Other formats

    TEI XML file   ePub eBook file  


    mail icontwitter iconBlogspot iconrss icon

James K. Baxter Complete Prose Volume 4

Glossary of Māori Words and Phrases

Glossary of Māori Words and Phrases

JKB had only a limited knowledge of Māori. Nonetheless, this list is partly compiled from glossaries which he compiled for Jerusalem Daybook, Autumn Testament and ‘A Handbook for the Christian Militant’. Some of his other writings include an English translation of a phrase or sentence. In all such cases his versions are preferred.

a and, then, so
ahau I, me
aia particle, he, the
Te Ao Hoū the new world, modern times [title of a journal]
ara rise up, awaken from sleep
ariki paramount chief
Te Ariki Christ, the Lord
aroha love
arohanui strong love, love of the many
atua spirit, deity
Te Atua God, God the Father
au I, me
auē alas, woe
E . . . ana phrase indicating continuous action, past, present or future
e particle used before proper name when addressing someone
hāerecome, go
hāere atugo away
hāere rafarewell, goodbye [to person leaving]
hāhichurch as a body, denomination, building
hakaposture dance
hangacreate, build
hāngiearth oven or, by common usage, a feast prepared in this way
harasin, crime, fault
te hauthe windpage 421
hea, some, also (in prayer) a fault, as in the phrase ‘through my fault’ in the ‘Confiteor’ (‘I confess . . .’), error
Hemi James
hīnaki eel-trap
hine girl, daughter, young woman
Hine nui te pō goddess of death
Hiruhārama Jerusalem
hoa friend
Hoani John
hōiho horse, donkey
Ihōa Jehovah
Ihu (Hēhu) Jesus
inanga whitebait; also a pale translucent variety of greenstone
ingoa name
iti small
ka introductory word indicating the beginning of a continuous action, past, present or future
kaha strong
kia kaha be strong
kai food
kāore no
Karaiti Christ
karaka a large tree that bears edible orange-yellow berries
karakia prayers
kare to long for, desire ardently
Te Kare an object of affection; Jacquie Baxter’s Māori name
katoa all,every
kaumātua elder, elders (male)
kauri massive cone-bearing forest tree prized for its timber
kēhua ghost
ki to, towards, at
kia be, to be; future tense, so that, introductory word to a command
kina sea-urchin, sea-egg
particle indicating present tense, is, are; or emphasising the subject
koe you (singular)
kono woven food basket
kōrero talk, discussion, group discussionpage 422
koro uncle, grandfather, elder relative
Te Kouti Māori prophet and military leader, founder of the Ringatu religion; often spelt ‘Te Kooti’
koutou you (more than two people)
kōwhai indigenous tree with yellow flowers
kua introductory word indicating completed action
kuia revered old woman
kūmara Māori root crop, sweet potato
kupu word, message
kurī dog
mahi work, job
māia energetic
mākutu spell, curse
mana prestige, respect
manaaki care for, hospitality
manu bird
manuhiri guest, visitor
manuhiritanga hospitality, relation of host tribe to its guests; described by JKB as ‘the practice of mercy and respect to the guest and the stranger’; ‘unlimited hospitality to the guest and stranger’
mānuka indigenous scrub-bush, tea-tree
Māoritanga Māori spirit and tradition marae tribal meeting ground attached to meeting-house
māramatanga understanding, insight, the light to travel by
Maru god of fishing
matagouri a thorny tangled shrub; also known as wild Irishman
mataī black pine
mate death, sickness, problem
matewa [sic] JKB defines this variously. In ‘The Young Warriors’ he describes it as ‘the area of Maori thought and feeling that lies at the edge of reason’; in ‘Extracts from “Notes of Community Life [1]”’ he defines it as ‘the night life of the soul’; while in Jerusalem Daybook he paraphrases it both as ‘the night life of the soul’ and ‘the area of dreams and omens and hidden spiritual relationships to the dead and the living and our nonhuman environment’. Sometimes it seems to mean ‘contemplation’
Mathiu Matthew; more commonly ‘Matiu’page 423
Te Matuathe Father
maufixed, stable, grasp, hold
Māuimythological Māori hero, one of whose exploits was to try to kill the Death Goddess by entering her body
meand, also
for (other than speaker)
moalarge, extinct flightless bird
Ngā mōkaipets, the youngest members of a family. JKB uses it in the sense of ‘the fatherless ones’
mokofacial tatoo
Te Mōrehuthe people, the survivors (of Parihaka)
mutufinished, completed (‘Kua mutu’ being the translation of the last words of Christ on the Cross: ‘It is finished.’)
ngāthe (plural)
ngākauthoughts, heart (i.e. emotions)
Ngāpuhia Northland tribe
Te Ngutu o Te Manua famous South Taranaki fighting pa
nīkauindigenous palm tree
noaordinary, common, freed from tapu
nuilarge, big, grand
ōkumy, mine (plural)
oralife, well-being, health
Māori village (originally fortified)
pākehāNew Zealander of European descent
pātakastore-house for food
pipicommon edible bivalve
night, darkness, world of the dead
nga pōhorothe poorpage 424
pōhutukawa trees found in coastal areas which bear spectacular red flowers
poi light ball on a string which is swung rhythmically to music
Ngāti Pōneke culture group of the Wellington area (‘Pōneke’ is the Māori name of Port Nicholson)
ponga silver treefern
pōrangi mad, madman
pōuri sad
pūhā edible sour thistle
pukapuka books
pūkeko purple swamp hen
puku belly
purapura seed
Te Rā the sun (by extension, God)
rangatira leader, aristocrat, chief
rangi sky, the heavens
rangimārie peace
rātā a New Zealand vine or tree with a brilliant red flower
Rātana a Māori prophet, founder of the Rātana Church
raukore poor, destitute; JKB used this spelling instead of rawakore
ngā raukore those who are like trees that have had their leaves and branches stripped away (by extension, addicts, the mentally ill)
Rēneti Lent
rite ki like, similar to
rīwai type of potato
roimata tear
rongo peace
Rua a Māori prophet from the Urewera
runga on, above
tāima time
te taipō the Devil
tāku my
tama son, boy, youth
Te Tama God the Son
Ngā Tamatoa The Young Warriors, a Māori militant group of the 1970spage 425
tamariki children
tāne man
Tāne god of the forests
Tangaroa god of the sea
tāngata men
tangata whenua local people, home tribe
tangi Māori funeral ceremony; weep, mourn
tāniko Māori weaving with coloured threads, especially for the borders of cloaks and headbands
taniwha water spirit
tapu sacred, forbidden
tarakihi an ocean fish
tau strong, powerful
te the (singular)
tēina younger brother
tēnā that (near you)
tēnā koe greeting to one person
tēnā koutou greeting extended to more than three persons (away from speaker)
tēnei this>
tērā that over there
tere quick, fast
tikareti cigarette
tino very
titiro look
Titokowaru a leader, prophet and peacemaker of South Taranaki
toa warrior
toetoe a New Zealand bush with a hollow stalk and whitish-yellow plumes
tohunga expert, specialist, priest, artist
tokotoko walking-stick, crutch
tōtara large forest tree
tuākana elder brother
tuatara a New Zealand lizard, famous for having a vestigial third eye in the back of its head
tukutuku [panels] woven grass and reed wall panels
tuna eel
Tūtānekai an Arawa chief in a Maori love legend who played the flute
tūtūā nobody, worthless person, commonerpage 426
Tūwharetoa tribal area around Taupo-National Park; people of Te Heu Heu
ua rain
Wāhi Ngaro the Void, Space, a term used in Māori creation chants
wāhine woman
wai water, wave, who
waiata song
wairua spirit, soul
Te Wairua Tapu the Holy Spirit
waka canoe
wēta a New Zealand bush insect resembling a large grasshopper
Te Whaea the Source, the Mother of God
whakaaro thought, opinions
whakaiti become small or humble
whakanui become large, enhance
whakapono belief, faith
whare house
whare whakairo carved house
wharepuni principal house, meeting house, sleeping house
whenua the land (poet.), placenta
whiore tail
Te Whiro death, darkness
Te Whiti Taranaki Maori prophet, leader of non-violent resistance movement
Wiremu William

[Phrases and sentences beginning with the introductory words E, he, ka, ko, kua, ngā, and te are listed under the second word of the phrase. Translations of sentences given in inverted commas are those supplied by JKB within the relevant texts.]

Ariki rite ki Te Rā: The Lord is like the Sun.

E Ariki, tāku ngākau ki a koe: ‘Lord, my heart belongs to you.’

Ko te aroha i te Ariki: ‘Where a true love of another person is present, there the Lord also is present.’

Hāere atu, hāere ra: ‘Farewell! Go to God! Go!’ Te hāhi Māori: the Māori Church (as a body of members).

page 427

Te hōiho o Karaiti: Christ’s horse, donkey.

Ko Ihu tāku aroha; Ko Ihu tāku mate: Jesus is the source of my love; Jesus is the source of my death.

Ka iti te whare, ka nui te waka: ‘The house is small, the canoe is big.’

Kāore te tāima, kāore te moni, kāore nga pukapuka: ‘No time, no money, no books.’

Karakia mo Te Atua: Prayer for God.

Kaua e whakaarohia te mahinga otirā te otinga: Don’t dance on the toil, picture the completion of the work, its accomplishment.

Kei te pai: That’s good!

Kia tau te rangimārie: ‘May peace be strong among us.’ (Let peace be here among us)

Ki te ingoa o Te Matua, o Te Whāea, o Te Tama, o Te Wairua Tapu: In the name of the Father, and of the Source/Mother [Mary], and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.

Kia kaha, kia toa, kia māia: Be strong, be brave, be confident!

Kia kaha, kia toa, kia māia. Kia raukore rite ki Te Ariki. Rangimārie kī a koutou. Kua mutu: Be strong, be brave, be confident! Be poor like the Lord! Let there be peace among you! It is finished.

Kia mau te rongo kī runga kī te whenua, mō te whakaaro pai kī ngā tangata: An abbreviated form of ‘Kia whaikōroria kī te runga rawa, te maungārongo kī te whenua, ngā whakaaro pai kī ngā tangata’, which is commonly used to begin a mihi (a speech of greeting). It is a translation of Ch. 2, v. 14 of the Gospel according to Luke: ‘Glory be to God in the highest and on earth peace to those of goodwill.’

Kia tau te rangimarie: ‘May peace be strong among us.’

He Kupu mo Ngā Toa: A message for the Warriors.

Ko te mahi mo tenēi Reneti, ko nga karakia: The task for this Lent is prayer.

He manuhiri au, kō taku hāere e te hāere o aroha: ‘I am a stranger. My coming here is motivated by love’.

Ko te māori te tuakana; ko te pākehā te tēina: ‘The Māori is the older brother; the pākehā the younger brother.’

He mea hanga nā te Atua i te tīmatanga te rangi me te whenua: In the beginning God made the heavens and the earth.

Kua mutu. Kāore. Kua ura te ra o ngā tangata. Kua ura Te Ariki rite ki Te Rā: It is finished. Not at all. The sun has shone upon the people. The Lord has risen like the Sun.

page 428

Nā Te Atua i hanga te whenua me te rangi me ngā tangata: God made the land, the heavens and the people.

Te Ngutu o Te Manu: the beak of the bird. (The name of a famous fighting pa.)

Ōku manaakitanga kī a koutou: Our hospitality to you all.

Ka pai te mahi: Work is good.

Ka piko te ngā: ‘The rain is falling.’ (The breath bends.)

E te pōuri āna ahau. I am stricken with sadness.

Rite kia Mohi: Like Moses

He roimata ua, he roimata tangata: ‘The sky sheds tears in sympathy with the grief of man.’

Tāku ngākau kī a koe: I give my heart to you.

Te purapura iti: the little seed.

Ka piko te nga; he roimata ua, he roimata tangata: ‘The rain is falling; the tears of the sky are falling along with the tears of man.’

E te pōuri āna ahau: My heart would be sorrowful.

Tēnā koutou. Tēnā koutou. Tēnā koutou katoa: Greetings, greetings, greetings to you all.

Tihei mauriora: I am alive; or (when someone is about to give a speech) It is my turn to breathe forth some wisdom. (Lit. 'The life-force sneezes.')

He tino pai te mate: It is very good to die.

Te wairua Māori: the Māori spirituality.

Te Wairua Tapu: the Holy Spirit.

Te Wairua Tapu ki runga i a koutou: ‘May the Holy Spirit dwell in your hearts.’

Ka whakaiti tuku mana, ka whakanui te aroha: ‘As my prestige is broken down, so the group love will increase.’

Ka whakanui te puku o te pākehā. ‘The pākehā’s gut has grown big [with swallowing the land].’

Te whare tapu: the church (the building).