to let them go as soon as he could. His freind Potattow sollicited for one which was immediately [granted?] as it was imagind the favour was askd for some of his freinds, but no sooner did he begin to move the boat than the real owners and a number of Indians opposd him, telling him and his people very clamorously that it did not belong to them. He answerd that he had bought it of the Captn and given a pig for it. The people were by this declaration satisfied and had we not luckily overheard it he would have taken away this and probably soon after have sollicited for more. On being detected he became so sulky and ashamd that for the rest of the day neither he or his wife would open their mouths or look streight at any of us.

3. This morn very early Mr Monkhouse1 and myself set out, resolving to follow the cour[s]e of the valley down which our river comes2 in order to see how far up it was inhabited &c. &c. When we had got about 2 miles up it we met several of our neighbours coming down with loads of breadfruit upon their backs. We had often wonderd from whence the small supplys of breadfruit we had came, as there was none to be seen upon the flats, but they soon explaind the mystery, shewing us breadfruit trees planted on the sides of the hills and telling us at the same time that when the fruit in the flats faild this became ready for use, which had been by them planted upon the hills to preserve the succession. The quantity was they informd us much less than was in the low land and not sufficient by any means to supply all the interval of scarcity; when this was exhausted they must live upon ahee nuts, Plantains, and Vae,3 a wild plantain which grows very high up in the mountains. How the Dolphins who were here much about this time came to find so great plenty of Breadfruit upon the trees is to me a mystery, unless perhaps the seasons of this fruit alter;4 as for their having met with a much larger supply of hoggs fowls &c. than we have done I

1 If this was the surgeon, presumably Banks and he were reconciled after their ‘eclaircissement’ and high words of 19 June. It may have been Jonathan Monkhouse the midshipman.

2 The Vaipopoo river flows down the Tuauru valley.

3 The Fei was a different sort from the lowland plantain or Meia. But perhaps Banks refers here to the mountain banana with erect spikes, Musa troglodytarum (cf. Merrill, p. 343.)

4 The breadfruit has three crops, in March-April (the largest), late July, and November; but different varieties of trees fruit at different times. It must be remembered that the Dolphin made a shorter stay than the Endeavour, and did not cause the same strain on food-supplies.

page 307 can most readily account for that, as we have found by constant experience that these people may be frightned into any thing. They have often describd to us the terrour which the Dolphins guns put them into and when we ask how many people were killd they number names upon their fingers, some ten some twenty some thirty, and then say worrow worow1 the same word as is usd for a flock of birds or a shoal of fish; the Journals2 also serve to confirm this opinion. ‘When’ say they ‘towards the latter end of our time provisions were scarce a party of men were sent towards Eparre to get hoggs &c. an office which they had not the smallest dificulty in performing, for the people as they went along the shore drove out their hoggs to meet them and would not allow them to pay any thing for them.’
We proceeded about 4 miles farther and had houses pretty plentifully on each side the river, the vally being all this way 3 or 400 yards across. We were now shewn a house which we were told would be the last we should see, the master offerd us Cocoa nutts and we refreshd ourselves. Beyond this we went maybe 6 miles (it is dificult to guess distances when roads are bad as this was, we being generaly obligd to travel along the course of the river) we passd by several hollow places under stones where they told us that people who were benighted slept. At lengh we arrivd at a place where the river was bankd on each side with steep rocks, and a caskade which fell from them made a pool so deep that the Indians said we could not go beyond it, they never did, their business lay upon the rocks on each side on the plains above which grew plenty of Vae. The avenues to these were truly dreadfull, the rocks were nearly perpendicular, one near 100 feet in hight, the face of it constantly wet and slippery with the water of numberless springs; directly up the face even of this was a road, or rather a succession of long peices of the bark of Hibiscus tiliaceus3 which servd them as a rope to take hold of and scramble up from ledge to ledge, tho upon those very ledges none but a goat or an Indian could have stood. One of these ropes was near 30 feet in lengh.4 Our

1 No such word was used for a flock of birds or a shoal of fish in the early nineteenth century, when John Davies was compiling his dictionary—at least collectively. Banks was probably rendering ua rau, ua rau, ‘hundreds and hundreds’.

2 i.e. the journals of the Dolphin's officers.

3 This hibiscus, Tahitian Fau, is widespread through Polynesia, and often called Purau; its bark has a strong bast fibre.

4 It seems to be on this experience that Banks bases a draft passage in Grey MS 48, which he does not later use: ‘The surface of the Island is very uneven near the shore in most but not all places are flats of different breadths never exceeding a mile & half here much the largest part of their fruits &c grow and all the natives live except a few who are up valleys where rivers are from these the ridges run up into mountains high enough to be seen at 20 leagues distant which produce several kinds of fruits of [which] the natives make use particularly Wild plantains Whei [?] for which as well as birds they climb almost inaccessible rocks & have paths up them with ropes tied by which they climb’.

page 308 guides offerd to help us up this pass but rather recomended one lower down a few hundred yards which was much less dangerous, tho we did not chuse to venture, as the sight which was to reward our hazard was nothing but a grove of Vae trees which we had often seen before.

In the whole course of this walk the rocks were almost constantly bare to the view, so that I had a most excellent opportunity of searching for any apearance of minerals but saw not the smallest. The stones every where shewd manifest signs of having been at some time or other burnd; indeed I have not seen a specimen of stone yet in the Island that has not the visible marks of fire upon it, small peices indeed of the hatchet stone may be without them but I have peices of the same species burnd almost to a pumice, the very clay upon the hills gives manifest signs of fire. Possibly the Island owes its original to a volcano which now no longer burns;1 or Theoreticaly speaking, for the sake of those authors who balance this globe by a proper weight of continent placed near about these latitudes, that so nesscessary continent may have been sunk by Dreadfull earthquakes and Volcanos 2 or 300 fathoms under the sea, the tops of the highest mountains only still remain[in]g above water in the shape of Islands: an undoubted proof that such a thing now exists to the great emolument of their theory, which was it not for this proof would have been already totaly demolishd by the Course our ship made from Cape Horn to this Island.

4. Very little company today. I employd myself in planting a large quantity of the seeds of Water melons, Oranges, Lemons, limes &c. which I had brought from Rio de Janeiro; they were planted on both sides of the fort in as many varieties of soil as I could chuse.2 I have very little Doubt of the former especialy coming to perfection as I have given away large quantities among the natives and planted also in the woods; they now continualy ask me for seeds and have already shewd me melon plants of their raising which look perfectly well. The seeds that Captn Cooke sewd have provd so bad that no one has come up except mustard, even the Cucumbers and melons have faild, owing probably to the

1 Banks's suggestion here is quite valid: Tahiti, like the other ‘high islands’ near it, is volcanic in origin.

2 A significant statement in light of the subsequent spread (and interpretation of origins) of Polynesian cultivars and weeds (cf. Merrill, The Botany of Cook's Voyages, Waltham, Mass., 1954, p. 216).

page break
Pl. VI. Spondias dulcis Vi or Vi-apple Tahiti

Pl. VI. Spondias dulcis Vi or Vi-apple

page break page 309 method of their being packd which was in small bottles seald down with rosin.

5. This morn I saw the operation of Tattowing the buttocks performd upon a girl of about 12 years old, it provd as I have always suspected a most painfull one. It was done with a large instrument about 2 inches long containing about 30 teeth,1 every stroke of this hundreds of which were made in a minute drew blood. The patient bore this for about £¼ of an hour with most stoical resolution; by that time however the pain began to operate too stron[g]ly to be peacably endurd, she began to complain and soon burst out into loud lamentations and would fain have persuaded the operator to cease; she was however held down by two women who sometimes scolded, sometimes beat, and at others coaxd her. I was setting in the adjacent house with Tomio for an hour, all which time it lasted and was not finishd when I went away tho very near. This was one side only of her buttocks for the other had been done some time before. The arches upon the loins upon which they value themselves much were not yet done, the doing of which they told causd more pain than what I had seen. About dinner time many of our freinds came, Oamo, Otheothea, Tuarua &c.

6. We begin now to prepare in earnest for our departure, the sails were today carried on board and bent, the guns also were taken on board. Our freinds begin now to beleive that we are realy preparing for our departure, a circumstance which they have of late much doubted. This evening we had a second visit from Tearee derry2 and Toimata,3 the people again paying them the same respect as on the 21st of June: poor Toimata was again baulkd in her desire of seeing the fort, Oamo insisting that she should not come in. Soon after these had left us some of our freinds came to inform us that Monaamia the man who stole the Quadrant was landed and meant this night to make an atempt upon us; all were ready to assist us and several, Tuanne Matte especialy, very desirous of sleeping in the Fort, which probably was the reason why this arch theif did not this night exercise his abilities.

7. The carpenters were this morn employd in taking down the gates and palisades of our little fortification to make us firewood for the ship, when one of the Indians without made shift to steal the staple and hook of the great gate. We were immediately

1 This was called the ta; see below, p. 336.

2 Te arii-rere: Banks seems to be spelling out the more formal version of Teriirere.

3 This name is used for the first time of Teriirere's betrothed. It was taken from the name of a goddess.

page 310 app[r]ised of the theft to the great affright of our visiters of whoom the bell tent was full; their fears were however presently quieted and I (as usual) set out on my ordinary occupation of theif catching. The Indians most readily joind me and away we set full cry much like a pack of fox hounds, we ran and walkd and walkd and ran for I beleive 6 miles with as little delay as possible, when we learnt that we had very early in the chase passd our game who was washing in a brook, saw us a coming and hid himself in the rushes. We returnd to the place and by some intelligence which some of our people had got found a scraper which had been stole from the ship and was hid in those very rushes; with this we returnd and soon after our return Tubourai brought the staple.

8. Our freinds with us as usual, the fort more and more dismantled. Our freinds seem resolvd to stay till we go tho the greatest part of them are absolutely without victuals; we have been for some days obligd to spare them every little assistance that we can and the best of them are most thankfull for a single basket of apples. Notwithstanding this we had 4 small pigs brought today from Oborea and Polotheara.

9. Our freinds with us early in the morning as usual, some I beleive realy sorry at the aproach of our departu[r]e others desirous to make as much as they can of our stay. Several of the people were this evening out on liberty. Two foreign seamen were together and one had his knife stolen; he atempted to recover it, may be roughly, for the Indians attackd him and wounded him greivously with a stone over his eye, the other was also slightly wounded in the head; the people who had done this immediately fled to the mountains.—Two of our marines left the fort some time last night or this morn without leave.1 Their doing this at a time when our departure is so near makes us suspect them of an intention of staying among these people; nothing however has been said about them today in hopes of their returning which they have not yet done.

10. We are told by the Indians this morn that our people do not intend to return; they are they say gone up into the mountains where our people cannot get at them and one is already married and become an inhabitant of Otahite. After some deliberation however Tuanne matte and Patea2 undertook to carry our people to the place where they were; they were known to have no arms so two were thought sufficient for the service, a midshipman and

1 Their names were Clement Webb and Samuel Gibson.

2 ?Patia.

page 311 a marine,1 who set off without loss of time. We were now quite ready for the sea so no time was to be lost in recovering the deserters. The Indians gave us but little hopes of our people bringing them back: one certain method remaind however in our power, the seizing of some of their principal people and detaining them, which was immediately resolvd upon. Oborea, Potattow, Polotheara, Tubourai, Tamio, Tuarua, Otheothea and Tetuahitea and Nuna were in the fort and were told that they would not be permitted to go from it till our people returnd. At first they were not at all alarmd, they hardly beleivd us in earnest till they saw the Pinnace come ashore and soon after go away to the westward, the[y] immediately suspected what was the case, that she was gone to fetch Dootahah. They were now alarmd but depending on our having usd them well on all occasions shewd but little signs of either discontent or fear, but assurd us that the people should be brought back as soon as possible. In the evening Dootahah was brought on board, Lieutenant Hickes who had been sent on the service found him at Tettahah and easily took him or rather stole him from the people. Night came on, it was thought unsafe to let the prisoners remain in the fort, which was totaly dismantled; Oborea, Potattow and Tubourai were orderd to the ship; in going into the boat they expressd much fear and shed many tears. The Captn staid on board with them, I slept ashore and the rest of the prisoners in my tent. About 8 our Indians came back with the two deserters but brought the disagreable news of one of the people who had been sent after them being seizd by the Indians, who declard that they would not release them2 till Dootahah had his liberty. The news was sent aboard and a boat came off immediately for Nuna and Tuanne matte. They were sent to the ship, a boat armd went immediately in search of the people and in her the latter and Tupia who was our voluntary prisoner.
11. The night was spent tolerably well, the women cryd a little at first but were soon quieted by asurances that at all events they should not be hurt. At day break a large number of people gatherd about the fort many of them with weapons; we were intirely without defences so I made the best I could of it by going out among them.

1 Monkhouse was the midshipman. Cook says ‘a Petty Officer and the Corporal of Marines’. Midshipmen were at that period petty officers; the corporal was John Truslove.

2 sic; it should be him, but Banks, who has first written ‘our two people’, alters this to ‘one of the people’, and forgets to make the consequential alteration. S and P follow the MS. But Cook, whose account must be taken as correct, says that Webb was first brought back, and that Monkhouse and Truslove had been disarmed and detained with Gibson. He then sent Hicks away in the longboat with a strong party to recover the men.

page 312 They wer[e] very civil and shewd much fear as they have done of me upon all occasions, probably because I never shewd the least of them but have upon all our quarrels gone immediately into the thickest of them. They told me that our people would soon return. Acordingly about 8 they did safe and sound, we saw them through our glasses go up the side and immediately dischargd our prisoners, making each such a present as we though[t] would please them with which some were well content. The prisoners from the ship were by this time coming ashore. They were receivd with much joy by the multitude; I met them from the boat but no sign of forgiveness could I see in their faces, they lookd sulky and affronted. I walkd with Oborea along the beach: 4 hoggs were soon offerd me, two from her and as many from Dootahah, I refusd them however positively unless they would sell them which they refusd to do. The rest of the morning was employd in getting the tents aboard, which was done by dinner time and we dind on board. The small bower1 had been got up and the stock found to be so much worm eaten that we are obligd to make a new one, and as we have no hopes of the best bower being in better repair it is probable that we shall not get to sea this day or two.
12. This morn Tupia came on board, he had renewd his resolves of going with us to England, a circumstance which gives me much satisfaction. He is certainly a most proper man, well born, cheif Tahowa2 or preist of this Island, consequently skilld in the mysteries of their religion; but what makes him more than any thing else desireable is his experience in the navigation of these people and knowledge of the Islands in these seas; he has told us the names of above 70, the most of which he has himself been at.3 The Captn refuses to take him on his own account, in my opinion sensibly enough, the goverment will never in all human probability take any notice of him; I therefore have resolvd to take him. Thank heaven I have a sufficiency and I do not know why I may not keep him as a curiosity, as well as some of my neighbours do lions and

1 The anchor from the port side of the bow.

2 Tahua (cf. Maori tohunga, and other Polynesian variants).

3 This is rather an overstatement. Cook, in the list of islands which he gives (I, pp. 291–3) from Tupaia's information, marks no more than twelve that Tupaia said he had himself visited, and one of those was Raiatea, his native place. Cook writes, ‘This man had been with us the most part of the time we had been upon the Island which gave us an oppertunity to know some thing of him: we found him to be a very intelligent person and to know more of the Geography of the Islands situated in these seas, their produce and the religion laws and customs of the inhabitants then any one we had met with and was the likeliest person to answer our purpose; for these reasons and at the request of Mr Banks I received him on board together with a young boy his servant’.—p. 117. Tupaia came of a family well-known for its skill in navigation.

page 313 tygers at a larger expence than he will probably ever put me to; the amusement I shall have in his future conversation and the benefit he will be of to this ship, as well as what he may be if another should be sent into these seas, will I think fully repay me. As soon as he had made his mind known he said that he would go ashore and return in the evening, when he would make a signal for a boat to be sent off for him; he took with him a miniature picture of mine to shew his freinds and several little things to give them as parting presents. After dinner we went ashore to the Marai no Dootahah of which I was desirous to have a drawing made and had not yet done it.1 We no sooner landed than several of our freinds, those who were not totaly afronted at the imprisonment of the day before yesterday, came to meet us; we proceeded with them to Dootahahs house where was Oborea &c. They were glad to see us and a perfect reconciliation ensued, in consequence of which they promisd to visit us tomorrow morning to take their leave of us, as we told them that we should sail before noon. With them was Tupia who most willingly returnd in the boat with us aboard the ship where he took up his lodgins for the first time.

13. About 10 this morn saild From Otahite leaving our freinds Some of them at least I realy beleive personaly sorry for our departure, notwisthstanding the confinement of the day before yesterday had frigh[t]ned and affronted them as much as possible, yet our nearest freinds came on board at this Critical time except only Tubourai and Tamio. We had Oborea, Otheothea, Tayoa,2 Nuna, Tuanna Matte, Potattou, Polotheara &c. on board when the anchor was weighd; they took their leaves tenderly enough, not without plenty of tears tho intirely without that clamourous weeping made use of by the other Indians, several boats of whoom were about the ship shouting out their lamentations, as vyeing with each other not who should cry most but who should cry loudest — a custom we had often condemnd in conversation with our particular freinds as savouring more of affected than real greif.

Tupia who after all his struggles stood firm at last in his resolution of acompanying us parted with a few heartfelt tears, so I judge them to have been by the Efforts I saw him make use of to hide

1 If they simply went ashore after dinner to visit the marae no Tuteha, Tuteha's marae, it must have been at Point Utuhaihai; it can hardly have been that more usually known as his, Maraetaata. No drawing of the marae as such seems to have survived, though in B.M. Add. MS 15508 there is a very rough sketch-plan.

2 It is curious that Banks has not mentioned this ‘nearest friend’ before.—? Te-oa or Taioa.

page 314 them. He sent by Otheothea his last present, a shirt to Potamai,1 Dootahah's favourite mistress. He and I went then to the topmast head where we stood a long time waving to the Canoes as they went off, after which he came down and shewd no farther signs of seriousness or concern.

In the Evening Tethuroa in sight; before night it appears clearly to be a very low Island and but small, which with Tupias declaring that there were no fixd inhabitants upon it only the people of Otahite who went there for a few days to fish, determind us to content ourselves with what we had seen and stand on in search of Urietea,2 which he describd to be a well peopled Island as large as Otahite.3

14. Before Noon today two Islands are in sight which Tupia calls Huahine and Ulhietea, both of them make high and large.

15. Calm all last night, this morn hazey so that no land is seen; light breezes and calms succeeding each other all morn. Our Indian often prayd to Tane4 for a wind and as often boasted to me of the success of his prayers, which I plainly saw he never began till he saw a breeze so near the ship that it generaly reachd her before his prayer was finishd. At sunset a pleasant breeze. Owahine5 and Ulhietea very plainly seen.

16. This morn we were very near the Island; some Canoes very soon came off but appeard very much frightned, one however came to us bringing a cheif and his wife, who on Tupia's assurances of Freindship from us came on board. They were like the Otahite people in Language, dress, tattow, in short in Every thing. Tupia has always said that the people of this Island and Urietea will not steal, in which they indeed differ much from our late freinds if they only keep up to their Character.

Soon after dinner we came to an anchor in a very fine bay calld by the natives Owalla6 and immediately went ashore. As soon as

1 The name may be correct: or Potomai?

2 It is difficult to know precisely what name Banks was representing here. The fact that he heard an r in the word, which he follows with ie, suggests Raiatea. But then why the initial U?—which, one gathers from other spellings (e.g. Parkinson, Yoolee-Eteah) represents the English Yoo or you. It does not help matters that in his next entry he goes over to ‘Ulhietea’. The r/l sound in that part of the ocean was very indeterminate, and came to most early voyagers as l. Parkinson's ‘Yoolee-Eteah’, and hence the other variants, seems clearly derived from the island's older name, Ioretea; and presumably Banks's ie is not to be given its full value as in the English lie.

3 Raiatea is considerably smaller than Tahiti.

4 Tane was one of the great members of the Polynesian pantheon, a god of beauty, peace, and growing things: Tupaia here prays to him as also the god of fine weather.

5 Huahine.

6 Cook writes it Owharhe—another example of the indeterminate r/l. The harbour was Fare, on the west side of the island.

page 315 we landed Tupia squatted down on the ground and ranging us on one side and the Indians on the other began to pray, our cheif who stood opposite to him answering him in kind of responses. This lasted about a quarter of an hour in which time he sent at different intervals two hankercheifs and some beads he had prepard for the purpose as presents to Eatua;1 these were sent among many messages which pass'd backwards and forwards with plantains, malapoides2 &c. In return for this present to the gods which it seems was very acceptable we had a hog given for our Eatua, which in this case will certainly be our bellys.
17. Went ashore this morn and walkd up the hills; found the productions here almost exactly similar to those of Otahite; upon the hills the rocks and clay were burnt if any thing more than they were in that Island. The people also were almost exactly like our late [friends] but rather more stupid and lazy, in proof of which I need only say that we should have gone much higher up the hills than we did if we could have perswauded them to accompany us, whose only excuse was the fear of being killd by the fatigue. Their houses are very neat and their boathouses particularly very large, one of those I measurd 50 long paces in lengh 10 broad

1 e atua, a god; atua was the word for any god.

2 S has here the note, ‘Young Plantains, and Malapoides, are plants used in Sacred Ceremonies’.

page 316 and 24 ft high: the Gothick arch of which it consisted was supported on one side by 26, on the other by 30 pillars or rather clumsey thick posts of about 2 ft high and one thick. Most of these were carvd with heads of men, boys or other devices, as the rough fancy and more rough workmanship of these stone hatchet furnishd gentrey suggested and executed. The flats were filld with very fine breadfruit trees and an infinite number of Cocoa nuts, upon which latter the inhabitants seemd to depend much more than those of Otahite; we saw however large spaces occupied by lagoons and salt swamps upon which neither breadfruit nor Cocoa nuts would thrive.

18. This morning went to take a farther view of a building which we had seen yesterday and admird a good deal, taking with us Tupias boy Tayeto1 for himself was too much engagd with his freinds to have time to accompany us. The boy told us that it was calld Ewharre no Eatua2 or the house of the god but could not explain at all the use of it. It consisted of a chest whose lid was nicely sewd on and thatched over very neatly with palm nut leaves, the whole was fixd upon two poles by little arches of carvd wood very neat; these poles seemd to be usd in carrying it from place to place tho when we saw it it was supported upon two posts. One end of the chest was open with a round hole within a square one, this was yesterday stopd up with a peice of cloth which least I should offend the people I left untouchd, but to day the cloth and probably the contents of the chest were removd as there was nothing at all in it.

Trade today does not go on with any spirit, the people when any thing is offerd will not take it on their own judgement, but take the opinion of 20 or 30 people about them which takes up much time; we however got 11 piggs.

19. This morn trade rather better: got 3 very large hogs and some piggs by producing hatchets, which had not been before given and we hop'd to have had no occasion for in an Island which had not before been seen by Europæans.3 In the afternoon go to Sea.

1 The name of this rather pathetic figure in history cannot be given with confidence. Banks Tayeto (?Te-ito or Taiato); Cook Tiata (?Taiata); Parkinson Taiyota (?Taiota).

2 fare no atua.

3 Cook also gave to ‘Oree’ the chief ‘a small plate on which was stamp'd the following Inscription viz. His Britannick Maj. Ship Endeavour, Lieutt Cook Commander 16th July 1769. Huaheine,’ with some medals or counters and other presents, which Oree promised never to part with; ‘this we thought would prove as lasting a Testimony of our having first discover'd this Island as any we could leave behind’.—Cook I, p. 143.

page 317

The Island of Huahine differs scarce at all from that of Otahite either in its productions or in the customs of the people. In all our searches here we have not found above 10 or 12 new plants, a few insects indeed and a species of scorpions which we did not see at Otahite.1 This Island seems however this year at least to be a month forwarder than the other, as the ripeness of the Cocoa nuts now full of kernel and the new breadfruit, some of which is fitt to Eat, fully evinces. Of the Cocoa nut kernels they make a food which they call Poe2 by scraping them fine and mixing them with yams also scrapd; these are put into a wooden trough and hot stones laid among them, by which means a kind of Oily hasty pudding is made which our people relishd very well especialy fryd.

The men here are large made and stout, one we measurd was 6ft 3 high and well made; the women very Fair, more so than at Otahite tho we saw none so hansome. Both Sexes seem'd to be less timid as well as less curious, the firing of a gun frightned them but they did not fall down as our Otahite freinds at first generaly did. On one of their people being taken in the fact of stealing and seizd upon by the hair they did not run away, but coming round inquird into the cause and seemingly at least approving of the Justice recomended a beating for the offender which was immediately put in practise.

When they first came on board the ship they seemd struck with a sight so new and wonderd at every thing that was shewn to them, but did not seem to search and inquire for matters of curiosity even so much as the Otahite people did, tho they had before seen almost every thing we had to shew them.

20. At noon today come to an anchor at Ulhietea in a bay Calld by the natives Oapoa,3 the entrance of which is very near a small Islet Calld Owhattera.4 Some Indians soon came on board expressing signs of fear, they were two Canoes each of which brought a woman, I suppose as a mark of confidence, and a pig as a present. To each of these ladies was given a spike nail and some beads with which they seemd much pleasd. Tupia who has always expressd much fear of the men of Bola Bola5 says that they have conquerd this

1 Hormurus australasiae Fabr. Fabricius described this from a specimen in Banks's museum and it is still in the British Museum (Natural History).

2 This spelling is also the orthodox spelling.

3 Opoa.

4 Oatara.

5 Porapora (more properly) or Borabora (as spelt today). See p. 314, n. 2 above. Borabora was a much smaller island, but its men were determined fighters.

page 318 Island and will tomorrow come down and fight with us, we therefore lose no time in going ashore as we are to have today to ourselves. On landing Tupia repeated the ceremony of praying as at Huahine after which an English Jack was set up on shore and Captn Cooke took possession of this and the other three Islands in sight viz. Huahine Otahah1 and Bola Bola for the use of his Britannick majesty. After this we walk together to a great Marai calld Tapodeboatea whatever that may signifie;2 it is different from those of Otahite being no more than walls about 8 feet high of Coral Stones (some of an immense size) filld up with smaller ones, the whole ornamented with many planks set upon their ends and carvd their whole lengh. In the neighbourhood of this we found the altar or ewhatta3 upon which lay the last sacrafice, a hog of about 80 pounds weight which had been put up there whole and very nicely roasted. Here were also 4 or 5 Ewharre no Eatua or god houses which were made to be carried on poles. One of these I examind by putting my hand into it: within was a parsel about 5 feet long and one thick wrappd up in matts, these I tore with my fingers till I came to a covering of mat made of platted Cocoa nut fibres which it was impossible to get through so I was obligd to desist, especialy as what I had already done gave much offence to our new freinds.4 From hence we went to an adjoining long house where among several things such as rolls of cloth &c. was standing a model of a Canoe about 3 feet long upon which were tied 8 under jaw bones of men. Tupia told us that it was the custom of these Islanders to cut off the Jaw bones of those who they had killd in war; these were he said the jaw bones of Ulhietea people but how they came here or why tied thus to a canoe we could not understand, we were therefore contented to conjecture that they were plac'd there as a trophy

1 Tahaa. Raiatea and Tahaa are enclosed by the same reef.

2 Taputapu-atea. Banks's spelling shows the ambiguity between the Tahitian t and d sounds. S has the note, ‘Tapodeboatea. Signifies in their Language, Head of the white Hog’. This is an unhappy bloomer on Banks's part; perhaps he gets it out of Te upoo (the human head) + te puaa (the hog) + tea (white). Henry (Ancient Tahiti, p. 95) gives its meaning as ‘Sacrifices from abroad’. Taputapu was a sacrifice, generally human, to the god Oro; one of the meanings of atea was ‘distant, far off’. Davies defines the word as ‘the name of a public and principal heiva, where the human sacrifices were made to Oro’. Such sacrifices were made at other marae in Tahiti named after this one. It was the most famous of all marae, and of international significance, as the most important marae of Raiatea, the centre from which the Society Islands and Tahiti were populated, and the homeland to which the Maori people trace back their historic origin. Emory (op.cit., pp. 145–8) has a full discussion of the marae, with drawings.

3 fata; Banks again includes the verbal e, it is.

4 Not surprisingly; and it is a tribute to Raiatean tolerance that they remained the young man's friends after this calm piece of sacrilege. The object which Banks was trying to get at was a sennit representation of an ancestral god, perhaps the great god Oro, to whom the marae was sacred.

page 319 won back from the men of Bola Bola their mortal enemies. Night now came on apace but Dr Solander and myself walkd along shore a little way and saw an Ewharre no Eatua, the under part of which was lind with a row of Jaw bones which we were also told were those of Ulhietea men. We saw also Cocoa nut trees the stemms of which were hung round with nutts so that no part of them could be seen, these we were told were put there that they might dry a little and be prepard for making poe; we saw also a tree of Ficus prolixa in great perfection, the trunck or rather congeries of roots of which was 42 paces in circumference.1
21. Dr Solander and myself walkd out this morn and saw many large Boathouses like that describd at Huahine page 303 and 401.2 On these the inhabitants were at work making and repairing the large Canoes calld by them Pahee,3 at which business they workd with incredible cleverness tho their tools certainly were as bad as possible. I will first give the dimensions and description of one of their boats and then their method of building. Its extreme lenght from stem to stern not reckoning the bending up of both those parts 51 feet; breadth in the clear at the top forward 14 inches, midships 18, aft 15; in the bilge forward 32 inches, midships 35, aft 33; depth midships 3 ft 4; hight from the ground she stood on 3 ft 6; her head raisd without the figure 4 ft 4 from the ground, the figure 11 inches; her stern 8 ft 9, the figure 2 feet. Alongside of her was lashd another like her in all parts but less in proportion being only 33 feet in her extreme lengh. The form of these Canoes is better to be expressd by a drawing than by any description. This annexd may serve to give some Idea of a section: aa is the first seam, bb the second, cc the third. The first stage or keel under aa is made of trees hollowd out like a trough for which purpose they chuse the longest trees they can get,4 so that 2 or three make the bottom of their largest boats (some of which

1 Ficus prolixa Forst., called Aoa by the Tahitians, was a sacred tree planted about temples, its ‘congeries of roots’ like a banyan; its bark was used in making tapa cloth. Solander provided a full description both of this and of F. tinctoria (Prim. Fl. Insul. Oceani Pac. pp. 352–3 MS) but Forster in true form purloined Solander's names for his Prodromus (cf. Merrill, p. 352).

2 i.e. pp. 316 above, and 368 below.

3 pahi. The people of Raiatea were the great canoe-builders of the Society group. The description which Banks proceeds to give is more detailed than anything in Cook.

4 The timbers used for canoe-building were mainly Faifai (Serianthes myriadenia) a large valley-growing tree, a favourite for pahi; the Uru or breadfruit, and the Hutu (Barringtonia speciosa)—for which last see Pl. V.

page 320 are much larger than that describd here as I make a rule to describe every thing of this kind from the common size); the next stage under bb is formd of streght plank about 4 feet long and 15 inches broad and 2 inches thick; the next stage under cc is made like the bottom of trunks of trees hollowd into its bilging form; the last or that above cc is formd also out of trunks of trees so that the moulding is of one peice with the plank. This work dificult as it would be to an Europæan with his Iron tools they perform without Iron and with amazing dexterity; they hollow with their stone axes as fast at least as our Carpenters could do and dubb tho slowly with prodigious nicety; I have seen them take off a skin of an angular plank without missing a stroke, the skin itself scarce £1/16 part of an inch in thickness. Boring the holes throug[h] which their sewing is to pass seems to be their greatest dificulty. Their tools are made of the bones of men, generaly the thin bone of the upper arm; these they grind very sharp and fix to a handle of wood, making the instrument serve the purpose of a gouge by striking it with a mallet made of a hard black wood,1 and with them would do as much work as with Iron tools was it not that the brittle Edge of the tool is very liable to be broke.

When they have prepard their planks &c. the keel is layd on blocks and the whole Canoe put together much in the same manner as we do a ship, the sides being supported by stantions and all the seams wedg'd together before the last sewing is put on, so that they become tolerably tight considering that they are without calking.2

With these boats they venture themselves out of sight of land; we saw several of them at Otahite which had come from Ulhietea and Tupia has told us that they go voyages of twenty days, whether true or false I do not affirm. They keep them very carefully under such boathouses as are describd p.,3 one of which we measurd today 60 yards by 11.

22. Weather worse than yesterday, in the course of last night it blew very fresh, this morn rainy. Walk out but meet little worth observation. Saw a double pahie such as that describd yesterday but much larger, she had upon her an awning supported by pillars which held the floor of it 4 feet at least above the deck or upper surface of the boat; also a trough for making Poe poe or sour paste

1 Toa or ironwood.

2 This is evidently a mistake. Caulking was done with fine coconut fibre and the adhesive sap of the breadfruit used as pitch; but Banks probably did not see the process.

3 p. 316 above.

page 321 carvd out of hard black stone such as their hatchets are made of,1 it was 2 ft 7 long and 1 ft 4 broad, very thick and substantial and supported by 4 short feet, the whole neatly finishd and perfectly polishd tho quite without ornaments. Today as well as yesterday every one of us who walkd out saw many Jaw bones fix'd up in houses as well as out of doors, a confirmation of their taking them instead of scalps.

23. Weather mended a little. Dr Solander and myself go upon the hills in hopes of finding new plants but ill rewarded; return home at night having seen nothing worth mentioning.

24. Foul wind. The Captn attempts to go out of the reef at another passage situate between the two Islets of Opourourou and Taumou.2 The ship turning to windward within the reef in doing which she narrowly escapes going ashore, the Quartermaster in the chains calld out 2 fathom; the ship drawing at least 14 feet made it impossible that such a shoal could be under her Keel, so either the man was mistaken or she went along the edge of a coral rock many of which are here as steep as a wall.

Soon after this we came to an anchor and I went ashore but saw nothing but a small marai ornamented with 2 sticks about 5 feet long, each hung with Jaw bones as thick as possible and one having a skull stuck on its top.

25. This morn get to sea and turn to windward all day. Find that the two Islands Ulhietea and Otahah are inclosed by one reef: Tupia says that there is a large passage throug[h] it between them and a harbour within it, also another fronting a large bay on the Eastermost end of Otahah.

26. Foul wind Continues last night, the ship has faln much to leward. Before night however we have gaind our loss and something more, as we discover a low Island ahead which Tupia tells us is calld by the natives Tupi;3 he says that it is low without a harbour and yields nothing but Cocoa nuts and fish.

27. Turn to leward all night and all day again, so much that at night Tupi is not in sight.

28. Wind still baffles us as much as ever. This morn hoisted out a boat and sent ashore on the Island of Otahah in which Dr Solander

1 Probably dolerite from the island of Maurua, now Maupiti. Corney, III, pl. 2 is a picture of a larger example.

2 On the chart in Hawkesworth as Opururu and Tamou. They have changed their names to Iriru and Tipaemau.

3 Tubai in Cook; now Motu-iti.

page 322 and myself took a passage. We went through a large breach in the reef situate between two Islands calld Toahattu and Whennuaia1 within which we found very spatious harbours, particularly in one bay which was at least 3 miles deep.2 The inhabitants as usual so that long before night we had purchasd 3 hoggs, 21 fowls and as many yams and plantains as the boat would hold. Indeed of these last we might have had any quantity and a more useful refreshment they are to us in my opinion even than the pork; they have been for this week past boild and servd instead of bread; every man in the ship is fond of them and with us in the Cabbin they agree much better than the Bread fruit did which sometimes gripd us. But what makes any refreshments of this kind the more acceptable is that our bread is at present so full of vermin that notwistanding all possible care I have sometimes had 20 at a time in my mouth, every one of which tasted as hot as mustard.

The Island itself seemd more barren than Ulhietea tho much like it in produce, bread fruit being less plentyfull than Plantains and Cocoa nuts. The people perfectly the same, so much so that I did not observe one new custom or any thing Else among them worth mention; they were not very numerous but flockd from all Quarters to the boat wherever she went bringing with them whatever they had to sell. Here as well as in the rest of the Islands they paid us the same Compliment they are used to pay to their own Kings, uncovering their shoulders and lapping their Garments round their breasts; here particularly they were so scrupulously observant of it that a man was sent with us who calld out to every one we met telling him what we were and what he was to do.

29. The wind last night has favourd us a little so that we are this morn close under the Island of Bola Bola, whose high craggy peak seems on this side at least totaly inaccessible to men; round it is a large quantity of low land which seems very barren. Tupia tells us that between the shore and the mountain is a large salt lagoon, a certain sign of barrenness in this climate; he however tells us that there are upon the Island plenty of Hogs and fowls as well as the vegetables we have generaly met with.

We see but few people on the shore, Tupia tells us that they are gone to Ulhietea where we shall find them. He says also that there is no breach in the reef on this side the Island but on the other there is one large enough for the ship to go in and a good harbour within it.

1 Toahatu and ?Fenu-aia; the latter is now called Mahea. The breach in the reef is the Toahatu pass.

2 Haamene or Hamene.

page 323

30. This morn wind right on end. See a new Island calld by Tupia Maurua,1 he says it is fertile and yeilds plentifully all kinds of provision, but that there is no breach in the reef large enough for the ship to go into.

31. Still turning to windward with the wind right in our teeth, towards evening however it mends and gives us hopes that we may tomorrow morn come to an anchor in Ulhietea. Tupia today shewes us a large breach in the reef of Otahah through which the ship migh[t] conveniently pass into a large bay, where he says there is good anchorage.2 We have now a very good opinion of Tupias pilotage, especialy since we observd him at Huahine send a man to dive down to the heel of the ships rudder; this the man did several times and reported to him the depth of water the ship drew, after which he has never sufferd her to go in less than 5 fathom water without being much alarmd.

1 Now Maupiti.

2 The Paipai pass into the bay called by Cook ‘Oherurua’, now Hurepiti.