Picturesque Dunedin: or Dunedin and its neighbourhood in 1890
A Brief Review of the Leading Industries of Dunedin
A Brief Review of the Leading Industries of Dunedin.
If the early settlers of Otago—the "Pilgrim Fathers" of Dunedin—who arrived at Port Chalmers in the "John Wickliff" and the "Philip Laing," could have taken a peep into futurity and viewed our fair city of Dunedin to-day, with her numerous white buildings glittering amongst her verdant hills, and girdled around by her magnificent emerald "Belt," they well might have exclaimed, "Can such things ever be ?"
In those early days of the settlement every man, if he intended to become prosperous, required to make himself a kind of "Jack of all trades." He was compelled to understand a little of bush carpentering, be competent to build a sod chimney, and be able to manufacture his own furniture, before he could make himself even tolerably comfortable in his hut. He, or his wife, if he was blessed with one, would have to repair all the clothes, and also put a patch on a boot when necessary, or he would probably find himself bare-footed.
Many other little offices, which are so much more conveniently arranged in the Dunedin of the present day had all to be performed as "home industries" in those early days, when a pig-hunter's hut was the only building where High street now runs, and the waves of the Bay washed over the present site of the Colonial Bank. And yet that time is less than fifty years ago. A man need not have arrived at the threescore and ten years of the Psalmist to have a recollection of that period.
Since then the various industries of Dunedin have advanced not only by strides but by leaps and bounds. In some of the large industrial centres of the mother country they profess to manufacture everything, "from a needle to an anchor." Dunedin cannot yet go quite so far as that. She can, however page 244produce most necessary domestic articles, and a great number of what may be considered luxuries.
To the discovery of gold Dunedin owes in a great measure its rapid growth. Although gold-mining is not an actual city industry, still it has had a great effect on Dunedin, and has given a great stimulus to its commercial life. Not only are large quantities of mining plant manufactured here, but numbers of the miners visit the city at regular intervals,- more especially in winter, when the mining is suspended, which tends to cause a circulation of cash, and is of great benefit to the citizens.
In order that the majority of the manufacturing industries may thrive, it is absolutely necessary, so long as steam is the motive power, that a good supply of fuel should be available. In this matter Dunedin is exceptionally favoured. Within a reasonable distance of the city there are numerous mines from which the requisite quantity of coal and lignite can be obtained. These mines are situated at Green Island, Kaitangata, Shag Point, and other places. They are generally worked by drives into the sides of the hills, and not by sinking a perpendicular shaft, as is usual in the coal-pits of Great Britain.
An excellent bituminous coal is also brought round from the West Coast by the Union Steam Shipping Company's regular line of vessels. To the use of this first-class steam-coal the engineer of the "Calliope" attributed the splendid work of the engines of that vessel, when she made her memorable escape from destruction off the coast of Samoa, whilst the American and Ger-man vessels were wrecked. A still further supply of coal is obtained regularly from Newcastle, N. S. Wales. Dunedin has therefore an ample supply of fuel.
In addition to quite a small fleet of coasting vessels owned in Dunedin, the city has the advantage of being the head quarters of the Union Steam Shipping Company, and by this means has convenient water communication with the whole habitable globe.
It is impossible in a brief review like the present to do little more than mention the names of the principal makers and one or two articles of their manufacture. An alphabetical order of trades and names will be adhered to as much as possible.
Aerated Waters, etc.
During the hot and dusty weather a refreshing draught of some cool non-intoxicant is very welcome, and to meet this requirement the manufacture of aerated waters and cordials is one of Dunedin's industries. During the summer months the demand for these articles is very great. All descriptions of cordials, &c, are manufactured. Messrs Thomson & Co. (Police street), Messrs Lane & Co. (Maclaggan street), Messrs Bennett & Son. (Great King street), and Mr J. D. Feraud (Maclaggan street), are all engaged in this industry.
A country labourer on being told that the beer at the village inn was bad, replied: "Noa, noa, there be no bad beer: some on it be better than other, but there beant none on it bad!" So far as Dunedin beer is concerned, the foregoing opinion might be correctly applied. Whether the water of Dunedin is specially adapted for brewing—as is supposed to be the case at famous beery Burton—or whether the manipulation of the ingredients is better understood, there is at all events something about Dunedin beer which makes it a favourite tipple from the Bay of Islands to the Bluff. Among the breweries of Dunedin the City Brewery, owned by Messrs Speight & Co., has of late years taken the leading place. From comparatively small beginnings they have gradually crept up to the front rank, and their new premises lately erected in Battray street contain one of the most complete and extensive plants in the colony. Mr Maurice Joel, Messrs McGravin & Co., The Dunedin Brewery Co., Mrs Strachan's Trustees, and Mr S. R. Briggs (of Caversham), also carry on an extensive brewing and malting business.
Bone Mills, etc.
A very useful industry is that carried on by Mr J. Durston at his Bone, Oil, and Tallow Mills at the Kaikoria, where what would otherwise be waste material is converted into valuable articles of commerce. The whole establishment being kept in such a state of cleanliness that the slightest offence possible is given to the sense of smell.
The Chemical Works of the New Zealand Drug Company (Messrs Kempthorne, Prosser & Co., Limited) at Burnside are-an extensive block of buildings with large yards, and are provided page 246with the most approved appliances for the manufacture of the various products. These consist of sulphuric acid, bone manures, tallow, oil, acetic acid, and other articles of a kindred nature. The works have been established for some years, and are continually being enlarged to meet the requirements of the increasing demand for the manufactures.
The manufacture of the various kinds of brushes is a very interesting and important industry, carried on by Mr A. C. Broad in his factory in St. Andrew street. The whole process is completed on the premises; a portion of the labour, which is of a light nature, being performed by females.
One of the useful minor industries is basket-making and other kinds of wicker-working. There are three establishments for producing articles of this description. Two of these in Princes street south, and the other in George street.
In a country where flowers of some description are in bloom the whole year round, keeping bees will always prove profitable. The wants of bee-keepers for necessary shelter for the insects are provided for by Mr T, Gr. Brickell of Bath street, who, in connection with his other business, is a manufacturer of bee-hives.
Biscuits, Confectionery, Preserves, etc., etc.
When Mr George Augustus Sala, the veteran correspondent of the London Daily Telegraph, visited New Zealand some years ago, he mentioned in one of his letters something to the effect "that New Zealand was a land of jam, and that he never sat down to a meal without finding jam on the table." This was certainly as much a compliment to the country as the old-time Biblical expression of "a land flowing with milk and honey." One of our great "home industries" is the annual "fruit preserving." Every thrifty housewife lays in a good stock of the toothsome article for the winter season.
In addition to this we have biscuit factories which are also engaged in the manufacture of confectionery and the preparation and potting of preserved fruits, not only for sale in our own country, but also for exportation over the civilised globe. New page 247Zealand jam is well-known and appreciated in the British. Islands, and in all places to which, it finds its way.
The principal firms who carry on various branches of this "sweet and luscious" industry are Messrs. R,. Hudson & Co. (Moray Place), The St. George Jam Factory (Messrs. Irvine and Stevenson, George street), Messrs. Peacock & Co. (Jam Factory, Moray Place), and the Phoenix Company (Maclaggan street).
The Phoenix Company are also manufacturers of all descriptions of biscuits and confectionery, whilst Messrs. R. Hudson and Co. in addition produce various kinds of chocolate, chocolate creams, and cocoa. This industry has made rapid strides during the last few years, the out-put of cocoa, chocolate, &c, promising to be shortly sufficient for the local requirements, and the quality of the articles manufactured being quite equal to those imported from Europe. Messrs R. Hudson & Co. have also a flour mill working on the same premises.
Blacking for boots although a humble is a very useful domestic necessary. The manufacture of this article is carried on by Messrs R. Anderson & Co., Moray Place. Their brand the "Raven" being well known.
The Bellows Company, South Dunedin, are starch manufacturers, and combine with it also the preparation of blacking, ink, gold paint, &c.
The harbour of Dunedin being a fine sheet of water and well sheltered from stormy winds, renders a sail or row a very pleasant recreation during the summer months. A demand for boats and yachts has naturally induced several boat-builders to establish themselves in convenient localities. Their work-shops and yards are distributed at intervals along the shores of the bar, where boats can be hired by either the hour or day.
Boot and Shoe Manufactories.
The manufacture of boots and shoes is a very prosperous industry in Dunedin and suburbs. There are a number of boot factories of varying sizes, where every description of boots, shoes, and slippers for great and small, and old and young, are being continually manufactured. Hundreds of work-people—both, male and female—are employed in this industry.page 248
In the space available, it is only possible to give the names of the principal firms, viz.—Messrs. W. H. Burrows and Co, Stafford street; Messrs. A. and T. Inglis, George street; Messrs. McKinley and Son, Hillside; Mr. F. T. Roughton, Manse street; Messrs. Sargood, Son and Ewen on the reclaimed ground behind the Railway station, where they have lately erected a new building of great extent, with all modern improvements; Messrs-Simon Bros.' Beehive Factory, Bath street; Mr. H. Shelton, Great King street.
Since it is not permitted to erect any wooden buildings in the principal business portion of the city, the manufacture of bricks has naturally become an important industry. Briek-making is carried on by Messrs. C. and A. Shiel, Caversham; and Messrs. Smith and Fotheringham have a brickyard at Hillside, where however, work has been discontinued at present. There are also several other brickyards in the district.
The bricks are usually made by machinery, which will turn out many thousands of bricks daily, and require but little labour.
Cardboabd Box Manufactories.
This is essentially an industry suitable to female workers, and is carried on by Mr. T. J. Treacy at the Dunedin Cardboard Box Manufactory in Cumberland street. Great quantities of boxes are made yearly. Mr. T. G. Brickell also combines this industry with his other pursuits in Bath street.
Till within the last few years all cement required for use in the colony had to be imported. Mr. James McDonald, of Vogel street, however, after carefully experimenting, ascertained the exact quantities of 100063al material, which, when combined, would produce an excellent quality of cement.
This manufacture is now carried on by Mr. McDonald himself, and also by the Milburn Lime and Cement Co.
Coach Builders, etc.
An exceedingly well represented industry in Dunedin is that of coach and carriage building. The show rooms of the various firms are a credit to the artistic taste of the proprietors. Every description of vehicle may be obtained, from the magnificent chariot to the humble but useful express, or from the four-horse page 249drag to the farmer's light cart or hay waggon. The show rooms are well worthy of a visit; the workmanship and brilliancy of finish being quite equal to anything to be met with in either the Old World or America.
The principal carriage builders are:—Mr. Mark Sinclair, Great King street; Messrs. Hordern, Brayshaw, and White, Princes street south; Mr. J. Mathews, Great King street; Messrs. Eobin and Co., Octagon; Messrs. J. and W. Stewart, Great King street; whilst considerable work in the heavy waggon and dray making is done by Mr. A. G. Watson, Princes street south.
Since the time that Adam prepared the first primitive garments for himself and Eve, clothing has taken up a great deal of attention amongst their descendants.
Dunedin and the neighbourhood are not behind in these civilised requirements.
In the first place there are two woollen mills.
The Roslyn Worsted and Woollen Mills are owned by Messrs Ross and Glendining, the well known firm whose city premises are a handsome block of buildings situated in Stafford street. The Mills at Roslyn are complete in every respect, provided with all modern appliances, are lighted by electricity, and the products will compare favourably with any manufactures that are placed on the market. A great variety of goods are produced here; amongst others are tweeds, coatings, Crimean shirtings, serges, flannels, blankets, shawls, travelling rugs, hosiery, &c., &c.
Messrs Ross and Glendining have also a clothing factory, the building for which was specially erected in Stafford street, where the various materials manufactured at the mills are made up into clothing. Altogether, the firm employ several hundreds of work-people, amongst whom are a large proportion of females.
Another mill is known as the Mosgiel Woollen Factory, and is situated in the town from which it derives its name. It is owned by a company; the shareholders in which have found it a very remunerative investment. The building is both substantial and commodious. It is lighted by electricity, and everything about the premises is of the most modern and improved construction. The manufactures are well known all over the colony, page 250and are always admitted to be unexcelled in quality. They comprise almost every kind of material, of which wool forms the component part. Between three hundred and four hundred people are employed in this industry, about half of whom are females.
Besides the clothing factory mentioned previously, there are several others in Dunedin. The largest is the New Zealand Clothing factory (Messrs. Hallenstein Bros., proprietors.) The factory is a large and substantial building situated in Dowling street. The whole establishment is excellently fitted up, not only for the due execution of the work, but also for the convenience and comfort of the workpeople. A special feature in the business of this firm, is that instead of supplying the general retailers, they have retail branches of their own in nearly every town of importance in the colony, and sell direct to the public at factory prices.
The clothing factory of Messrs. Morris and Seelye is situated in the recently erected building at the corner of Princes street and Dowling street. The premises are well adapted for the purpose, and employment is provided for a number of workpeople.
There are two other clothing factories, one owned by Messrs. Innes and Macfarlane in Dowling street, and the other by Messrs. Levy, Gruthrie and Co. in Eattray street.
The goods manufactured at these factories are dispatched to all parts of the colony.
Some of the best hands among the female employees are enabled to earn higher wages than labouring men or even the majority of artisans in the British Islands.
There are also several Shirt and Hosiery Factories, which provide employment for a great nunber of the female population.
The remarks on clothing would be scarcely complete without mention being made of head-gear. The bulk of the hats are imported from Europe. There are, however, a few firms who manufacture this article, amongst whom may be mentioned Mr. Geo. Bertinshaw, George street, Messrs. A. Masters and Co., Princes street, and Mr. J. Muir, Princes street.
In order to show the great progress which has been made in manufacturing industries in Dunedin during the half century, it may be pointed out, that if it was desired, a man could be clothed page 251from head to foot in colonial made garments and also factory made at that.
Coffee and Spices.
The preparation of coffee and spices is also extensively carried on in the city by Messrs. W. Gregg and Co., Princes street; Messrs. Kearns and Son, Maclaggan street; and Messrs. W. Whyte and Co., George street.
Some of these preparations are packed in tin canisters for safe conveyance to the outlying districts, whilst quantities are supplied to retailers in bulk.
The gas for the illumination of the city is manufactured by the Corporation, the works being under the charge of Mr. D. A. Graham, Gas Engineer. They are situated in Anderson Bay.
The City and Suburban Gas Company, Ld., whose works are situated at Caversham, supply gas to a considerable portion of the suburbs. Mr. William Daley is the Engineer and Manager.
A great requisite for the promotion of the prosperity of manufacturing industries is machinery, and to make this, iron and steel are necessary. Until within the last few years all this raw material had to be imported. Messrs. Smellie Bros., have however, established iron and steel works at Burnside, fully supplied with modern appliances, where scrap iron is converted into bars. The works are lighted by electricity, so that the production can be continued by night as well as day, should the demand render it necessary.
Dunedin is therefore to a considerable extent independent of the imported article, although a large quantity of the various metals will have to be imported for many years to come until the mineral resources of the colony are thoroughly developed.
The iron industry is well represented in Dunedin. There are mechanical engineers, agricultural machine makers, founders of iron, brass and lead, and nearly every description of metal workers.
A fine building in Moray Place near the First Church, is the factory of Messrs. Anderson and Morrison, who combine with the brass, copper, and lead founding, and plumbing, the electro-plating and other ornamental work; hydraulic sluicing plant is page 252also amongst their productions, employment being provided for many hands.
Messrs. A. and T. Burt's establishment in Cumberland street is one of the largest in the city. In addition to the industries of founding in various metals, it embraces engineering, plumbing, electro-plating, and manufacture of various decscriptions of electrical apparatus, &c, &c. In fact, the manufactures of this firm are so numerous that it is impossible to give even a brief list of them in the present paper.
The premises of Messrs. Cossens and Black cover a large area in Crawford street, opposite the Exhibition building. This firm make a specialty of windmills for pumping water, draining, &c. They also manufacture various agricultural implements, mining plant, and every description of machinery. Mining plant of their manufacture has been recently supplied for a Hydraulic Sluicing Co. in New South Wales.
The fine coasting steamer "Invercargill" was built for Messrs Ramsay and Sunstrum by Messrs. Kincaid, McQueen and Co., Great King street, who have also turned out about half a dozen other various-sized steam vessels. The massive railway overbridge was erected by the same firm, whilst dredges, gold mining plant, and all descriptions of machinery and ironwork, are amongst their manufactures.
The New Zealand Engineering and Implement Co., Castle street, is well known for the various patent articles it manufactures, a specialty of late being a flax dressing-machine. Dredges, agricultural and other machinery, and all kinds of ironwork are amongst the productions of the company.
Messrs. Reid and Gray, whose extensive premises extend from. Crawford into Princes street south, and who have several branches in the towns throughout the Island, in addition to the manufacture of agricultural implements of almost every description, produce a twine Reaper and Binder, which compares favourably with either the British or American manufactures, and is in great request not only in New Zealand, but also in Australia.
Messrs Schlaadt Bros., engineers, Great King street, make a specialty of the manufacture of all kinds of machinery and appliances for the boot trade. They also produce tips and toe page 253plates; in addition to which they carry on a general engineering trade, for which they have the necessary machinery and appliances.
The works of Mr Joseph Sparrow are situated in Battray street near the wharf. They are fitted up with all the necessary machinery and appliances to carry on a general engineering and boiler making business, all descriptions of ironwork being manufactured.
The ironwork for the Wingatui Yiaduct on the Otago Central Railway, which is one of the finest pieces of work of its kind in New Zealand, was manufactured by Messrs. R. S. Sparrow and Co. of Willis street, and the workmanship does them infinite credit. Dredges, mining plant, machinery, and ironwork of every description, are turned out from the works of this firm, who are also iron-shipbuilders.
Mr. James Mann carries on a general engineering business in compact and convenient premises in Stuart street, where some excellent work is performed.
At Port Chalmers there are also two firms of engineers and iron-shipbuilders, whose names should be included, viz., Messrs. Morgan and Cable and Messrs. Gardner and Young.
The list of engineering works would not be complete without including those of Mr. F. H. Asbury in Castle street, whose name is so well known as the manufacturer of warming and ventilating apparatus and other specialties.
The Victoria foundry of Messrs. Barningham and Co. is situated in George street. This firm is well known for the excellence of their ornamental ironwork and various patterns of ranges and grates. Their "Zealandia" range is a great favourite, and numbers of them are in use in Dunedin and other parts of New Zealand.
Mr. H. E. Shaddock's Eange Foundry is a substantially erected building in Crawford street, admirably adapted in every way for the industry. Grates, ornamental railings, and castings of nearly every description are made here. The great specialty is, however, the patent "Orion" Range, which, under the name of the "Shacklock" is as familiar in our ears as household words.page 254
Another foundry is that of Mr. R. Gallon, at Ravensbourne, whose specialty is malleable castings.
Meat Freezing Company.
The New Zealand Refrigerating Coy., Limited have works on the Kaikorai, where large numbers of carcasses are prepared for exportation. This is a very valuable industry to the colony. The company has also works in Oamaru and the offices are in Liverpool street, Dunedin.
There are three daily newspapers published in Dunedin, the Otago Daily Times in the morning, and the Evening Herald and Evening Star in the afternoon. The Otago Witness is published weekly in connection with the Daily Times, and the Public Opinion weekly in connection with the Herald.
Paper Mills, etc.
One of the industries that it is surprising to find flourishing in such a comparatively young community, is that of paper making. There axe two paper mills in the Otago district.
The Woodhaugh Paper Mill is owned by Messrs. Fergusson and Mitchell of Princes street, and has been rendered as perfect as possible. Here, old rags, ropes, tussocks, or old canvas, are converted into serviceable brown or grey paper, a great quantity of which is made up into paper bags on the premises by the nimble fingers of female workers. Blotting paper of an excellent quality is alsoproduced. Printingpaper has beenmanuf actured, but although a capital article, it could not be produced at a saleable price, as against the same description imported.
The Mataura Falls Paper Mills are the property of Messrs Coulls. Culling and Co. of Dunedin. The whole of the machinery and plant is of modern type, and the mills are enabled to turn out paper of first class quality. Paper-bag making by machinery is carried out to a great extent at these mills. The firm's city premises are in Crawford street, Dunedin.
The New Zealand Paper Bag Manufacturing Co. have well-fitted-up premises in Moray Place, with machinery and every facility for turning out well finished paper bags in large quantities.
A real article of luxury which can be produced in Dunedin is a piano. Messrs. Oakden and Howell, Octagon, manufacture page 255on their premises instruments, which for richness of tone and chaste, yet at the same time elaborate finish, will compare closely with the imported articles.
Good drainage is an essential factor in ensuring a healthy locality. The manufacture of drain pipes is an industry of great importance in this direction. It is carried on in connection with other pottery manufactures by Mr. J. H. Lambert, at his Pipe Factory, Kensington.
Mr. Gr. Jones of Milton and Mr. J. Nelson of Benhar near Stirling are also manufacturers of drain pipes, &c, and both have agents in Dunedin.
There are also pottery works at Milton, owned by Messrs. Graham and "Winter, where large quantities of ornamental and domestic ware are produced, which meet with a ready sale. The firm's city offices are in Bond street, Dunedin.
Printing and Stationery, etc.
The printing and manufacturing of stationery is a particularly important industry in Dunedin. Some of the establishments are of large size, and the employes in the trade are very numerous. All branches are represented, and any description of work, both ornamental and useful, can be executed within the limits of the city.
Messrs. Donaghy and Co.'s rope and twine works are situated in South Dunedin. This industry is of special value to the colony, as the articles that are manufactured are always in demand, more especially the twine for reapers and binders, of which an immense quantity is manufactured during the year. In addition to using the usual materials, viz., manilla, Russian and Italian hemp, a great quantity of the native flax of New Zealand is used for some descriptions of ropes and twines, thus-assisting in the development of another local industry.
Mr. William Markham has also rope and twine works in the same locality.
Soap, Candles, etc.
There is an old saying that "cleanliness is next to godliness," so that the manufacture of soap should be a blessing to the community. This industry is generally combined with other page 256manufactures, such as candles, glycerine, &c. The principal works in the neighbourhood are those of Kitchen and Sons, Green Island; Messrs. McLeod Bros. Ltd., Cumberland street; Mr. Wm. McLeod, Castle street; and the Queen's Soap Co., North-East Yalley. There need therefore be no dearth of soap, candles, &c., in Dunedin.
The business of tanning is one of the industries which is absolutely necessary to provide for the wants of the population.
The tannery of Messrs. Michaelis, Hallenstein and Farquhar is situated near the line of railway from Dunedin to Port Chalmers, about 1 1/2 miles from the latter town. It is excellently fitted up, well provided with water, and gives employment to from 30 to 40 hands.
Mr. J. W. Coombs is proprietor of a tannery in the North-East Valley, and there is also one in the same neighbourhood, owned by Mr. Wm. Parker.
Tub and Bucket Factory.
Although there are several dairy factories in the district, none are situated in the immediate neighbourhood of the city The necessary machinery and appliances are mainly supplied from Dunedin. One branch of industry in this line, viz., the manufacture of tubs and buckets, is carried on very extensively by Messrs. Thomson, Bridger and Co, at their factory in Bond street. There is also a general timber trade combined with the factory. A great demand for tubs and buckets exists all the year round, and the factory is always fully employed.
Timber and Woodware.
Wood ware factories on a large scale are established in the city, where all kinds of building materials, such as doors, sashes, mouldings, &c., are prepared by machinery, which, in addition to providing employment for a great number of men and boys, is very convenient for building contractors. They can obtain from these mills all their requirements, ready prepared for erecting buildings, and the hard labour thus saved is simply enormous, not to mention the saving of time, and as the old proverb goes, "time is always money."
The principal woodware factories are as follows, viz.:—Messrs. Findlay and Co. Ltd., which comprises a large block of page 257buildings and yard area between Cumberland, Castle and Stuart streets; Mr. James Gilmour's yard and factory, Gt. King street; Messrs. R. Greig and Co.'s factory, George street; Messrs. McCallum and Co.'s, Anderson's Bay Road; and Messrs. A. Tapper and Co.'s, who have recently removed their headquarters from Invercargill to Dunedin, and erected a substantial woodware factory in Crawford street, and laid down plant of the latest type.
In further connection with the manufactures in wood must be mentioned the cabinet makers and large furniture establishments. The various woods of New Zealand give great scope for ornamental cabinet making, and this is taken full advantage of by those interested in the industry. The show-rooms of the various firms will repay a visit, as some of the better class of furniture is quite artistic in design, and finished with great care.
Amongst other firms may be mentioned Mr. John Gillies, the show-room being in George street, whilst the manufactory is in Great King street; Messrs. Hooper and Co., show-rooms in the Octagon; Messrs. Scoullar and Chisholm, who have a fine commodious show-room in Maclaggan street, and an extensive factory in Rattray street; Mr. Thomas Stonebridge, whose factory is in Stuart street; Messrs. Thomson and Williamson, in Great King street; and last, but not least, the extensive cabinet works of Messrs. A. and T. Inglis, in George street.
Wireworking is also one of the industries which thrive in Dunedin; the manufacture of wire-wove mattresses being a. specialty of Mr. Charles Bills, George street, whilst Mr. J. W. Faulkner has erected new works in Castle and Cumberland streets, where he produces all descriptions of wire and ornamental fencing, &c. (wire sheep netting being a specialty).
In addition to the various industries that have been enumerated, there are die sinkers, flock manufacturers, a furrier, fellmongers, monumental masons, sculptors, tinsmiths, engravers, and all the usual trades found in a business city.
This brief and necessarily imperfect review will help to show what a change has taken place in Dunedin during the half-century; these flourishing industries being now carried on where in those early days referred to there was nothing but a. wilderness, a flax swamp, or the placid waters on the bay.