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A Popular Vision: The Arts and the Left in New Zealand 1930-1950

Chapter Two: Tomorrow

Chapter Two: Tomorrow

1D. Glover, Hot Water Sailor 1912-1962; & Landlubber Ho! 1963-1980. Auckland: Collins, 1981, p.103. For a comprehensive study of Tomorrow magazine see A. Cutler, 'Intellectual Sprouts. Tomorrow magazine 1934-1940: a cultural, intellectual and political history'. MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 1989
2 Tomorrow, 2 Aug. 1939 (v.5, n.20), p.611
3Ibid., 18 Mar. 1936 (v.2, n.18), p.1
4H. W. Rhodes, 'The Beginning of Tomorrow' (2), New Zealand Monthly Review, Sept. 1979 (v.21, n.214), p.18; Rhodes, Kennaway Henderson. Artist, Editor and Radical. University of Canterbury Publications, 39. Christchurch: University of Canterbury Publications Committee, 1988, p.64
5Ibid., pp.15-16
6Rhodes, 'Kennaway Henderson: artist and radical', Comment, Feb. 1978 (v.1,n.2),p.21
7Rhodes, Kennaway Henderson, p.17
8Rhodes, Frederick Sinclaire. A Memoir. University of Canterbury Publications, 33. Christchurch: University of Canterbury Publications Committee, 1984; D. Walker, Dream and Disillusion. Canberra: ANU Press, 1976, ch.5
9Rhodes, 'The Beginning of Tomorrow' (2), p.18
10Ibid., p.16
11P.K., 'The Disbeliever's Dictionary', Tomorrow, 19 Feb. 1936 (v.2, n.15), p.10
12Rhodes, Kennaway Henderson, p.43; Tomorrow, 24 July 1935 (v.1, n.39), p.7
13Rhodes. Interview with author, 4 june 1985
14 Tomorrow, 22 Jan. 1936 (v.2, n.11), p.22page 250
15Quoted in Rhodes, Kennaway Henderson, P.47
16 Tomorrow, 24 July 1935 (v.1, 11.39), P.7
17Rhodes, The Beginning of Tomorrow (2), p.15
18 Tomorrow, 16 Aug. 1939 (v.5, n.21), back cover, quoted in Cutler, 'Intellectual Sprouts', p.86
19Rhodes interview
20F. Sargeson, Sargeson. Auckland: Penguin, 1981, p.180
21Ibid., pp.177-8
22Rhodes interview
23 Tomorrow, 13 Oct. 1937 (v.3, n.25), p.778, 27 Nov. 1935 (v.2, n.5), p.8, 31 Oct. 1934 (v.i, n.16), p.13,10 Nov. 1937 (v.4, n.1), p.18
24Ibid., 31 July 1935 (v.1, n.40), p.19, 4 Sept. 1935 (v.1, n.45), p.23
25Rhodes interview
26Rhodes,'On Swearing', Tomorrow, 1 Aug. 1934 (v.1, n.4), p.12
27 New Zealand Fortnightly Review, 1 June 1933  (v.1, n.1), p.1, quoted in Cutler, 'Intellectual Sprouts', p.20
28R. Hyde, 'Woman Today', Tomorrow, 14 Apr. 1937 (v.3, n.12), p.376
29 Tomorrow, 23 Nov. 1938 (v.5, n.2), pp.37-8
30Ibid., 17 Oct. 1934 (v.i, n.14), p.10
31Ibid., 10 Nov. 1937 (v.4, n.1), p.6
32F.S., 'Notes By The Way', ibid., 11 July 1934  (v.1, n.1), p.1
33F.S., 'Notes By The Way', ibid., specimen issue [Jan. 1934], p.3, 'Notes By The Way', 7 Nov. 1934 (v.1, n.17), p.2
34 New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, v. 248, 1937, p.63
35 Tomorrow, 25 May 1938 (v.4, n.15), p.450
36Ibid., 24 July 1935 (v.1, n.39), p.7
37Ibid., 14 Apr. 1937 (v.3, n.12), p.356
38Rhodes, Frederick Sinclaire, p.117
39 Tomorrow, 4 Dec. 1935 (v.2, n.6), p.1
40Ibid., 23 Nov. 1938 (v.5, n.2), p.37
41There may have been the odd exception in the latter case. Cutler suggests that Labour MP Ormond Wilson gave occasional support to Tomorrow. Cutler, 'Intellectual Sprouts', p.32, citing D. Trussell, Fairburn. Auckland: Auckland University Press/Oxford University Press, 1984, p.176
42F.S., 'Notes By The Way', Tomorrow, specimen issue, p.1; K. Henderson, 'The Press', ibid., p.6
43Ibid., pp.10, 12
44F.S., 'Notes By The Way', ibid., 11 July 1934 (v.1, n.1), p.2, specimen issue, p.2
46K.Jensen, 'Let's Be Dull', ibid., 2 Aug. 1939 (v.5, n.20), p.618
47Rhodes, 'On Swearing', p.12; 'The Cult ofCulture', ibid., 25 July 1934 (v.1, n.3), p.12
48'On Swearing', p.12
49'On Learning to Read', ibid., 19 Sept. 1934 (v.1, n.11), p.13
50 Statutory Regulations, 1940, p. 64
51Rhodes to N. Palmer, 17 Dec. [1939]. H. Winston Rhodes Papers, ca.1939-October 1964. Ms Papers 888. Alexander Turnbull Library
52Censorship and Publicity Emergency Regulations, 1939. Amendment No.2. Statutory Regulations, 1940, p.333
53Quoted in Cutler, 'Intellectual Sprouts', pp.278, 275
54 Tomorrow, 31 Aug, 1938 (v.4, n.22), p.675; F.S., 'Notes By The Way', ibid., specimen issue, p.2
55See K. Sinclair, A History of the University of Auckland, 1883-1983. Auckland: Auckland University Press/Oxford University Press, 1983, ch.9; J. C. Beaglehole, Victoria University College. An Essay Towards a History. Wellington: New Zealand University Press, 1949, pp.215-19
56B.A. Fortune to D. Glover, 25 May 1933. Denis Glover Papers, 1928-1970. Ms Papers 418: folder 116. Alexander Turnbull Library
57Quoted in P. Hughes, "'Sneers, Jeers . . . and Red Rantings". Bob Lowry's Early Printing at Auckland University College', Turnbull Library Record, May 1989 (v.22, n.1), p.18; Sinclair, A History of the University of Auckland, p.161
58 Statutory Regulations, 1940, p. 58
59List of prohibited literature, appended to 'Question of the prohibition of the im- page 251 portation of certain literature into NZ'. Memorandum from Comptroller of Customs to Minister of Customs, 27 Jan. 1936. C1 36/959: box 152. National Archives
60G. H. Scholefield, chairman, Advisory Committee on Literature to Comptroller of Customs, 2 Feb. 1934. Ibid.
61W. Nash, Minister of Customs to Comptroller of Customs, 8 Oct. 1936. Ibid.
62Hyde, 'Jack Basham's Bookshop. Land of the Free—Since When?', New Zealand Observer, n June 1936, p.11
63'Notes', Landfall, 25, Mar. 1953 (v.7, n.1), p.5
64J. Bertram, 'Robin Hyde: A Reassessment', ibid., 27, Sept. 1953 (v.7, n.3), p.181
65Trussell, Fairburn, p.221; A.R.D. Fairburn, We New Zealanders. Wellington: Progressive Publishing Society, 1944, p.13. Fairburn's comment on Mason was made in the New Zealand Artists Annual, 1929, p.69, quoted in Trussell, Fairburn, p.64
66T. Woollaston, "'Life: Art" and the Bourgeois Manifesto', Tomorrow, 29 Apr. 1936 (v.2, n.21), p.22
67A. Curnow, Selected Poems. Auckland: Penguin, 1982, p.24; Glover, 'NZ Author', Tomorrow, 24June 1936 (v.2, n.26), p.19; 'Pointers to Parnassus', ibid., 30 Oct. 1935 (v.2, n.1), p.17
68Sargeson, Sargeson, p.351
69'A NZ Artist', 'Art in New Zealand', Tomorrow, 26 Feb. 1936 (v.2, n.16), p.8
70F.S., 'Notes By The Way, ibid., 3 Aug. 1938 (v.4, n.20), p.625; Fairburn, correspondence, ibid., 25 Sept. 1935 (v.i, n.48), p.22
71J. Klugmann, 'The Crisis of the Thirties: A View from the Left', in J. Clark et al, (eds.), Culture and Crisis in Britain in the Thirties. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1979, pp.12-16
72 Phoenix, March 1932 (v.1, n.1), p. [2]
73Sargeson, 'Sherwood Anderson', Tomorrow, 6 Nov. 1935 (v.2, n.2), p.15
74Curnow, 'The Poetry of R.A.K. Mason', Book, 2, May 1941
75R. Seymour, 'A Present Tendency in New Zealand Literature', New Zealand New Writing, 4, March 1945, p.32
76B. Head and J. Walter (eds.), Intellectual Movements and Australian Society. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1988, pp.9, 241
77L. Esson to D. Cusack, July 1943, quoted in Walker, Dream and Disillusion, p.155
78Rhodes, 'Mid-Melbourne Madness', Tomorrow, 20 Feb. 1935 (v.1, n.31), pp.10-11
79'On Swearing', pp.12-13; 'Writers in Australia', ibid., 17 Mar. 1937 (v.3, n.10), pp.307-10
80R. Haese, Rebels and Precursors. The Revolutionary Years of Australian Art. Ringwood, Victoria: Allen Lane, 1985, p.184
81F.S., 'Notes By The Way', Tomorrow, specimen issue, p.3
82'Writers in Australia', p.308. Unless otherwise stated, articles by Winston Rhodes cited subsequently in these notes are from Tomorrow.
83The Left Theatre', p.13
84'These Two Islands', 19 July 1939 (v.5, n.19),p.601; 'The Cult of Culture', 25 July 1934 (v.1, n.3), p.12
85Ibid., p.12
86'Fifteen Years of Soviet Film Making', Soviet News, July 1935 (v.4, n.3), p.11; 'From Jaegars to Films', p.11
87'Fifteen Years of Soviet Film Making', p.11
88See L. McDiarmid, Saving Civilisation. Yeats, Eliot and Auden Between the Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984; D. Modjeska, Exiles at Home. Australian Women Writers 1925-1945. London, Sydney: Sirius Books, 1981; Walker, Dream and Disillusion
89F.S., 'A Constructive Proposal', Tomorrow, 4 Mar. 1936 (v.2, n.17), p.23
90Rhodes, Frederick Sinclaire, p.116
91'Tarzan of the Apes', 3 Aug. 1938 (v.4, n.20), p.630
92'The Cult of Culture', p.13
93Rhodes, 'A Post-script on Leisure', 7 Aug. 1935  (v.1, n.41), p.14page 252
94Quoted in Workers' Weekly, 10 Nov. 1934, p.3
95 Tomorrow, 24 June 1936 (v.2, n.25), p.25. See also Rhodes, 'Maxim Gorki', 8 July 1936  (v.2, n.26), pp.12-14
96'So That's That', 19 Dec. 1934 (v.1, n.23), p.14; The Progress of Pessimism',31 Mar. 1937  (v.3, n.n), p.338; 'Where Music is Polities', 25 Nov. 1936 (v.3, n.2), p.49
97'Fame and Funerals', 2 Sept. 1936 (v.2, n.30), p.19
98'So That's That', 19 Dec. 1934 (v.1, n.23), p.15
99See J. Coombes, 'British Intellectuals and the Popular Front', in F. Gloversmith (ed.), Class Culture and Social Change. A New View of the 1930s. Sussex: Harvester Press, 1980, pp.70-100
100C. G. Watson, 'Moscow—New Centre of World Culture', Tomorrow, 6 Mar. 1935 (v.1,n.33),p.12
101'Revolution and Literature', 1 Apr. 1936 (v.2, n.19), p.24
102'Books. Views and Reviews', 4 Mar. 1936 (v.2, n.17), p.14
103'Revolution and Literature', p.25
104'Literature in the Land of the Soviets II: Fellow-Travellers', 6 Mar. 1935 (v.1, n.33), pp.15,17
105Canterbury College Review, 85, Oct. 1933, pp.16-17
106'A Spectre and a Faith' (2), 11 Nov. 1936 (v.3, n.1), pp.13-15
107Rhodes interview
108'These Men Are Dangerous', 22 July 1936 (v.2, n.27), p.20; 'Heroes in Fiction' (3), 7 July 1937 (v.3, n.18), p.561; Writers Between Two Wars. AEWS discussion course, 1943, p.63
109'Not in the Text-Books', 29 Aug. 1934 (v.1, n.8), p.14. (See also 'Revolution and Literature'; 'Post-war Paralysis', 5 Feb. 1936 (v.2, n.13), p.8)
110'More about the Puritans', 8 Dec. 1937 (v.4, n.3), pp.81-2
111 Writers Between Two Wars, p.69
112'Maxim Gorki', pp.12-13
113The DanceofLife', 10 Apr. 1935 (v.1, n.38), p.11
114Ibid., p.1
115'The Progress of Pessimism', p.339; Writers Between Two Wars, p.57; 'Revolution and Literature', p.24
116'Tarzan of the Apes', p.630; 'Worms', 3 Oct. 1934 (v.1, n.13), p.10
117'On Keeping Up', 9 Jan. 1935 (v.1, n.25), p.8; 'The Dance of Life', p.12
118'Revolution and Literature', p.24
119'Literature in the Land of the Soviets II', p.13
120D. Glover and I. Milner (eds.), New Poems. Christchurch: The Caxton Club Press, 1934, foreword; Curnow, A Book of New Zealand Verse1923-45. Christchurch: Caxton Press, 1945, pp.17, 22
121C. Brasch, 'The Islands', in Collected Poems. Ed. A. Roddick. Auckland: Auckland University Press/Oxford University Press, 1984, p.17
122Glover and Rhodes (eds.), Verse Alive. Christchurch: Caxton Press, 1936, foreword; Verse Alive, 2, 1937, preface
123Glover and Milner, New Poems, foreword
124'Squirts and Squibs', 2 Feb. 1938 (v.4, n.7), p.213
125'Literature in the Land of the Soviets III: Proletarian Writers', 13 Mar. 1935 (v.1, n.34), p.14; 'Literature in the Land of the Soviets I', 27 Feb. 1935 (v.1, n.32), p.10
126'The Roof of the World', 15 Apr. 1936 (v.2, n.20), p.18; also 'Literature in the Land of the Soviets III', p.13
127Canterbury College Review, 84, Oct. 1932, p.84
128Carter, '"History was on our side"', p.109
129'The Writers' International', 24 July 1935 (v.1, n.39), p.13
130Curnow, A Book of New Zealand Verse 1923-45, pp.16,15
131R. E. Harley, 'Politics and Public Themes in New Zealand Literature 1930-1950, with special attention to Mulgan, Sargeson, Mason, Fairburn, Curnow'. PhD thesis, University of Auckland, 1980
132 Phoenix, Mar. 1932 (v.1, n.1), pp.[1-3]
133'The Cult of Culture', p.12
134'Tarzan of the Apes', p.631
135'A Spectre and a Faith' (2), pp.13-14; page 253 'Writers in Australia', p.309
136'Training in Film Criticism—From School to University', 18 Mar. 1936 (v.2, n.18), p.23
137'On Swearing', p.12; 'Squirts and Squibs', p.213
138'The Writers' International', p.13; 'On Swearing', p.13
139'Keeping it Dark', 20 Nov. 1935 (v.2, n.4), p.16; 'The Cult of Culture', p.12