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Earliest New Zealand

Chapter III. Diary of J. G. Butler, 1819

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Chapter III. Diary of J. G. Butler, 1819.

TUESDAY, 28th SEPTEMBER, 1819.—Mr. Marsden, Mr. Kendall, Mr. Puckey, and several natives with them, set out for Shukianga, a district about 30 miles distant from Rangihou, to see the natives, and explore the river at Shukiangha, as it is thought there will be an excellent harbour for shipping at that place.

Early this morning, Mr. Wm. Hall, F. Hall, Kemp, King, S. Butler and myself, with the carpenter and three other Europeans, went to Kaddi Kaddi, our new settlement, to endeavour to get on with buildings, etc., etc., and also to begin breaking up land for cultivation. We arrived about 1 o'clock noon. There were many natives waiting our arrival, among whom were several chiefs; all of them seemed very glad at our return. We got our dinner, and then Mr. Wm. Hall and the other carpenters and several natives, under the direction of Wm. Hall, set to work, some to digging of sawpits, others to sawing, etc., etc. The remainder of our party, myself and eleven natives, began to clear ground for a garden, and also to break it up with our hoes. The natives wrought exceeding well, and by night we had a pretty good patch of ground cleared for our purpose. In the evening, after we had refreshed ourselves, we read the Holy Scriptures, and offered up our evening sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to the God of all our mercies. There were many natives about the little house erected for a blacksmith's shop, which at present serves for a dwelling house and lodging house for all Europeans; they were very silent and attentive.

WEDNESDAY, 29th SEPTEMBER, 1819.—We all arose at daybreak, and with cheerful hearts we went to our labour. The natives we had employed the day before came very early, and were very anxious to be employed again. We set some of them to clear the fern root from the ground already broken up, and the others to break up a new piece. Liveliness sparkled in every eye, and joy seemed to vibrate in every heart. In page 39 looking around, and beholding the land breaking up for cultivation, men sawing timber, and buildings erecting for habitations, I felt sensations new, in seeing the dawn of civilization breaking forth, and the glory of the Lord beginning to appear in this benighted land. We are obliged to feed as well as pay the natives we employ; we paid them with fish-hooks, and fed them with rice, potatoes and pork. There were several chiefs at the settlement all the day, who seemed highly delighted to see the works which were going on. In the evening, I made a present of a hoe to one of the chiefs named Tenana, to assist him in working his potato ground; he seemed to be very thankful. In general, there are many natives about us at morning and evening prayer; and they look on with great earnestness. This evening, when I was engaged at prayer, I heard one of them say to another, “Karrakea, Atua.” (He is praying or speaking to his God.) I trust this was really the case, and that myself and brethren present were not only praying for ourselves, but also for their temporal and eternal happiness, beseeching the God of all grace to give them the hearing ear and the understanding heart; to cause the light of His Gospel to shine into their hearts, to give them the light of the knowledge of His glory in the person of Jesus Christ.

THURSDAY, 30th SEPTEMBER, 1819.—We have been very busy the whole of this day in putting into the ground a great variety of garden seed, and our natives are still going on breaking up. I have engaged seven natives to break up ground one month, for an axe and hoe each, and victuals, Mr. Hall has made a beginning to learn the natives of Kaddi Kaddi to saw; they seem to act very well.

Everything goes on as well as can be expected, and all wear a pleasing aspect. Here are plenty of children ready and waiting to be admitted into our school as soon as we can get one erected, and the means of feeding them. Several parents have been asking me when their children can be admitted, (whether it will be appopo—to-morrow, or attitida—the day after) even before we have a single plank sawn, or a log of timber to saw for its erection.

OCTOBER 1st, 1819, FRIDAY.—We this day finished putting in our garden seeds. The natives were very curious to know the names of the seed, and whether they were for Kikai (victuals) or not; one youth wanted to know if we were sowing honipu (sugar). We gave them a little seed of different kinds, page 40 and directed them to sow them near their wharris (houses). Mr. Wm. Hall and the other carpenters are busily employed in building a small wooden house for our working natives to sleep in, as the nights at this season of the year are often very wet and cold. This evening, Waterou, the brother of Waidua, and the nephew of Shunghi, came to see us, and brought two baskets of kumeras as a present. In return, I made him a present of a hoe; he was very thankful, and returned. We have now about an acre of land broken up, besides our garden, which we mean to plant with Indian corn, and as much more as we can get ready while the seed time lasts. Cultivation will go on very slowly until we get the plow into the ground, which I hope will be next spring, as Mr. Marsden, on his return to Port Jackson will immediately send me six draught bullocks, and a man or two to go with them, if proper characters can be found. I have no doubt but that as soon as the first harvest is over, I shall be able to supply all our settlement with wheat, and procure food to supply two hundred children, at least.

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 2nd.—This morning we arose at 3 o'clock, and got our breakfast as soon as possible, and after prayer and thanksgiving to our Saviour Christ, we prepared to embark for Rangi Hoo. We had a pleasant passage the most part of the way, but when we came in sight of our settlement at Rangi Hoo, the wind came in strong from the sea, and the waves became so great we were obliged to take shelter behind some rocks, and there leave our punt and walk over the rocks and Rangi Hoo hill to our homes, a distance about a mile and a half; on our arrival, we found our families and friends well, to our great comfort and joy.

SUNDAY, OCTOBER 3rd, 1819.—Divine Service in Mr. Hall's house, morning and evening; administered the Holy Sacrament to Mrs. Butler, Mr. F. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Kemp.

MONDAY, OCTOBER 4th, 1819.—This morning, the carpenters and agriculturists returned to Kaddi Kaddi. In the evening, we held a Committee, and made a report of our last month's proceedings.

TUESDAY, OCTOBER 5th, 1819.—Mr. Hall and myself went to Kaddi Kaddi; were glad to find all things going on well. In the afternoon, I planted about 100 young fruit trees. I have one European planting Indian corn. I hope we shall be able to put in five or six acres this spring.

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WEDNESDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 6th, 1819.—This morning, I planted 85 trees, the remainder of what we brought from Port Jackson. I am exceeding sorry that we have not English grass and clover seed of every kind, in order to procure food for cattle. Until these are obtained, there will be very little pasturage in New Zealand, as the whole of the country is over-run with fern. Mr. Wm. Hall and myself, in the afternoon, measured the ground on which our church is to be built. It is a very beautiful spot, situated on the top of a small eminence, with a salt water cove at the bottom of the hill, and a fine fresh water river on the other side, which falls into the cove over a rock about five feet high. Our church will be sixty feet long, by thirty-four feet wide; this, perhaps, will be sufficient for a few years, but as there are many people in the district, I hope and trust that, ere long, Kaddi Kaddi will require a church twice as large.

In the evening, I took my leave of our friends and returned to Rangi Hoo. I arrived at two o'clock, and found my family and friends all well. Mrs. Butler and Mrs. Hall had been a little alarmed by a chief from Taiami, named Motui, who came and demanded axes and hoes in a very daring manner, getting upon Mr. Hall's fence quite naked, and waving his pattua about, saying he would kill them and set fire to the house if he did not get them; they told him he must wait my return from Kaddi Kaddi. I was glad, therefore, that I arrived to afford them some little protection should any person come again to annoy them. After prayer we retired to rest without being any further troubled.

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 7th, 1819.—This morning, the chief renewed his application at daybreak; he was informed that I was at home, and that I would speak to him by and by, After prayer and breakfast, about 8 o'clock I went out at the gate among a crowd of natives, and shook hands with the chief, and told him I would speak to him in a few minutes, as I was going down on the beach to buy seven logs of timber, which were brought from Kawa Kawa. I purchased the timber of the natives from Kawa Kawa; but before I could pay them and get rid of this party, the Taiami chief was again upon Mr. Hall's fence naked, waving his spear and pattua in a most threatening manner. Another chief came to me and expressed his sorrow to see such conduct; several natives called upon him to come down, but he would not. I went to him as soon as possible, and said, “Emera (friend), keiore karridi, be no more page 42 angry. Come hither, and I will give you an axe and a hoe.” He came down immediately, and I shook hands with him, and said unto him, “You, Emera, are a chief, and, therefore, ought not to be angry; it is enough for kukeys and Taurekarekas (common people and slaves), to be angry, and that chiefs ought always to keep their temper.” He then sat down and cried; I made him a present of two hoes and an axe, and he was well pleased, and promised in return, by and by, to give me a pig. I also made a present of an axe each to several others who came with him; they then immediately returned to their district.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, 8th and 9th.—Nothing of importance occurred.

SUNDAY, 10th.—Divine Service in Mr. Hall's house, morning and evening.

MONDAY, 11th OCTOBER.—Very wet and windy; could not return to Kaddi. Mr. Kendall and Mr. Puckey returned this evening, leaving Mr. Marsden behind at Shourakki, a distance of about six miles, on account of the stormy night. He durst not venture farther; Mr. Kendall, Mr. Puckey and the natives had hard work to weather the bay, but through mercy they arrived safe.

TUESDAY, 12th OCTOBER, 1819.—This morning Mr. Marsden arrived at an early hour quite well, which gave me great comfort. Many natives came with our friends from Shokiangha.

This morning I have been endeavouring to engage some natives as sawyers, as our carpenters are almost at a stand for want of sawn timber. Our native sawyers which Mr. Hall had hitherto employed, are at work at their potato ground, and Mr. Hall says they are very careless whether they work any more or not. I asked him the reason why, and he answered: “Because the payment (axes and hoes) was not such as they like; they have been accustomed to be paid with powder and muskets, and without these we shall never get sawing done to any amount.” I told him I considered it a very bad practice, and that I would never consent to issue powder or muskets on any account whatever, either in the purchase of pork, or in the payment of work, and that I was sure I should not only justify my own conscience, but that the Society and the Christian world would also justify me, if it cost a thousand pounds more to page 43 obtain the end. The issuing of such things may please the vicious inclination of a savage mind, but afford no comfort or relief to his real wants. We have two pair at work, and a third has promised to come to work in the morning; we have rafted twenty logs of timber this day for Kaddi Kaddi, to be sawn there.

We have named our new settlement Gloucester Town, in honour of our very dear friend, the Bishop of Gloucester.

WEDNESDAY, 13th, 1819.—This day we have been rafting timber, etc. King George came this afternoon to beg two axes, one for his brother, and one for a relation, but we were obliged to send him away without them, as our stock begins to run very short.

THURSDAY, 14th, 1819.—Motui, a Taiami chief came again with his usual insolence, demanding tokis. He also killed a pig in the yard, but at last went away without obtaining them.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, 15th and 16th, 1819.—Tui's friends were at our settlement; we gave them some fish-hooks and jews-harps. Waidua and Keedar and friends were here; gave Waidua a hoe, and all their friends fish-hooks; all of them went away pretty well satisfied, Saturday evening.

SUNDAY, 17th OCTOBER, 1819.—Divine Service, Mr. Hall's, morning and evening.

MONDAY, 18th OCTOBER, 1819.—Mr. Hall and carpenters went to Kadi Kadi in afternoon; loaded the punt with timber; paid the natives with fish-hooks.

TUESDAY, 19th OCTOBER, 1819.—Mr. Marsden, Mr. Kendall, and Saml. Butler set off on a visit to Taiami, accompanied by several chiefs from that place. At noon, myself, Mr. Gordon, King, Carlisle and Hansen, with three natives, set off for Kadi Kadi with a load of timber for our buildings; the wind was very foul, and we had hard work to make any progress; we laboured until the going down of the sun, and then we drew to shore, on a sandy beach; our natives made a fire by rubbing two pieces of wood together; we then proceeded to make some tea in an iron pot we had with us, and to cook some pork; after our refreshment, being about eight o'clock in the evening, the stars shone very brilliant. I was led to contemplate the peculiarity of our situation: in the midst of a heathen country; among savages and cannibals; the cold page 44 ground for our table and chair; the heavens for our covering; the surf roaring on the beach. I never in my life saw the blessings of civil life, and the value of the glorious Gospel as at this moment; and I am persuaded that these blessings cannot be estimated according to their real value by those who live in the full enjoyment of them. No, this can only be done by those who are placed in similar situations. Did the Christian world know in its full extent what barbarianism and heathenism are, they would leave no means untried to impart unto these poor, perishing souls those blessings which they so richly enjoy.

We had no Bible or hymn book with us, but recollection served for both; we first sang a hymn, then I made a few observations on the 16 and 17 verses of the 13th Chapter of St. Matthew's Gospel, and we concluded with prayer. Our congregation was small, being only five Europeans and three natives, but our Lord has promised to bless even two or three, when they meet together, and call upon His holy Name.

The wind had now ceased, and we returned to our punt, (it was now about nine o'clock) and proceeded on our way to Kadi Kadi; we laboured very hard on account of the tide, which ran very strong against us. After toiling all the night, we arrived at our settlement about 8 o'clock in the morning; the natives soon unloaded our timber, and we got breakfast in the meantime. After breakfast, I went to survey the cultivation and the adjoining land, which we intend to cultivate as soon as the land is bought, and we have the means of doing it. I had a chief with me to shew me the land, and he pointed out certain portions of land which I thought had belonged to Shunghe; he was very anxious to dispose of it. I told him we would buy that which was nearest to our settlement in order to grow food for the New Zealand children in the schools. We returned about two o'clock, and I felt very weary and tired; we then got our dinner and returned to Rangihoo with a fair wind, where we arrived about seven o'clock in the evening, and found all well.

THURSDAY, 21st OCTOBER.—The natives from Kawa Kawa brought fourteen logs of timber to sell, which we bought for axes, chisels, etc.

FRIDAY, 22nd OCTOBER, 1819.—This morning, the wind being fair for Kaddi Kaddi, Mr. King, Kemp, Puckey, myself, and seven natives, determined, if possible, to take up a raft of page 45 timber, consisting of twenty logs which were lying in the bay; we set off as soon as we could get ready, but the wind and sea came on so strong that our timber broke asunder, and we lost ten logs before we could get over the bay; after much labour we arrived safe at Kadi Kadi in the evening; we found our friends well. We then got some refreshment, and, after prayer and thanksgiving, we immediately embarked for Rangihoo, and arrived safe at three o'clock in the morning.

SATURDAY, 23rd OCTOBER.—Mr. Wm. Hall and myself went to a wood about two miles distant, to see if we could find timber suitable for fencing our settlement; it will take 14,000 pales to go round the outer part of our settlement.

Mr. Marsden, Kendall, and Saml. returned from Taiami about twelve o'clock, night, all well.

SUNDAY, 24th OCTOBER, 1819.—Divine Service, morning and evening, in Mr. Hall's house.

MONDAY, 25th OCTOBER.—Nothing particular occurred.

TUESDAY, 26th OCTOBER.—Mr. Hall, Saml. Butler, and carpenters returned to Kedi Kedie In the evening we had conference with Shunghe about the land at Kedee Kedee.

WEDNESDAY, 27th, 1819.—This morning all our sawyers ran off, and the Rangihoo people also, after a dead whale which came floating into the harbour. In the afternoon, Mr. Marsden, Mr. Kendall, myself, Mr. Kemp, Mr. King, and one of our carpenters went out to see it, and also to obtain some blubber, if possible; when we came to the place, we found it almost impossible to come near it for natives. Not less than from fifty to a hundred naked men were upon it, like so many devouring wolves. There were about twenty canoes, and about two hundred natives, men, women and children. There were many fires on the beach, and some were cooking and some eating, and others at work upon it; the stench of it was suffocating, and we saw one man who had been overcome by it. He looked like a corpse; several were crying and praying over him. A very strong breeze set in, and we were obliged to moor our punt and return over land. In the evening, we saw a sail coming into the harbour, which we hope is the “Active.”

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Rev. J. Butler to Rev. Josiah Pratt. (The original is in the "Hocken" Library).
New Zealand,
Nov. 6th, 1819.

Rev. and Dear Sir,

I have the great pleasure in informing you that all our little party arrived in safety and good health at the Bay of Islands, on Thursday, ye 12th August, 1819.

I have been in New Zealand three months, and have endeavoured to obtain what information I can respecting the country and its inhabitants. I have made it my business, as far as I have been able, to visit all the inhabitants around the Bay of Islands, and have everywhere been received with the greatest kindness imaginable; and the natives are everywhere begging and praying for Europeans to come and live among them, and their solicitations are beyond anything you can conceive. The prospects are indeed glorious, and I am fully persuaded that New Zealand is ripe for all the instruction and improvement that a Christian world is able to bestow. The New Zealanders are a robust, athletic and noble race of men, of lively dispositions, amazing quick in perception, and, generally speaking, they are a kind and affectionate people. Many of them speak a great deal of broken English, and are very fond of our language. There is no obstacle in the way to prevent our progress in the glorious work of civilizing, and, by God's blessing, evangelising New Zealand, but the want of means and proper instruments. Many schools might be immediately erected, and thousands of children collected; and by the introduction of Dr. Bell system of education in the English language into our schools, New Zealand (according to all human foresight) would in (comparatively) a little time, become an English nation; and thereby possess the Holy Scriptures and a great variety of other useful and beneficial instruction in a translation already prepared to their hands.

The children are quick and acute. A few days ago, I collected some boys together on the beach, and began to teach them the alphabet, and they all repeated the letters as with one voice, and pronounced every letter as distinct as myself. At our new settlement at Kidee Kidee, we have measured the ground for a church sixty feet by thirty-four feet; also for a school, sixty feet by eighteen feet. Many parents have been with me to solicit the admission of their children into the school, even before a single plank is sawn for its erection. Agriculture is another grand consideration, and as agriculture is the wealth of every nation, there is no nation upon earth, perhaps, more favourable for the operations of agriculture than New Zealand, and certainly none that need it more. We cannot carry on our schools without the means of victualling the children, as their parents are too poor, for want of the means to cultivate their land to furnish them with food at the present time. Agriculture will enable us to provide the first necessaries of life, and stimulate the exertions of the natives to industry, and raise them above want; and by furnishing then with constant employment, will tend greatly to their civilization and temporal comfort. I shall, therefore, as far as my means will supply me, turn a part of my attention to this grand public object. This cannot be done to any extent, without considerable expense, in a page 47 land that does not possess in itself a single nail. But I trust the benevolence of a Christian world will not suffer a nation to perish for want of a temporal and spiritual knowledge, as far as they can contribute to their relief.

Upon the liberality throughout the British Empire we will depend, and leave the event to Him Whose is the silver and the gold.

The brig “Active” arrived atBay of Islands on Thursday, 28th October. After her arrival, I went on board to see her, and found her a very strong and comfortable vessel, and in very good order, as far as my judgment goes.

She had been fourteen days from Port Jackson, and has brought us the remains of our stores, and what arrived from England after our departure; with eight heifers, which are now alive, and one bull, two others having died on the passage. The vessel is well adapted for the Mission, as far as safety and comfortable accommodation are required, Mr. Marsden informs me, he shall now make a tender of her to the Society, as he considers the Mission now settled upon a permanent footing, and those dangers and difficulties which were once apprehended, to exist no longer. He will also leave entirely to myself and colleagues to select such natives to visit Port Jackson in future as we may think proper, and under such regulations as may be deemed necessary from time to time to adopt for the furtherance of the general interests of the Mission. I beg leave to observe that there is nothing at present in New Zealand that will pay the expenses of the vessel; the duty on timber, and other expenses at Port Jackson, are so heavy a drawback upon the proceeds of what she carries.

With respect to other things relative to New Zealand, I beg leave to refer you to the general observation furnished by our dear friend, the Rev. Samuel Marsden. The importance of the situation which I hold, as a Minister of the Gospel, and as a steward of the Society to the poor heathen, it often fills my heart with fear and trembling, and I am led to say, who is sufficient for these things? To preach the glorious Gospel of the ever blessed God to these poor creatures, who are indeed sitting in darkness and the shadow of death, with all meekness, long suffering gentleness and forbearance, to endeavour by every means in my power to correct their various habits, to reclaim their wandering feet, and to guide them into the way of everlasting peace, to administer, as far as possible to their temporal, as well as to their spiritual comfort, appears to me, at least, a work of the greatest magnitude, and requires great prayer and watchfulness, courage and fortitude; and I must humbly pray that the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Xt will give His heavenly grace, and strengthen me with all might in my inward man: and give me strength of body as well as holiness of heart and life to perform the sacred task, and be found faithful to the Society, and to the perishing heathen around me, so that whenever I am called upon, I may be able to give up my accounts with joy. No one can tell his trials until he gets into the field of action, and it is impossible to say who will be able to stand until they are tried. I am fully aware that I shall have many difficulties to contend with, and many of them of such a nature as no human foresight can prevent. But, however, the work is the Lord's, and it must prosper, for the heathen shall be given to Xt for His inheritance, and the uttermost part of the earth for His possession, and I humbly trust that the barren deserts of New Zealand and the valleys page 48 thereof (which are now covered with noxious weeds) will ere long stand so thick with corn that they may be said to laugh and sing, and the inhabitants thereof made to rejoice for the gladness of their hearts, because of the loving kindness of the Lord, and for His great mercy and goodness, which He will pour upon them. I conclude this epistle by praying that our gracious God may pour upon our Society and every member of the same, the continual dew of His blessing over all His labours.

Dear Sir, please to give my sincere love to your family, Rev. and Mrs. Bickersteth, Revd. Samuel Crowther and his family, Mr. and Mrs. Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. Broughton, Mr. Daniels, Mr. Sargeant, Mr. Scott, and all our dear friends. Say to Mr. Broughton I have not had time to collect him little things in New Zealand, but will do so as soon as possible.

Dear Sir,
I remain,
Your faithful and obedient servant,


To the Rev. Josiah Pratt,
Church Missionary House,
Salisbury Square,
Rev. J. Butler to Rev. J. Pratt. (Original in the “Hocken” Collection).
Nov. 8th, 1819.

Revd. and Dear Sir,

As it will be some time before we can possibly have a school built at our new settlement, I have sent my son back again to New South Wales, along with some of the principal chiefs' sons, by and with the advice of the Revd. Samuel Marsden, in order that he may, in the meantime, take charge of the Seminary at Parramatta.

From what I have seen of those who have been there, I am persuaded it is a matter of first importance always to have some of the chiefs' children at that place, as they will not only have an opportunity of seeing, but of being initiated in the customs and manners of civil life.

Those who have been at Parramatta any length of time do not appear like the same persons; when they return back their natural ferocity seems very much softenend, their minds enlightened, and themselves more than ever attached to the white people, and especially to our missionaries.

They also relate to their own people all the things which they see and hear. This will have a great tendency to make favourable impressions on their minds, and of opening their eyes to see our real intention of coming among them, viz., to do them good, both in body and soul. Samuel, also, will have an opportunity of improving himself in the New Zealand language, while he is teaching the natives the page 49 English in Dr. Bell's system. These are five fine, sharp boys as I ever saw, and I have no doubt they will make rapid progress. They also will be hostages for our security, and their tribes led to deal more kindly with us on their behalf, and it cannot fail of having the most salutary effect upon the minds of these young chiefs when the government is laid upon their shoulders.

When we are ready for opening the school at Kidee Kidee, Samuel can be recalled immediately for that purpose, if such a measure is deemed advisable. The “Active,” I expect, will sail for Port Jackson this day. May God in His mercy give them a safe and speedy passage, and so bring them into the haven where they would be.

Dear Sir,
I remain, ever faithfully,
Your obedt. and humble sevt.,


To the Rev. Josiah Pratt,
Church Missionary House.

THURSDAY, 28th OCTOBER, 1819.—We were very much gratified by finding our hopes of the “Active” realised. Captain Thompson arrived at our settlement in a boat about nine o'clock this morning, after a passage of fourteen days from N.S.W. The “Active” has brought eight heifers and a draught bull, and sundry things for the supply of the settlement.

In the afternoon, Mr Marsden and myself went in the boat with Captain Thompson to Parroa; the “Active” is a fine, sound brig, and exactly suited for the purpose she is engaged in.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, 29th and 30th.—I remained at Rangi Hoo.

NOVEMBER 9th, 1819.—The brig “Active” returned to Port Jackson, having on board Revd. Samuel Marsden, Samuel Butler, Wm. Hall, Jnr., Mr. Gordon and family, Mr. Carlisle and family, and two New Zealand chiefs, and five chiefs' sons. Fair wind.

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 11th, 1819.—Mr. Wm. Hall and carpenter went to Kadee Kadee with a load of timber in the punt for the buildings.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Remained at home.

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 14th.—Preached from 5th St. Matthew, 15. This morning we were much alarmed by a report (which we found too true), that a man was nearly blown to page 50 death by gunpowder at Rangi Hoo, which had taken fire by accident. He was driven several yards by the explosion. Two little children who were sitting near the spot were dreadfully burned; the man lingered until Monday evening, and then died. We afforded him every assistance in our power. The children and mothers we took to the house of Thos. Hansen, where we nourished them, and dressed them; since the accident Mrs. B. and I have attended them every day, and done all in our power for their recovery. We are in a bad state for salves and ointment; when I opened the medicine chests, I was astonished to find there were no salves or ointments. One of the children is since dead, and the other I do not expect to live. The one which is dead had its arms burned from the shoulder to its fingers' ends; its face, also, was so much burned that its countenance was destroyed, and when the head began to swell, it made a frightful appearance; the other child is so much burned about the head and face, and it is so difficult to keep anything on the eyes, nose, and lips, that it appears to me that there is no probability of recovery. I dressed both of them with Turner's Serate Blister Ointment, and hog's lard; these were the only things I had in my possession.

MONDAY, 15th NOVEMBER, 1819.—Went to Kedee Kedee to examine the corn, taking four logs of timber with us.

TUESDAY, 16th, 1819.—Went to the wood at Kedee Kedee to set on natives to cut posts and rails to make a stock yard. Set on George, a native, to make brick for buildings, and another native to help him. He learned his trade at Port Jackson; should he have good success in his undertaking, it will be a great thing for New Zealand.

WEDNESDAY, 17th.—Returned to Rangi Hoo in the evening; went to Paka Tee Tou to see some wheat we have there. The ship “Catherine,” a whaler, arrived this day, and has brought several things for the settlers. Captain Grayham, commander. Gave to Capt. Grayham twenty-four boards for the use of his ship. Mr. Kemp made him an iron bolt, fourteen inches by two and a half.

THURSDAY, 18th, 1819.—Went to catch the cow and calf in the wood, which we brought with us from Port Jackson; we succeeded in getting them in the evening.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, 19th and 20th.—Remained at Rangi Hoo. Saturday evening, Mr. Wm. Hall and Mr. page 51 Kendall went on board the “Catherine,” and remained all night, returned on Sunday morning with Captn. Grayham and several sailors; all of them attended Divine Service.

MONDAY, 22nd NOVEMBER, 1819.—Went on board the “Catherine” with Mr. Kendall, Mr. Wm. and Fras. Hall.

TUESDAY, 23rd NOVEMBER, 1819.—Went to Kedee Kedee to look after the buildings; from the reports we heard, we were afraid that our buildings were destroyed by a fight that had taken place between Shunghu and Tema Rangue, but we were glad to find that (comparatively) little damage had been done us; the natives had taken away our pigs, one sow and eight pigs, and another fine sow ready to farrow, and knocked down our pig-sties, and broken into the house intended for a blacksmith's shop, and taken away eight hoes, four spades, three axes, two saws, and several other things. But this we consider a trifle, well knowing that a savage, when exasperated, is capable of committing the most atrocious deeds.

WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY, 24th and 25th NOVR. —All our settlement went into the bush to see if we could catch some cattle, which had been running wild for some years past. We returned in the evening, very much fatigued, and without our cattle. Three men are now in the bush after them.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, 26th and 27th.—We examined our wheat and other stores. On Friday the bull died, after having all the care imaginable.

SATURDAY.—Mr. Wm. Hall and others, killed a bull in the bush, and brought him home for food.

SUNDAY.—Divine Service, morning and evening, at Mr. Hall's.

MONDAY, 29th, 1819.—All hands set on to get timber and other things to Kedee Kedee. Carpenters went in W. boat. Mr. F. Hall and myself, five natives, Thos. Hansen, loaded our punt with sawn timber, and set out for Kedee Kedee about noon; the wind being against us, we laboured very hard, and made but little progress, altho' the tide was in our favour; at six o'clock in the evening we drew to shore on a sandy beach, as the tide had now turned, and we found it impossible to pull against wind and tide; we also wanted refreshment. We therefore made a fire and boiled some water in our iron pot, which we took with us for that purpose. After our refresh- page 52 ment, we rested ourselves on the beach until midnight, when the tide turned in our favour; we then arose and addressed ourselves to our journey, and after much labour and toil, we arrived at Kedee Kedee at five o'clock on Tuesday morning, and found our friends well. We had also a canoe with us, manned by four natives, which towed four logs of timber. In the afternoon, Mr. Wm. Hall came with the whale-boat, natives for his crew, bringing six logs of timber; we got them all on shore in the evening.

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 1st, 1819.—We measured out a stock yard for our cattle to remain in at night, as soon as we have any at Kedee Kedee; this is indispensably necessary, as there are no mounds in New Zealand. In the afternoon, Shunghu and Tarriar, and all their fighting men, came from the Whymatte to see us, and also to see if we had sustained any other injury from Tema Ranghe tribe, to which they then stood opposed. I enquired into the cause of their late battle. Shunghu replied that his cookeys, or slaves, had taken some cockles from some tabood, or forbidden ground, belonging to Tema Ranghe, but unknown to him; I suppose the whole value was not more than four or five fish-hooks, and for which Tema Ranghe and Para Heka, and their people, came and took their potatoes and comeras, and declared war against Shunghu; a battle ensued, but Shunghu ordered his men to fight New Zealand fashion, that is, with spears and stones, and not with muskets and ball, altho' they had plenty of both. But, he said, his adversaries began with tomahawks and muskets, and he had two of his men killed by shot, before he began to fire; but he thought it was then high time to begin. They soon killed eight men, and wounded others, so that their enemies soon fled from the field; he had another man killed in the battle and himself and several of his men got slightly wounded. Tema Ranghe and his party have burned all Shunghu's war canoes at Kedee Kedee; he tells me he has but one canoe left, and that a very small one; he has sustained great injury, and his enemies are pillaging his potatoes every night, in the outskirts of his plantations; we expect there will be more fighting before matters are made up.

We bless and praise our gracious God for all His tender mercies toward us, in preserving us amidst innumerable perils; but, as we are perfectly neutral, we suppose, at least, ourselves, to be on equal good terms with both parties. I have been to Tema Ranghe's place since the battle has taken place, and saw part of our pigs which they had taken from us; he and his page 53 people offered to return them, but then he said they should want some compensation, as they considered them as spoils taken in war; I therefore declined removing them.

Shunghu, and Tarriar, and Rewa, supped with us in the evening in our blacksmith's shop, which is our general dwelling and lodging house. After prayer and thanksgiving, they, with their men, encamped around our house without, and we retired to rest within, some in cots and hammocks, others on boards, which serve for our general table as well as our bedsteads. Rest is sweet to the weary man, and labour softens every bed. Silence and good order was kept during the night by the natives, and we arose in the morning refreshed and comforted.

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 2nd, 1819.—This morning, at breakfast time, Rewa, one of the chiefs, found that one of his cookeys had been stealing, or concerned in stealing, a pig, for which he tied him up to a post, and then took a cord about the size of a penny slip, and beat him for theft; this was done in a mild and gentle manner, as he scarcely left the mark of the cord upon his back, altho' he was naked. He expressed his anger at thieving in the most expressive manner; this youth not only confessed his guilt, but also being an accomplice in breaking open our house, and said our sawyers were all as bad as himself, and this (upon an investigation) we found to be the case; and, in order to excuse themselves, they said they had taken our things away and hidden them in the bush, in order to preserve them. This seemed a plausible story, but Tarriar did not believe them, neither did we believe them; Tarriar, therefore, flew into a great rage, and jumped, and ran about and threatened them very severely, saying he would not spare them if they were found out a second time; all our men seemed very frightened, and several of them wept very much. Tarrear said they should be banished from the settlement, but after my interceding for them, he permitted them to stop and go on with their work as usual; we hope this will have a general good effect. Mr. Wm. Hall said he never saw any of the chiefs take up this matter so warmly before. Almost the whole of our tools have been returned.

In the afternoon, we received fifteen logs of timber from Rangi Hoo.

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 3rd, 1819.— This morning, Mr. F. Hall and myself, Thos. Hansen and three natives, went into the wood to seek timber for posts and rails, and were very page 54 successful. George, our New Zealander, and his men are very busy digging clay for bricks; he seems confident of success.

Tarrear has gone to Why Matti; Shunghu remains at Kaddi Kedee.

This evening, Cui Cui, a great chief, and his people came to Kedee Kedee to see Shunghu, and to render him any assistance that might be in his power.

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 4th, 1819.—This morning, a great number of natives, I should think three hundred at least, assembled around our blacksmith's shop; all their discourse seemed to be how they might carry on the war with advantage. After breakfast, we prepared to set off for Rangihoo; Shunghu set off with us in our boat, but his friends thought it was not safe to go alone with us to Rangihoo; they, therefore, manned a very large war canoe immediately, with about eighty warriors, and accompanied us down the harbour. When we had got about three miles, we met some of Shunghu's friends from Why Tanghi, bringing him a large canoe as a present, therefore he returned to Kedee Kedee, and his warriors and we came on to our settlement at Rangihoo, where we arrived at eleven o'clock, and found our families all well, thanks be to God for His mercy.

DECEMBER 5th, SUNDAY.—Divine Service, morning, at Mr. Wm. Hall's. Shunghu and Tarrier, with their warriors, came to our settlement to-day; all of them behaved in an exemplary manner. In the afternoon, Te Morengha and Paraheka came to converse with Shunghu concerning the war, and, after a long conference, peace was established between them.

MONDAY, DECEMBER 6th, 1819.—All our Kedee Kedee natives set off this morning for their own place; the carpenters and myself set out for Kedee Kedee at noon.

We arrived at Kedee Kedee five o'clock p.m. The natives had a grand shaka (or dance) on our arrival. The carpenters began to repair the pig sties which had been broken down in the fight. I went to examine the various works we had begun, and gave some directions about the brick-yard, and returned to our little hut, where we all sat down, and got some refreshment. Afterwards, I called Shunghi, Tarrear, and the other chiefs, and began to speak to them of the evil of theft. They listened with great attention. I began by saying the great God of the Christians was very angry with them, and that page 55 white people considered it a very bad thing, and that those who were known to do such things were severely punished. Shunghi, who had been to Port Jackson, told them what punishments he saw inflicted on thieves at that place. “I have seen them,” continued he, “with irons on their legs, and tied to a post and flogged, and one man hanged for thieving.” They all agreed that it was very good to punish thieves, and said they should be very glad if I would have a house built to confine them, and give them no victuals, and put irons on them, the same as at Port Jackson, or put an iron on the leg of him who should be found thieving, and let him go into the bush, and then everyone who saw him would say, “There goes a thief! and that then he would be so ashamed that he would cry himself to death.” I replied that I could not do anything of the sort myself, but that, if I found any of them guilty of this crime, I would immediately inform them, and explain to them as far as I was able, the nature and extent of the offence.

After some further conversation on this subject, the chiefs enquired when I should return to Rangi Hoo. I answered, “Early in the morning.” They said they would call their people together, men, women, and children, and charge them in the most solemn manner not to steal anything from us. I said that was very good, and I appointed five o'clock in the morning for assembling the people, as I wanted to get away early. We then wished them all good-night, and retired to rest. At daybreak, we heard the chiefs and their messengers shouting aloud and calling their people together, young and old, from the village. At six o'clock we went out, and found the largest party of men, women, and children, that I had seen since my arrival in New Zealand. Each chief separated his people to himself, and after they were arranged in order, and the subject known upon which they were assembled, the people being sat down, and a passage found through the midst of them, the chiefs, each one in his turn, rose up and gave his charge to the people, threatening the severest punishment on children as well as fathers, on women as well as slaves, if they were found guilty of this crime. The greatest silence prevailed the whole time. I afterwards expressed my satisfaction to the chiefs for what they had done, and gave them a thousand fish-hooks to distribute among the people, as a recompense for their coming together.

The people dispersed very quietly. After the people were gone away, James Boyle, Richard and myself, set off for Rangi Hoo. We killed two pigs for the blood, and departed for page 56 Man-A-Wou-Ra. The cause of this journey was the want of salt, having none left in the settlement. Mr. F. Hall accompanied me from Rangi Hoo on this expedition; we had a very strong breeze, and arrived at the place of our destination in an hour and a half—distance, ten miles. We found our salt pans safe and ready for working, and a small rush house for Boyle's residence, while he remains at the place making salt. I gave one axe and four flat tokes for building it.

Mr. Hall and myself went to see the flax that was sown some time since. Tooi and Koro Koro, his brother, are gone to fight with the people at River Thames, and are not yet returned. The people are very anxious to know when they are likely to have any Europeans to live among them, and also to know particularly if I intended to have a house at Man a wou ra, as well as Kedee Kedee. I could not tell how to answer them, but, however, I told them that, according to Mr. Marsden's promise, some people would be sent to their place as soon as possible, but this did not seem to satisfy them.

It being now evening, we returned to the rush hut, and, after prayer and refreshment, we laid ourselves down on some bulrushes to rest. Next morning we arose at five o'clock, and after breakfast, set off for Par Roa to seek after some casks for the salt men's use; we had the good fortune to find them all safe at his former place.

We intended to have gone from thence to Rangi Hoo, but the wind blowing very hard, and directly in our teeth, we were obliged to return to Man a wou ra, where we arrived safe after three hours' very hard pulling. The natives are very fearful in a heavy sea. After dinner the wind abated, and we again set off for Rangi Hoo, where we arrived safe at nine o'clock in the evening.

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 9th, 1819.—Mr. F. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Kemp, Mr. and Mrs. Butler, and Mr. King visited Kedee Kedee, in order to afford Mrs. Kemp and Mrs. Butler an opportunity of seeing our new settlement. Our store house, being nearly enclosed with weather boards, we intend to make it a general dwelling house for the present, and remove to Kedee Kedee at once, and so make shift, until we can better accommodate ourselves.

As Mrs. Kemp and Mrs. Butler were the first European women that had ever visited this place, and, as many of the natives had never seen a European woman before, (having heard the news), they ran together from all quarters, to grat- page 57 ify their eyesight. We landed among a crowd of them. They thronged us very much in going from the waterside to our blacksmith's store. They shouted and danced for joy. After dinner, we took a walk to see the adjacent country, and to shew Mrs. Butler and Mrs. Kemp our plans of operations. The natives crowded about us, laughing, dancing, and singing. Where we went, they would go, in spite of any remonstrance. After a general survey, we returned to our little house, got some refreshment, and departed for Rangi Hoo, amidst the huzzas of a great number of natives. Mrs. Butler and Kemp were much pleased with the new settlement.

SATURDAY, 11th, 1819.—I was obliged to go to Te Ko Ranghu (four miles) to fetch our punt. Our carpenters thought proper to leave it there, because the wind was a little against them; but, as it was very much wanted, I was determined to go after it myself, and with the assistance of five natives, I brought it to Rangi Hoo in four hours.

SUNDAY, 12th, 1819.—Divine Service at Mr. Hall's, M. & E. Churched Mrs. King in the afternoon. In the night, Mr. Kendall's chimney took fire, and the settlement was thrown into great alarm; but, by the timely assistance of natives and the brethren, it was extinguished without much injury.

MONDAY, DECEMBER 13th, 1819.—All hands set to this morning to pull down Mr. Gordon's old house, and to take it to Kedee Kedee. This was completed in the course of the day. with the assistance of a party of natives sent by Shunghu. They behaved very well on this occasion. But we found the stuff so rotten that it would not pay for our labour and expense.

TUESDAY, 14th, 1819.—This day we rafted thirty logs of timber, sent away the large war canoe with a heavy cargo of boards, etc., etc., which also returned in the evening. In the morning, we had a very strong breeze blowing in shore. Our punt, which was heavily laden with boards and moored off about 100 yards from the shore, soon filled with water. We mustered all hands, and had a very hard job to get the water out of her, and to keep the boards and other timber from being floated away. The sea came rolling into her, and sometimes completely over her. We worked for two hours without any seeming hope of success; but the wind abated, and at length we gained our point. The punt leaks very much in her upper seams; but this is no wonder, since we had neither oakum, pitch, nor tar when we built her. A few barrels of each would be of great value to our settlement.

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WEDNESDAY, 15th.—At five o'clock this morning, Messrs. Wm. and F. Hall, carpenters, and myself, set off with our punt for Kedee Kedee; we had also twelve logs of timber fastened to the stern. The Europeans had our whaleboat to tow ahead, and fourteen natives and myself on the punt with paddles. At noon we had only reached half way, the wind being against us. We stopped on an island to get some refreshment, but we unfortunately forgot to take provisions for our natives, and as they were very hungry, having had nothing to eat all day, they appeared a little angry, and sent a canoe to a small village over against us on the shore, to purchase some potatoes, but there were none to be had, and we were obliged to proceed. However, I promised them plenty of food as soon as we reached Kedee Kedee. The wind was still against us, and everyone began to shew much fatigue, but we had not gone far ere we saw the large canoe coming to our assistance; we placed it before our whaleboat, and then we rushed on in spite of wind or waves and arrived at Kedee Kedee between four and five o'clock. I immediately called the natives, and gave them ten buckets of potatoes and a large hog. Mr. Wm. Hall killed it for them.

In a few minutes, there were a number of fires lighted to dress their potatoees and pork, and, being very hungry, they had not patience to burn off the hair, according to their usual custom, but instantly cut it in pieces with their tomahawks, and gave every mess their portion. They all leaped for joy. How blessed would it be to behold them as anxious for the bread of everlasting life. This, I trust, will be the case in our blessed God's good time.

We then got some refreshments ourselves, and afterwards I went to our new brick ground and shewed our native brickmaker how to lay out his ground, as it is generally done in England. In the evening Mr. Hall and I returned to Rangi Hoo, and arrived safe at eleven o'clock.

THURSDAY, 16th DECEMBER, 1819.—As I had left orders for the punt and canoe to come down this morning, we were anxiously looking for them. About noon the canoe came, leaving the punt three miles behind, on account of the wind, which was blowing from the opposite point of yesterday. Mr. Wm. Hall and myself and twenty natives started in our whaleboat and brought her home, through a very rough sea. In the evening it was calm, and we sent away the canoe with thirty logs timber.

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FRIDAY, 17th DECEMBER, 1819.—This morning we began to prepare to take our cattle on the punt; being nearly low water, we brought her broadside to, and begun to make a platform by throwing the sand against the side, and laying some boards on it, and then a little sand upon them. Our cattle being in the yard ready, we got them all on board pretty well, and also eighteen pigs which we bought in the morning. Mr. F. and Wm. Hall and natives went on this expedition, leaving me at home, having caught a severe cold.

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 18th, 1819.—This morning my cold a little better, blessed be God for His mercy.

The importunities of the natives from all the neighbouring districts for European articles, and people to live with them is almost inconceivable, and trying to the last degree. Also, the collecting materials for our settlers at Kedee Kedee, which is twenty-five miles, at least, from the timber district, is a great work in a land like New Zealand. The natives of the timber grounds have some prejudices against Shunghu, and I am afraid we shall have some difficulty of obtaining sufficient for our purpose. I am sometimes bowed down at the sight of what lies before me, and when by reason of weariness of body, my strength fails, yet I have to praise God for His exceeding great mercy toward me, in giving me a good share of bodily vigour and strength, so that I am enabled to endure much more fatigue than at first I thought myself capable of; and I earnestly pray to our gracious God thro' Jesus Christ for spiritual, as well as bodily strength, that thereby I may be enabled to perform (in some measure, at least) the work which He hath given me to do, viz., to preach to these Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ.

SUNDAY, 19th DECEMBER, 1819.—Divine Service at Mr. Hall's, morning and evening.


Rev. J. Butler to Mr. Thos. Kendall.
Dec. 20th, 1819.

Dear Sir,

As several of our brethren and myself are about to depart for Kidee Kidee, all the stores and other things that are in the School Room will be taken away (and agreeable to my instructions from Mr. Marsden), I have to request that you will prepare the School-room as soon as possible for the reception of children, and commence teaching page 60 immediately; and at the same time make a regular monthly demand on the Society's store (according to ration), for the maintenance of such children, as shall from time to time be admitted, and of such other necessaries, as may be wanted for the effectual carrying on of the same; also to make a regular monthly return of the expenditure, and all other things relative to the School.

I am,
Dear Sir,
Your affectionate brother in Christ,


To Mr. Thos. Kendall.

MONDAY, 20th, 1819.—We have been busy all this day in loading our goods for Kedee Kedee, and in the evening, Mrs. Butler, self, Mr. and Mrs. Kemp, Mr. F. Hall, three carpenters, and their wives and families, went on board the punt, and set off for Kedee Kedee; we got about one third of the way thither, and the tide turning, we were obliged to go on shore. The natives we had to assist us, soon kindled a fire, and we all sat around it, and got some tea and pork—Europeans on one side, and natives on the other. After our refreshment, we all joined in prayer, sang a hymn, and then laid ourselves down upon the ground to rest. It was a very fine night, and the stars shone very brilliant over our heads.

About two o'clock in the morning, ye tide turning in our favour, we went on board and addressed ourselves to our journey. In a short time we were met by two large canoes and a hundred natives at least; both of them immediately took us in tow; we now made rapid progress, and reached Kedee Kedee about six o'clock in the morning. We immediately got our goods unloaded, and then prayer and breakfast.

I gave the natives two hogs and ten buckets potatoes, which were soon eaten. Afterwards they became impatient for their payment. As they had now done a great deal of work, we distributed thirty English hatchets, about the same quantity of axes and hoes, a quantity of knives, fish-hooks, combs, plane irons, etc., etc.

In the afternoon we began to put our things in a little order; our storehouse, which is at present a general dwelling house, is in an unfinished state; we have ground for the floor, and our cooking, etc., etc., we are obliged to perform outside among the natives. But my great desire is to be on the spot where our future operations are to be carried on. Mr. and Mrs. Kemp live in the blacksmith's shop.

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WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY AND FRIDAY.—All busily engaged in putting our stores and other things in place, and in marking out a fence to go round our premises to keep off the natives from ye doors as much as we can at present, as we have hundreds about us all day long, and from their natural curiosity, they throng the doors, so that we are scarcely able to get out or in. And from their noise, singing, talking, laughing, ochre, lice, and oil, and other filth, it is exceeding disagreeable, especially for women and children; indeed, it is impossible at present, for children to go out of doors.

DECEMBER 25th, CHRISTMAS DAY.—This morning I assembled all the chiefs of the district of Kedee Kedee, and informed them that I should expect them and all their people to attend Divine Service at eleven o'clock, and that I expected they would be very quiet and orderly. They said it was very good, and, at the time appointed, they and their people were all assembled. I had a table and chair placed, and Mr. and Mrs. Kemp, and carpenters and families on seats made of boards behind; the natives sat in a semi-circle on the ground. I placed our native brick-maker (named George), in a chair near me, to act as my interpreter (he speaks English remarkably well), and the chiefs next to him. I endeavoured to explain to George, in the plainest and easiest manner possible, the great object we had in view in coming among them. I began by saying our great object and desire was to do them good, and to make them happy, as far as we were able, in body, mind, and soul. I endeavoured to explain to them the meaning of Christmas Day, and on what account we kept it holy; and how that, a long while ago, the great God Who made us, and the sun, and moon, and stars, the earth and sea, and all things in them, and everything which they saw about them; how that He gave His only son to come down from Heaven (a place of great blessedness above the sun and stars) to make us happy; and that He was born on Christmas Day; and that the Book, which I held in my hand, contained the words which He spake when upon earth; and that it had been written for our instruction, to inform us what we must do to be happy; and that we came from a very far country to teach them and their children the words of this Book. Moreover, I continued to say unto them that the great God and our Saviour were very angry with wicked and cruel people, but that He loves those who are gentle and kind, and did good things. I further said that I hoped they would better understand me by and by, and that I should better understand their language, and then I should be more able to explain these things unto them.

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They were remarkably silent the whole time, and appeared much pleased.

After morning prayer, I preached from ye Second Chapter, Gospel of St. Luke, and 11th verse: “Unto you this day is born a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.”

After service I gave the people two pigs and five buckets potatoes. Shunghu, Tarrar, and several other chiefs dined with me. In the course of the afternoon they quietly dispersed. Mr. Kemp's place, being the largest, in the evening we had Divine Service there, and I administered the Holy Sacrament.

SUNDAY, 26th DECEMBER, 1819. — Divine Service, morning and evening, at Mr. Kemp's, as the day was unfavourable to outdoor service. Many natives crowded about the door, which we kept open, for them to see and hear.

MONDAY, DECEMBER 27th.—Mr. Kemp, myself, three carpenters, and ten natives, set off for Rangihoo to assist in getting up the remainder of the stores. Tarriar and the other chiefs followed us with the war canoe. We began to load immediately, but the Ranghu Hoo and Wangha Roa natives who were there, behaved very rough indeed. They pretended to lend us a little assistance, but their true intention was to thieve; therefore, they threw down our boxes and broke a great quantity of window glass; and endeavoured to break the casks, and to get out the axes and hoes. They also threw the boxes into the punt with such force and vengeance, that I thought I must have had some of my limbs broken, as I was endeavouring to save and load them.

In a short time, however, the Kedee Kedee natives appeared in sight with their war canoe, and they immediately sat down, and as soon as the Kedee Kedee natives landed, they immediately dispersed, some one way and some another, and we finished loading our punt, and then we loaded their canoes, which set off immediately, and we had no further molestation; but as the tide was ebbing, and we had to wait for some little things, we unfortunately got aground, and it hindered us several hours, and it was not until eleven o'clock at night that we got her off; and then we made all speed. We rowed until four o'clock in ye morning, and then the tide turned against us, and we were obliged to draw to shore. We got some refreshment, and then laid ourselves down to rest until the tide turned, and then we arose and proceeded; we had not gone far ere we were met by the war canoe coming to our page 63 assistance. We reached Kedee Kedee about two o'clock, and after dinner we got our things unloaded and housed, as far as possible.

WEDNESDAY, 29th, 1819.—This day I have bought one hundred and fifty buckets of potatoes of the natives; they are very tedious, and if there is the least flaw in any article of barter, they will not receive it.

30th DECEMBER, 1819.—This morning I engaged ten natives to take the punt to Ranghi Hoo for the iron and empty casks, etc., etc. Mr. Hall and Thos. Hansen were ready at Ranghi Hoo to assist them.

FRIDAY, 31st.—Employed in buying potatoes, and in the storehouse.

SATURDAY, JANUARY 1st, 1820.—Mr. Wm. Hall arrived with the remainder of the stores, etc., etc.; we were busily employed the most part of the day in unloading and placing them. In the evening I bought seventy-seven buckets of potatoes.

SUNDAY, 2nd JANUARY, 1820.—Divine Service, Mr. Kemp's, M. & E. Baptized Mr. Bean's child— George Thos. Bean, born at Ranghi Hoo, in New Zealand, October 21st, 1819.

MONDAY AND TUESDAY, 3rd and 4th.—Employed in assisting to make the fence round the buildings. I am not, I must confess, a very good carpenter, but I can drive a nail, and in many other ways assist. I have also bought a great quantity of potatoes. We have continually a large party of natives about us, either to beg something, or to sell their property. They have plenty of ochre, oil and lice upon them when they come to barter, of all which I get a pretty good share.

THURSDAY, JANUARY 6th, 1820.—This morning I set off for Ranghi Hoo (with one European and five natives for my crew) with some things for the use of that settlement, and from thence to Man A Wou Ra, with blood and provisions for James Boyle, our saltmaker. We had a strong breeze across the bay to Man A Wou Ra, and reached that place at seven o'clock in the evening, and found Boyle in good health. But he (Boyle) being alone, and so far from the settlement, the natives are very rough with him, and have robbed him several times, and have frequently taken half their potatoes away after being paid for them. I told them I did not like to hear of such wickedness, and that, except they were more kind in future to James Boyle, they must not expect any Europeans to page 64 come to live among them. After some further conversation on this subject, I gave them a few fish-hooks, and told them that if they were kind and friendly, that by and by, I had no doubt that a settlement would be formed at their place. However, they were not satisfied with this; they said they had been promised so long, they were tired of waiting.

After prayer and some refreshment, I laid down my mat for my bed, and a small bag of biscuit for my pillow, and I slept very soundly amongst them the whole night. In the morning we rose early; after prayer and breakfast we began to get our salt and other things into the boat; there were many natives about us, and they grumbled very much, saying, “If you take away the salt to Kedee Kedee, you ought to pay us for the salt water,” etc., etc. But this spirit and conduct arises from their not having any Europeans to dwell with them. We left Boyle about nine o'clock, and arrived at Kedee Kedee about two in the afternoon.

SATURDAY, 8th JANUARY, 1820.—Bought in the evening of yesterday, and to-day, one hundred and forty-three buckets of potatoes. We have also been into the country to-day with Rewa, a chief, to examine some damage which our cattle had done to his potatoes; when I saw it, I paid him the damage, and then all was well.

SUNDAY, 9th JANUARY, 1820.—Divine Service, M. & E., at Mr. Kemp's. Messrs. Kendall, King, Hansen and children attended from Ranghi Hoo.

MONDAY, 10th JANUARY, 1820.—This morning have been to several places with our native brickmaker to seek out clay proper for the bricks, as that which we tried first does not answer. I believe we have at last found good clay for this purpose, and therefore hope to succeed in our brickmaking. Our carpenters are building a shed for potatoes, as our storehouse loft is quite full. Mr. F. Hall has been lame for some time (by running a nail into his foot), which has deprived me of his valuable services; but, through mercy, he is much better.

Shunghi's feet are very badly chapped and sore; he came and begged hard for a pair of shoes, and I gave him a new pair. I think he should be clothed, as he is our principal chief.

TUESDAY, 11th, 1820.—I have now had Tarrear's brother at our place a fortnight, sick; but he is now getting better, and will go away in a day or two. I have had four others on page 65 the sick list for nine days, and they also are much better. Mrs. Butler cooks rice, tea, and other nourishing things for them; and thus we endeavour, by kindness and sympathy, to convince them of our real regard for their comfort and welfare.

WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY, 12th and 13th.—These two days I have been working at the clay pit, in order to show the natives how to temper it. I have engaged three strong lads and one man to assist George in this important work, and here (through George's instrumentality), I was enabled to speak to them about their eternal interests, and to point out to them that it was their everlasting happiness which we had principally in view, by teaching them the knowledge of our good God; but that it was necessary for them to know the ways of English men; how they live as neighbours and friends and Christians; how they plough. and sow, and reap, and mow, and plant, and build; how they wash, and keep themselves clean; all which tends to make them comfortable and happy in this life, and, by the instruction of God's holy word, to be happy for ever after death.

FRIDAY, 14th.—This day, the ship “Martha,” Capt. Apsey, came into the bay for a supply of wood, water, pork, etc.

SATURDAY, 15th.—Our carpenters have been busy in fencing, and building pig-sties this week.

SUNDAY, JANUARY 16th, 1820.—Divine Service at Mr. Kemp's, M. & E.

This week I set on four fresh hands to break up land for wheat. We have thirty natives regularly employed. Every native gets ten pounds of potatoes per day, and one pound of pork at least, and very often two pounds.

SUNDAY, 23rd JANUARY, 1820.—Preached at Ranghi Hoo; adminstered the Holy Sacrament. Capt. Grayham, ship “Catherine,” the chief mate of the ship “Martha,” and crews attended both morning and afternoon services.

In the course of the last week, James Boyle has been robbed of all of his property, and also of the Society's. It was first said that Wyecacaddi Joe and his people had done this. Boyle, at the time, was on board the ship “Catherine.” Wyecacaddi Joe had been found thieving something from the “Catherine,” for which he got a sound beating with the end of a rope. I was told he jumped overboard to escape, and then page 66 he and his people went and robbed Boyle for the (hutu) payment. They broke open his box, and took everything out of it, and also his bedding, and every other utensil was then taken away. I think it was very fortunate he was on shipboard, or it is probable they would have done him some serious injury in their rage and fury. Kora Korra, Tui's brother, and even Tui himself, are not altogether innocent in this business. I have been satisfactorily informed that they have, at this time, part of the property in their possession. I have engaged to make the poor man's property good on the Society's account.

Mr. King has this day complained to me of his ration, and states that for several days together, and at sundry times, they have not had meat, or at least such as they could eat; but, however, he at all times received the same, and as much in proportion as myself. Moreover, his statement appears strange and untrue, since he sent on board the “Martha” a large quantity of pork, lines, and other things, and for which he received a barrel of porter, spirits, and other things, besides 25lbs. powder. Is this right?

Mr. Kendall also received from Capt. Apsey 125 wt. of gunpowder for himself, and a very fine fowling piece, to purchase things for him (the Captain). He also received eight blunderbuses, and other things of a like nature. This I consider as foreign to the Society's object, and what ought not to be done. If we are driven to the distressing necessity of disposing of such articles for the support of the settlement, yet we have no reason to employ our time and vend these articles for others.

Mr. Kendall and Mr. Hall are still at variance; Mr. K. enquired of me if Mr. Hall was going to Kedee Kedee; I asked him his motive for enquiring; and he said, if Mr. Hall remained at Ranghihoo, he would not, but would go to Kedee Kedee; and, if Mr. Hall went to Kedee Kedee, then he would remain at Ranghihoo, and that he would not any more live at the same place where Mr. Hall lived. I am truly sorry to see such bickering and strife. The spirit of P.T., and running after shipping for advantage has been the means of kindling the fire, and is still the fuel that feeds it; and the settlement will not be in peace until that is entirely done away; but in this business I believe Mr. Kendall certainly is not a whit behind, say first.

JANUARY 24th.—Held a committee at Ranghi Hoo in the morning, and returned to Kedee Kedee in afternoon.

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TUESDAY.—Sent Mr. Wm. Hall, James Boyle, and ten natives to fetch away the salt pans from Manawoura, as it was not safe for Boyle to stop any longer at that place.

26th and 27th.—Buying potatoes; looking after our native farmers, brickmakers, etc.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, 28th and 29th.—Employed in building a chimney for Mrs. Butler to cook in; but, as we have no bricklayer, I was obliged to take the trowel myself, and with Richard Russell's assistance, I completed it in two days, at least sufficient for our present purpose. By and by, I hope we shall get a better. Our carpenters are building outhouses, etc., and places to cook in.

JANUARY 30th, 1820.—Divine Service at Mr. Kemp's, M. & E.

SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 5th, 1820.—The whole of this week we have been busy burning brick, farming, etc., etc. We have eight thousand bricks burned, but they are not so good as we could wish, as the clay was new and not very well tempered. We shall have, no doubt, very good bricks, by and by.

The cow we brought with us from Port Jackson brought forth a male calf yesterday. This we consider a great blessing, as we had no male.

SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 6th, 1820.—Divine Service at Mr. Kemp's, M. & E.; administered the Holy Sacrament. Puckey, one of the carpenters, has become a regular attendant at the Lord's Table, and conducts himself, at present, with great propriety. I have had some conversation with him, and he appears very humble, and declares his earnest desire to spend the remainder of his days in the sacred cause of Christ.

MONDAY AND TUESDAY, 7th and 8th.—Attending my studies, conversing with natives, etc., etc. Our native brickmaker is gone on a visit to see his friends, ten miles distant. They were at the Kedee Kedee some little time since, and I made them a small present.

WEDNESDAY, 9th, 1820.—This day we had the misfortune to lose one of our heifers by dysentery, and also our valuable ram, by native dogs. I have an excellent native lad as stock keeper. It was not his fault respecting the ram. The dogs came on it in the bush unawares, and killed it.

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Mrs. Butler has four natives to cook for daily, besides our own family; and all our native sawyers, farmers, brickmakers, wood cutters, etc., are served daily from our place, as well as all pigs killed and salted, for the use of the settlement, and as Mrs. Butler has a young child, and no female (except a native girl) to assist her, to say the least, she is a complete slave to the concern. I am, myself, also compelled to buy almost all things that come to the settlement, as some plead incapability, and others that it is not their duty.

However, Richard Russell, who was engaged on the Society's account when Mr. Marsden was here, proves at present a very faithful servant. He kills the pigs, serves the natives, and renders himself serviceable in every way he is able. Were it not for him, I should be completely set fast in the Commissariat department, Brother Hall having to attend to the writing and serving of rations to Europeans on Saturdays.

THURSDAY, 10th, 1820.—This day we have been visited by Captain Spence, of the ship “Echo,” and Mr. Kendall. They dined with us, and returned in the afternoon. Mr. Kendall had remained on board the preceding night. I understand he left England on 10th October, and arrived at Bay of Islands, New Zealand, February 8th, 1820.

This makes the fifth ship that has been into the Bay in six months (and two of them twice, say “Catherine” and Martha), for provisions, wood and water, and I understand from Captain Spence there are many more, eleven ships coming to New Zealand. This will make provisions very dear. The Bay of Islands is become very thin of pork (and no wonder), as every ship takes away all she can get, and the natives pay no attention to breeding their pigs; therefore, as every ship issues scarcely any thing but muskets and powder, they, of course, get most of the pork and potatoes. This will eventually so drain the Society's resources, and so under-rate their articles of barter, as greatly to impede, if not altogether stop, their plans and operations, and reduce the settlement to great distress; unless we are furnished with cattle, and seed, and other means necessary for carrying on cultivation to a large extent, in order to have means for every purpose within ourselves. I was very much grieved to find that Mr. Kendall, on his departure, persuaded the natives of our Kedee Kedee district to send their pigs on board the ship “Echo;” at first, I did not believe the report, but Mr. Wm. Hall informed me that Shunghee had told him it was true, and that Mr. Kendall asked page 69 him if he had any pigs, and informing him that there were excellent muskets on board the ship. After tea, I went with Mr. Hall round the village to look at some pigs, and then I found the news that I had heard was too true; and, as we are altogether dependent on the natives for a supply of this article (and pigs are scarce at this time), it is like taking the bread out of our mouths. Such conduct is disgraceful to any servant of the Society. But gifts blind the heart.

FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 11th, 1820. — Bought twelve pigs and thirty buckets potatoes.

SATURDAY, 12th FEBRUARY, 1820.—I have this day been obliged to give a larger quantity of trade for the pigs than I should otherwise have done, had it not been for the conduct of Mr. Kendall in persuading the natives to take their pork on board ship. They all threw his words in my teeth, saying there was better payment on board ye ship “Echo.” I remonstrated with them, and asked if the captains of ships would supply them with tea and other comforting things when they were ill, or otherwise in distress. They all seemed to feel the weight of these arguments, or I should not have got any of them. I also bought twenty-four buckets of potatoes from George and his friends, who returned this day, and his friends with him. I was obliged to send away Mr. Wm. Hall and carpenters by a secret expedition to fetch a musket from on board ship, in order to pay for the same.

SUNDAY, 13th, 1820. — Divine Service, Mr. Kemp's, M. & E.

MONDAY, 14th, 1820.—This morning I called all our settlement together at Kedee Kedee, and with them proceeded to Ranghu Hoo, in order to investigate the charges against Mr. Kendall in persuading the natives to take their pigs on board ship. About half way we were met by the ship's boat, having on board Mr. Wm. Hall and Thos. Hansen. Mr. Kendall had sent a letter with them to Mr. F. Hall, wherein he states that he was sorry for what he had said to Shunghee. They returned with us to Ranghi Hoo. When we arrived at Ranghi Hoo, Mr. Kendall and Captain Spence were on the beach; I told Mr. Kendall I was come down to hold a special committee as soon as convenient to all friends. It was now twelve o'clock, and we appointed two for business.

I took the carpenters with me in order to give them an opportunity of hearing the rules read, and everything fairly brought to the test. Because, under the specious pretence page 70 that the missionaries were trading secretly, they also were determined to do likewise, and already had agreed with the Captain to send pigs on board the ship. I had enquired into this business on the Saturday preceding, and received for answer that I ought to look at the missionaries who set the example; and that whatever any one of them did by way of private trade, it was but right that they should have the same privilege, and further, that they had no notion of missionaries spending and idling their time on board every ship that came into the Bay, procuring supplies for themselves, and receiving their comforts as a recompense, while they were hard at work. I answered, if this was the case with any of the Society's missionaries, yet this would not justify their breach of the Society's rules. Neither would I allow them to dispose of Indian corn, hogs, pork, or potatoes, or any other article which tended to lessen the Society's supplies for carrying on the great object of ye Mission.

At two o'clock we assembled in the school-room at Mr. Kendall's, but Mr. Kendall refused to sit on the committee while any person except the missionaries was in the room. Everyone was then ordered to withdraw.

We began business in the usual way by prayer. I then told Mr. Kendall the charges preferred against him. He immediately flew into a most violent rage, and stamped and stormed about the school-room for half an hour; he would not be called to account for anything he did, neither would he have anything more to do with the committee. However, after all, he confessed that he told the natives there were excellent muskets on board the ship; but he further stated that he said nothing until he heard they had determined to take them. I answered: “If that was the case, there was no need of your persuasion.” But the real truth is, he used all the influence he had to get them for Captain Spence. As a further proof, he had fifteen pigs in his own yard for the ship at this time; and part of them were fetched away while the committee was sitting. After this, I told Mr. King that I had been satisfactorily informed that he also had sent pork on board the ship “Martha.” He also flew into a great passion, and said if he had, it was to remunerate him for some trade he had bought out of his own pocket. He further said that I had no right to come there to call them to account; and then he took his hat and ran away. After this I sent for the carpenters and husbandmen, but Mr. Kendall for some time would not admit them into the school. At length he was prevailed upon, and page 71 they were let in. I then read the articles unto them, and put the question unto the committee whether, in their opinion, the rules of the Society were not as binding upon the carpenters and others as well as missionaries. Mr. Kendall contended they were not, and that they might trade if they were so minded, and that I had no right to stop them. I told the secretary, if that was Mr. Kendall's opinion, to write it down, but this he would not agree to. He said altho' it was his private opinion, yet he wished to give his voice against it.

After this business was ended, the subject of increasing the ration next came before the committee. I have had many complaints from almost all parties about ration. After some conversation on this business, it was unanimously agreed that every man should receive 12lbs. per week, but not increase the ration to women and children.

The committee closed, and we returned to Ranghi Hoo. Kedee Kedee in the evening.

TUESDAY.—Buying potatoes and pigs.

About two o'clock Wednesday morning, while asleep, I was taken with great pain in my stomach and bowels. It caused a violent convulsion, and my inside seemed convoluted. In a little time I was taken with a violent retching and purging, which I think, by the blessing of God, was the means of carrying it off. About ten o'clock I began to get much better.

About two o'clock I received a letter from Mr. Kendall addressed to me and all the Mission settlers. I think it highly proper, and have therefore sent it with my journal to the Society. It is full of fallacy and deceit, and, if regarded, would have a baleful effect.

Mr. Kendall begins by declaring his fixed determination to follow, and abide by, the rules of the Society. But how, let me ask, does his conduct agree with his statement? when, instead of devoting his labours, gifts and abilities in the Society's cause, he is running after, and spending his time on board every ship that comes into the harbour, scudding about with them from place to place, and making his own house a common rendezvous. How does it agree with the sixth article? When, if he does not actually purchase hogs, potatoes, etc., he is still the agent by which they are obtained. Does he serve captains for naught? O, no, but here I stop. How does it agree with the other rules, when he despises all order, and will only do what he pleases? Moreover, he declared publicly, that if Mr. page 72 Pratt or Mr. Marsden resided in New Zealand, he would not be called to account by them. He wishes to promote harmony, but he is the principal jarring string. He wishes every one to prove his own work; it would be well for him if he did this; he would then (if he had any conscience), be ashamed of his negligence. We have no school at Ranghu Hoo, altho' he has nothing else to do but attend one. We have plenty of food for a small school; and, if not deprived of our supplies by shipping, might soon have a large one. Mr. Kendall, as yet, has not paid any attention to the letter I wrote to him on the 20th December last upon school business (a copy of which you will receive with these papers). He charges me with assuming exclusive authority over missionaries. How grossly false is this accusation, as may be seen by my calling all the missionaries and every other servant of the Society together to talk over this business; to bring everything before a committee, and, if possible, to pull up this noxious plant from the bottom of its roots, that no vestige of it might appear hereafter for ever. Mr. Kendall received one musket from on board “Echo,” Mr. King two ditto, six axes, and powder, hat, etc.

THURSDAY, 17th, 1820.—Through mercy, I seem quite recovered, but the disorder has left me very weak.

Our carpenters have this day begun a regular dwelling house for Mr. F. Hall and Mr. Kemp.

Our friend, Tarrier, and part of his tribe, have been to visit us to-day. He wanted an axe, but we have not one in the settlement; I therefore made him a present of two chisels.

FRIDAY, 18th, 1820.—Burning and clearing the fern from summit of the hill at settlement. Buying tie-up wood for fencing and setting boundaries in order to its being put up.

SATURDAY, 19th FEBRUARY, 1820.—Have this morning set on seven natives to make a pool for the convenience and supply of water for the houses and school that may hereafter be erected upon the hill.

Some part of our Indian corn looks remarkably well, being more than seven feet high.

Our timber is almost gone, and Mr. Wm. Hall is of opinion there will be a great difficulty in procuring a supply of this article for Kedee Kedee, as Kawa Kawa is thirty miles from this place, and the natives of Kawa Kawa are very saucy, and full of trade; and they will not look at us, except we have a page 73 new musket in our hands. Mr. Hall is of opinion we shall never get a supply of timber until we have a team and timber carriage to fetch our timber from the Society's wood.

We have to praise God with unfeigned thankfulness for a long succession of fine, dry weather; since our arrival in New Zealand this has been a great blessing, as we have been very much exposed; and moreover, we have thereby been enabled to make a greater progress in building places to dwell in.

FEBRUARY 20th, 1820.—Divine Service in my own place, M. & E. Mr. F. Hall poorly, could not attend.

MONDAY, 21st, 1820.—Assisting and directing the natives at the pool. Afternoon, study.

TUESDAY, 22nd.—Buying potatoes, pigs, etc., etc. Afternoon, study. The remaining part of the week employed in the general business of the Mission.


Rev. John Butler to Mr. Thos. Kendall.
Feb. 24th, 1820.

Dear Sir,

I think your journey to England is very ill-timed on many accounts. Several of us are just arrived in the country, and our settlement is in its very infancy, and we, of course, can have no knowledge of the language, and, therefore, require every assistance. Moreover, there is no object can justify you, in leaving your family unprotected in a heathen land. I should have thought you have suffered enough in your family heretofore to prevent you ever leaving them.

By taking away Shunghee, you take from us all our protection; the natives are exceeding rude now, but how much more after his departure. I greatly question whether we shall be able to live among them when he is gone, as I have no doubt but they will abuse us, and steal everything they can lay their hands on.

Further, to take Shunghee to England would be to act in direct opposition to the instructions of the Society, and I very much doubt whether he or yourself will live to return; I well know how very prejudicial the climate of England is to the health of a New Zealander. The Lexicon and Grammar I cannot spare, as I want them for my own use. I shall, D.V., be at Ranghee Hoo to-morrow, or Saturday, and shall be glad to converse with you (if you please), a little further on the subject.

Yours faithfully,


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SUNDAY, 27th FEBRUARY, 1820.—Divine Service, morning and afternoon at Rangihoo. Preached from the 5th Chapter, 2nd Corinthians, 17th verse. Three boats' crews from three whalers lying in the Bay attended, and six officers renewed their solemn dedication of themselves to God, at His Holy Table. In the afternoon, christened Mrs. King's child—Wm. Spence King.

About two o'clock p.m., the ship “Dromedary,” Captain Skinner, commander, came into the Bay, having on board our dear friend, Revd. Saml. Marsden, and stores also, and cattle for the settlement. The stores are a very timely supply, as all our stock was expended.

In the evening, Messrs. Butler, Halls, Kemp and King went on board, and were happy to find Mr. Marsden quite well, as was all the ship's crew. I was also exceeding happy to hear that his family was in perfect health at the time of his departure.

I slept on board, and, in the morning, Mr. M. and myself and several officers went to Wye Tanghee, both to give the officers an opportunity of seeing the place, and procuring food for the cattle.

Government has sent twelve yoke of oxen, in order to facilitate the getting of timber to the ship. Returned to Kedee Kedee Monday evening.

TUESDAY, 29th FEBRUARY, 1820.—To-day we have been exceeding busy in doing all we can toward the erection of a stable, for three horses brought down to New Zealand by Mr. Marsden.

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 1st, 1820.—Went to ship “Dromedary” to fetch away our cattle. We got them into the punt in safety, and also to Kedee Kedee after eighteen hours' hard pulling; distance twenty miles. We had a heavy sea, and tide against us a great part of the way.

THURSDAY, 2nd MARCH, 1820.—In the afternoon, Mrs. Butler and myself went down to Ranghu Hoo on business, and slept at Mr. Wm. Hall's.

FRIDAY.—I took Mrs. B. on board to see Mr. Marsden, also to endeavour to get our stores unladen. Captain Skinner kindly offered the ship's launch for this purpose, and proposed to begin this business on Saturday morning early; this was page 75 agreed upon, and Mr. Marsden kindly offered to conduct them to Kedee Kedee. In the evening, Mrs. Butler and self returned to Kedee Kedee.

SATURDAY AFTERNOON.—I went to meet Mr. Marsden, and to render every assistance in my power towards getting the stores to the place of their destination. We arrived at Kedee Kedee about nine o'clock in the evening. It being very dark, we found it impossible to unload in the night; we therefore set a watch over them, and they remained until morning.

SUNDAY, MARCH 5th, 1820.—This morning we were under the necessity of unloading our stores, as they were lying in an open boat and in great danger of being stolen or pilfered by the natives. We began work at six o'clock, and we succeeded in landing them all in safety by two o'clock, save that we lost the lead from the sounding line, but, after some expostulation with the natives, it was brought back again.

In the evening, we had Divine Service in the saw yard. I read prayers; Mr. Marsden preached from the parable of the rich man and Lazarus. The natives were very silent and attentive. Several officers from the “Dromedary” attended, and who also had come thus far on their journey to Shukianga to seek for spars, and to examine the harbour.

MONDAY, 6th, 1820.—The whole of this day we have been busy in putting our things in order.

TUESDAY, 7th.—This morning I set off for the “Dromedary” to enquire after, and the best means of getting up the remainder of the stores. A strong gale set in against us, and we did not reach the ship until between nine and ten o'clock in the evening. Captain Skinner kindly offered to send the remainder of the stores in the schooner, and also to accommodate us for the night. For this latter gratuitous offer I felt exceeding thankful; but I felt it a duty to go immediately to Tippoonah, as I had heard that the “Active” had arrived, and I wished to see Captain Thompson, because I expected some letters by him from Port Jackson. I therefore arranged with Captain Skinner about the stores, and set off, and reached Tippoonah about twelve o'clock at night. However, I found the ship to be the brig “Haweis,” instead of the brig “Active.” I went on board, and saluted Captain Nicholson and Mr. Orsmond, one of the Otaheitian missionaries who was also on board; after this I proceeded to Kedee Kedee, and arrived safe at four o'clock in the morning.

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WEDNESDAY, 8th.—Bought twenty-four hogs of different natives.

THURSDAY, 9th.—Captain Skinner, his lady, and several officers of the “Dromedary,” Captain Kent, of ye “Regent,” a schooner, Captain Nicholson, of the brig “Haweis,” visited our settlement at Kedee Kedee. We all felt much pleasure in their friendly visit, and in making them as comfortable as our circumstances would admit. They remained with us one night, which gave the gentlemen an opportunity of viewing the extended plains of Kedee Kedee, which, if cultivated, would keep more than ten thousand people.

FRIDAY, 10th MARCH.—This morning, the gentlemen took a general survey of the settlement, and after breakfast our visitors began to prepare for their return. I made them a present of some hogs and potatoes, as a recompense for their kindness in rendering us so much assistance with the stores. At ten o'clock they started, and I accompanied them five miles down the river, and returned.

SATURDAY, 11th.—Remained at home in the study.

SUNDAY, 12th.—Divine Service, M. & E., in my room.

In the course of the last week, I received a great deal of abuse from several natives; one man came near to me and spat in my face three times, merely because I asked him to go out of the yard. Two others, one named Tenana, and his brother, behaved in a very outrageous manner. I had engaged several natives to cut bullrushes to thatch a stable, and the wife of Tenana, without any order, thought proper to go and cut some and bring them for sale. It was a small quantity, and I gave nine of ye largest size fish-hooks for it. This was much more than it was worth. The payment was taken away, and in about an hour after, Tenana brought the fish-hooks back, and demanded three hatchets for the rushes, and said if I did not comply with his request he would set fire to the whole, and burn the building to the ground. I answered, “I cannot help that; the payment you have already received is much more than the worth of the rushes, and I shall not give you any more. After this, his brother came and demanded a tokee for a log which was lying in the water, and said he would have it, or he would be very angry, altho' the log was scarcely worth accepting as a gift. This request I refused to comply with; and they began to be very rude, and to push me about; this I did not mind; but, afterwards, they went out of the yard page 77 and actually set fire to the rushes, and if the fire had not been extinguished by some other natives, the whole building must have been destroyed. As soon as they were defeated in this object, Tenana made a violent attack on my hut and the store. He and some others began by throwing some heavy stones at the yard door; and after two or three volleys the door was broken open, and they made a rush into the yard. Rewa, another chief who saw this, came to our relief; however, Tenana mounted the top of the house, and at the same time holding a large piece of board in his hand threatening to kill me; himself quite naked and vociferating with all the rage of a cannibal. The settlement was thrown into great alarm; Mrs. Butler was quite frantic with fear; the shutters were closed, and everyone was looking out for a place of shelter. Rewa mounted the roof after him, and they had a sharp skirmish. Rewa threw him off the roof into the yard, but (cat-like) he came upon his legs. He reascended the roof, and his brother with him. Rewa and one of our sawyers immediately followed, and down they came together, and then a general set-to took place in the yard, with about a dozen of them. Tenana soon found himself on the weakest side. He was therefore obliged to give in, and shear off. After the fray was over I made Rewa a present of an adze and axe, and two others of an axe each.

THURSDAY, MARCH 2nd.—Mr. Kendall, with Shunghe Hika, the chief of Kedee Kedee, sailed for England in the ship “New Zealander,” Captain Munro, commander.

Since Mr. Kendall's departure, Mrs. Kendall has taken up the business of private trade. During the last week, Mrs. K. bought a lot of pigs for a musket, and sent two hogs and two buckets of potatoes on board the “Haweis,” Captain Nicholson.

MONDAY, 13th MARCH, 1820.—I am sorry to say that George, our native brickmaker, left us this day. The natives of Kedee Kedee have been very rude with him for some time, telling him to be gone to his own place. One of the natives a few days ago stole a mat and several other things from his wife; and afterwards one of them pointed a loaded musket at him, and declared he would shoot him. I think, also, that he would have done it had not another native taken the gun from him. Under such circumstances, George declared he durst not stop any longer. They were jealous of him on another account, which was because he acted as my interpreter and explained to me their conversation, which oftentimes was page 78 of the basest kind, and not very favourable to Europeans. He said: “I am very sorry to leave you, but my life is in danger; but if Shunghe had not gone to England, no doubt I should have remained with you, as he would have protected me.” His place lies about sixteen miles off; he bade me farewell and set off. At present, therefore, all my expectations with respect to brickmaking in New Zealand are at an end. Shunghe's going to England is a bad thing for our infant settlement.

SATURDAY, 18th MARCH, 1820.—During this last week we have been severely tried by the natives. They are very insolent, and enter our houses with impunity. They abuse us, and if any of the chiefs ask for an axe or anything else that we have as trade, we dare not deny them.

This morning we have had a complete skirmish in my yard, by the natives, one against the other. Mrs. Butler fainted with fear, and we were obliged to give several axes, hatchets, and other things to the chiefs in order to pacify and get them out of the yard. They plainly tell us if we will not issue powder and muskets, we must go away, which appears the only alternative.

The account of the incident as given by Major Cruise is as follows: MARCH 18th.—Shukiangah natives appear to be easier to deal with than those of the Bay of Islands, who demand muskets and powder for everything. As it was possible that the “Dromedary” would go there, the chiefs of that district remained on board. On the 19th, Mr. Marsden went on shore, as the natives were troublesome. One of the natives, who had forcibly entered Mr. Butler's premises, upon being told to go away, behaved with such violence, breaking one of the windows, and knocking everything about that was near him, that his brother, who had always been particularly kind to Mr. Butler's family, opposed him and struck him. The consequence was that the two brothers, in a passion amounting almost to frenzy, commenced a battle which must have been fatal to one or the other, had they not been separated by their mutual friends. The noise and confusion was excessive, and the first aggressor, in the height of his rage, declared his intention to bring another tribe to his assistance, who would carry everything that the missionaries possessed; while Mr. Butler's friends expressed their determination to prevent him doing so.

MARCH 20th.—The “Prince Regent,” schooner, sailed in the morning to examine the south-eastern coast, and the timber which grew on it, as far as Bream Bay. In the afternoon, the “Cumberland,” whaler, came into the harbour. The natives traded in the curiosities of their country, which they sold for axes, knives, etc., but for the articles most essential to the health of men, viz., hogs, and potatoes, there was a determined struggle of obstinacy between them and us—they insisted upon muskets and ball, while we as steadfastly refused them. Long as the ship had been here, scarcely any refreshments had been obtained.

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MARCH 23rd.—In the evening, the “Prince Regent,” schooner, returned; she had examined a considerable part of the coast between the Bay of Islands and Bream Head, but, where she had met with much timber, there was no safe anchorage, and, where shelter for shipping had been found, there was no cowry (kauri).

Therefore, the necessary preparations were begun for sailing to Hokianga.…… . The jealousy of the people of the Bay of Islands was equal to the joy of those among whom it was intended she should go; and, determined as the former were to force us into a traffic for muskets and powder, now that they saw things at a crisis, they would, if timber had been within their reach, have given it to us for our axes, sooner than let them go into the hands of strangers.

The “Dromedary” returned to the Bay of Islands on April 5th. Cruise (page 96) gives a more complete account of the following continuance of Butler's Journal.

APRIL 10th.—There has been some disturbance at Te Poonah. The natives last week killed a woman; she was a slave, and took her to Moturoa, two miles distant, and there ate her.

APRIL 16th.—I left the “Dromedary” this morning for Wytange, and Cowa Cowa to purchase pork and potatoes for the settlement, and was successful at both places, and visited Wytange, and reached Cowa Cowa in the evening. I informed the natives why I was come, and desired them to bring such things as they had to dispose of.

In the morning, at daylight, the natives came together in groups, with hogs, potatoes, birds, fish-lines, curiosities, etc. I made all the purchases I could, slept among them two nights in the open air, and was very kindly treated by them. De Kogie (Te Koki), the chief of the district, is a very mild man. I left them and reached home with a heavy load on Thursday, at one o'clock.

In the morning, at daylight, the natives came together in groups, with hogs, potatoes, birds, fish-lines, curiosities, etc. I made all the purchases I could, slept among them two nights in the open air, and was very kindly treated by them. De Kogie (Te Koki), the chief of the district, is a very mild man. I left them and reached home with a heavy load on Thursday, at one o'clock.

APRIL 29th.—This week the natives of our district have been remarkably quiet, and those of them who have come to trade with us have been very civil; there have been also several applications for European clothes, and articles of barter for pork and potatoes, etc. I am glad to see such applications, and shall feel particular pleasure in supplying them to the utmost of my power. I hope the time is not far distant when they will all be clothed, and in their right mind, sitting at the feet of Jesus, and hearing His holy word.

APRIL 30th. SUNDAY.— Divine Service in my room, morning and evening. Administered the Holy Sacrament.

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MAY 3rd.—The agricultural plough was for the first time put into the land of New Zealand at Kideekidee, and I felt much pleasure in holding it after a team of six bullocks brought down by the “Dromedary.” I trust that this day will be remembered with gratitude, and its anniversary kept by ages yet unborn. Each heart rejoiced in this auspicious day, and said, “May God speed the plough.”

4th, 5th, and 6th.—In the course of these days, got in two acres of wheat.

MAY 13th.—This week we were busy employed in farming; we have now five acres of wheat in the ground. The plough will go remarkably well, after the ground is once broken; but scarcely any strength is sufficient the first time, on account of the fern-root. The natives employed in farming work exceedingly well. The carpenters are going on with Messrs. Hall and Kemp's house. The timber is cut by native sawyers.

MAY 15th.—On taking a survey, I felt much gratified in seeing six acres of wheat springing up, with a fair prospect of a future harvest, in the place where, three months ago, fern and every sort of weed was growing; and let us all pray that the same good God, who giveth seed to the sower, and bread to the eater, may soon cause the seed of His holy word to be received into the hearts of these people, so that the mind of the New Zealander, which is at present so wild and uncultivated in this country, may by that dew and the seeds of the Holy Spirit become like a tree planted by the watercourses; and like a watered garden, whose waters fail not. Our working natives behave exceeding well; at present, I have twenty employed in farming.

MAY 21st, SUNDAY.—Divine Service, morning and evening, in my room. Mr. Marsden preached in the morning, and administered the Holy Sacrament; in the evening, myself.

27th.—Our settlement still enjoys tranquillity, and the natives are at present kind to us; the whole of my working natives are making repeated applications for European clothes, and as a plea to obtain them, say, “We want them to come to church in on Sundays, as we do not like to come in our filthy mats.”

MAY 31st.—We are very short of animal food. The natives retain their hogs for the shipping, in order to obtain muskets and powder for them.

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JUNE 13th.—Set off for Te Waimate, the principal residence of the chiefs and people of this district.

The distance is about fourteen miles; my object was to purchase some hogs, as we had none at the settlement. I took with me one European and three natives to carry food, trade, etc., for the journey. Being winter, the paths were very bad, and the woods full as deep in mire and clay. We were kindly received at the residence of the principal chief, who ordered his slaves to make a good fire and dry our clothes. I directed our people to get the tea-kettle ready, that supper might be over before dark.

Supper being ended, we sat around the fire, and some conversation took place about their farms, and the method of improving their circumstances, and educating their children. After this I proposed to sing a hymn, to pray, and read the Bukabuka, as they call the Bible, which was immediately agreed on. They said it was very good, and, a great party being assembled. I began to sing the evening hymn, assisted by the European I had with me; after prayer, several of them wanted to know all that I had prayed for. I hardly knew how to explain myself, but answered, “I prayed that all of you may have plenty of kumera (sweet potatoes), pork, potatoes, etc., and that you may be happy, and that the great God may cause you and your children to understand the Bible which I have in my hand, and then you will be very happy.” They replied, “It was very good.” We had some further conversation on various subjects, when we lay down to rest.

JUNE 14th.—We rose at daylight, had breakfast, prayed together, and then went to take a survey of the district. The land is very good, and the timber excellent. The natives have a great deal of cultivation at this place. I spent a very pleasant day among these people, lifted up my heart for them to the Father of mercies, and dropped a tear of compassion for them. The air was foul with thunder and lightning, but the natives came round the hut to hear the Bookabooka and prayer, after which they dispersed, and we retired to rest.

JUNE 15th.—I made all the purchases that I could, sent away my things, visited several chiefs, and set out for Kidee-kidee, where we arrived in safety at four o'clock in the afternoon, thankful for all our mercies.

JUNE 24th.—We have been busy farming and gardening the whole week. The natives engaged in husbandry, going on very well. In the course of the week, a native at work in my page 82 garden, dug up the stones on which Tooi's father was roasted, and afterwards eaten. He was slain in a battle between Shunghie's people and his people, in which Shunghee proved victorious. The man ran through a narrative of the battle with great feeling and simplicity, and added, “My father was killed at the same time.”

I had some further conversation with him concerning the evils of war, and the shocking practice of eating one another; he said it was the custom of their country to eat their enemies. I asked whether he had ever eaten human flesh. He answered, “No;” he did not like that. I enquired why? He replied, “I no like to do it.” I said, “I hope you never will, and that you will all soon know better, and see the evil of such things.”

JULY 8th.—The natives of our district, and those at work, have behaved very well for a long time. It must, nevertheless, be remembered, they are heathen, bound by no law, human or divine, and often bursting into the most dreadful passion. Their present kindness must, therefore, be not too much relied on. We must keep in mind, too, that they are poor and destitute, naked, ignorant, and miserable, and as such, call for the greatest patience and forbearance.

JULY 12th.—Mr. Bean, one of our carpenters, lost a child, a fine boy three years of age.

13th.—Sowing oats and pease.

JULY 14th.—This afternoon, I buried Mr. Bean's child in my garden. All the Europeans attended, and walked in regular order, as this tender lamb was the first (illegible) that it hath pleased our Holy Father to take to Himself and shield in His bosom from our little flock at Kideekiddee. It was my particular request that everyone should attend, not out of any vain ostentation, but to show the natives the manner of a Christian burial. Part of this service was read in the house, and the remainder at the grave, and two appropriate hymns sung on the occasion. The afflicted parents indulged in grief, and seemed wholly absorbed in it for a time. We spent the evening together in prayer and praise, and the weeping family was not a little comforted thereby.

JULY 17th, 1820.—I set out, accompanied by Mr. Hall, Mr. Shepherd, Mr. Graham, two European servants, and ten natives, for Whyematte and Mobery (Omapere), in order to procure pork, and potatoes, for the settlement. We travelled until dusk, and then stopped by the side of a wood belonging page 83 to Wymattee. Our natives were very prompt in erecting a shed, getting water, cooking our food, and doing everything that was necessary for us. After supper, we spent the evening in prayer and praise, got plenty of ferntops for a bed, and then lay down to rest. The night was wet and cold.

JULY 18th.—This day we spent at Wymatte, and were very kindly treated by the natives, but, having done all the business we could, we thought it proper to proceed on our journey a few miles towards Mobery. We again travelled on till dark, when we came to the side of a wood, and then took up our lodging for the night.

JULY 19th.—We reached Mobery (Omapere) about eleven o'clock.

We were received by the natives with great hospitality. They offered us a good dry shed for our use while we remained, which we gladly accepted. Several of the party set off, and in a little time brought plenty of ferntops and firewood for our use. At this place there is a most beautiful fresh-water lake, about six miles long by four wide; the natives say the depth is from two to six fathoms.

There is an abundance of ducks and wild fowl upon it. We spent the day very comfortably, bought some pigs and other articles, and closed the evening in our usual manner, endeavouring to explain to the natives the great object we had in view in coming to their country, slept in peace and safety.

JULY 20th.—Offered our morning sacrifice, and then prepared to move. Having taken leave of the inhabitants. we departed, and reached our settlement in the evening, about five o'clock. Distance, upwards of twenty miles.

AUGUST 12th.—This week we have been employed in splitting timber for fencing. The natives of our district are still kind and civil, and the farming natives very diligent. Oh, that the time was come when we could see them working out their salvation with peace and tranquillity, and crying out in anxiety of soul, “Where is God, our Maker? Where is the Lamb of God Who taketh away the sins of the world? Where is He Whom my soul loveth?”

AUGUST 13th.—Divine Service, morning and evening; administered the Holy Sacrament. The natives who attend the church are well behaved during the service.

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AUGUST 26th.—On Wednesday and Thursday last, I received some little insults from three natives; one struck me on the breast, and two others spit upon me, with intent to spit in my face. I pray God to forgive them their rudeness. However, the natives whom I employ, are very diligent and attentive, and are still anxious for European clothes; but it is not in my power to furnish them at present. Several slaves have lately died of want in this district, and were eaten by dogs, before I knew it; one had been killed by his master for theft, and eaten by his master and friends. The chiefs think more of their dogs than of their slaves. A slave in New Zealand, take him in either a spiritual or temporal view, is the most wretched and miserable being alive. Oh, Lord, God, when shall the fierce lion of New Zealand become as harmless as the lamb that feedeth upon the mountains of Israel?

SEPTEMBER 5th.—Went to Parroa (Pairoa) on business, and had the great satisfaction of meeting our dear friend, Mr. Marsden, at that place. He had travelled overland from the River Thames in a circuitous route to the Bay of Islands, which is an immense distance.

It was reported at Kidee Kidee, by some strange natives, that Mr. Marsden was killed at Wycoto (Waikato). This melancholy news caused much alarm and uneasiness at our settlement, but his safe arrival set our fears at rest; Mr. Marsden will, I am sure, furnish the Society with many further important and interesting particulars respecting New Zealand.

(Part of Butler's Journal is missing. Cruise reports as follows.)

SEPTEMBER 6th.—The “Dromedary” anchored in Parroa Bay, and found there the “Catherine,” “Anne,” and “Indian,” (British), and “Independence,” (American), whalers. And that, two days before, two whales had come into the harbour and been killed, and the blubberless carcases seized upon by the Maoris.

To the collection of the late Dr. Hocken, we are again indebted for the material missing from the original journals, which are still in the possession of Butler's descendents, wherever both sources are comparable, the data is reasonably correlative. The “Hocken” Journal runs as follows:—

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 2nd.—During this last week, we had a large number of natives at our place, and some of page 85 them strangers. They have behaved very ill, inasmuch as they have broken into my stable three times, and stolen therefrom twelve bags of kumeras, and all the bedding belonging to a European servant, who sleeps in it to protect the property. The robberies have been committed between dusk and bedtime. Besides these, they have stolen from me out of a shed adjoining my house, one dead hog, and several articles of wearing apparel, yet, after all, it must be recollected, they are but natives. The carpenters are still going on with Mr. Hall's house, and I am beginning to wish it was finished. The natives we employ are very kind, and certainly improve very fast.

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 3rd.—Divine Service, morning and evening.

MONDAY.—Held a committee on the general business of the Mission.

5th.—(See ante).

6th SEPTEMBER.—Returned to Kedee Kedee on the 6th, and the remaining part of the week employed in the general business of the Mission.

And now, my dear Sir, (to the Rev. Josiah Pratt), if you find these few remarks worthy of reading, I shall be abundantly recompensed for having written them down.

And believe me to be,
Dear Sir,
Your faithful and obedient servant,


Extracted from “HISTORICAL RECORDS OF NEW ZEALAND.” Capt. J. Nicholson to Commissioner J. Bigge.
BAY OF ISLANDS, New Zealand,
March 11th, 1820.


…. .I visited the new missionary settlement in the “Regent” a few days ago. The name of the place is Kidi Kidi……English blood boils to see the indignities the natives shew to the missionaries who live among them, and to us they are unbearably insulting; and were it not for a regard to those who live among them, I hesitate not to affirm that they would meet with severe repulse from persons from whom they now receive civility. Powder and muskets are the only things for which they care…….

Your obedient, humble servant,


The Hon. the Commissioner of Enquiry.
page 86


H.M.S. “Dromedary,” R. Skinner, Comg., to His Excellency Governor Macquarie.

I beg to acquaint your Excellency that James Dunleary, Thomas Lynch, John Grady, and James Horan, private soldiers of the 84th Regt., having been committed by the Revd. John Butler, Resident Magistrate at the Bay of Islands, charged with murder of William Oldridge, seaman, of this ship, on the evening of the 21st Nov., 1820, and the deposition having been enclosed by the said Magistrate to the Judge Advocate, I have to request your Excellency will be pleased to give directions for their being taken out of this ship and lodged in prison.

Extract from Revd. S. Marsden to Rev. J. Pratt,London. (“Historical Records.”)
April 24th, 1820.

Mr. K. (Kendall) left his wife and eight children wholly at the mercy of the natives…….Some individuals must think of and provide food for his family. I believe myself and Mr. Butler must take this trouble, or they will not be provided for……

After a long comment upon the missionaries trading privately with the natives, he continues:

I did suspend Mr.—— as stated in a former letter. The Rev. John Butler saw this evil in the same light I did, and also Messrs. F. Hall and Kemp.

During my stay in New Zealand, I experienced much distress from the misconduct of those employed in the Mission. I hoped mutual friendship was restored amongst them in a certain degree when I left them in November; at the same time I was afraid the Rev. John Butler would not be able to maintain his authority, and to carry on the Mission with comfort to himself……

On my arrival in February, I found the Europeans in great confusion, and the tares were sprung up again within the wheat. The settlers had fallen into their old barter with the ships and natives for muskets and powder. Mr. Butler, either for want of authority or from fear of persuasion (suggest want of food !) had been prevailed upon to pollute his hands with the same traffic, not on his private account, but to procure animal food for the support of the settlement.

This trial I was not prepared to meet. I called a meeting again, stated my abhorrence of this traffic; Mr. Butler condemned it as much as I did. They contended that without muskets or powder the natives would not sell their pigs, that they could not get a log of timber, nor potatoes or any article they wanted to purchase. I did not credit all they said (No! he had just come from the best of living in Sydney) but told them I should be here for some time, and then I should be judge.… If I found that they could not get animal food without muskets and powder I would send them salt meat from Port Jackson till the matter was submitted to the Committee at Home. Mr. Butler was much distressed; told me he could not govern the Europeans, and if I had not page 87 come, he should have returned to Port Jackson by the first opportunity …. Mr. Butler wants experience—he has had men under him, but not missionaries, who have no idea of subordination. I think the “Dromedary” will remain long enough for me to prove that they can get all the native productions without muskets or powder; I hope I shall establish Mr. Butler on a more comfortable foundation than he was before. I know Mr.—— will plead for this barter very strongly, and had he remained, Mr. Butler would have found more difficulty in abolishing it than he will at present…….They have suffered a little inconvenience, a few privations while residing among the heathens, but some of them must, in the common course of things, have suffered more had they lived in England, and had their families to maintain…….

I am, etc.


Rev. J. Pratt.

Records from other sources should have satisfied Mr. Marsden about the settlers' inability to procure meat; it would have been interesting if he had recorded his impressions, upon his leaving at the end of that period; however, Major Cruise has rectified his omission, page 67, (“Ten Months in N.Z.” by R. A. Cruise, 1820):

“Long as the ship (‘Dromedary’) had been here, scarcely any refreshments had been obtained; and though on the departure of the whalers, it was presumed that the want of another market would induce the natives to come to our terms, the arrival of the ‘Cumberland’ now precluded all hopes.”

Idem, page 286. “Our men were doomed to live ten months on salt provisions.”

(What about the women and children in the Mission settlements who had years of it?)

Ensign McCrae, 84th Regt. (“Historical Records of N.Z.” McNab, page 584).—“The same difficulty was experienced by the ship's company of the ‘Dromedary,’ and, in consequence, they were never able to procure by barter, a fresh meal, during the whole time we were in New Zealand.”

Dr. Fairfoul. (Idem page 554.)—“They (the natives) had both, (pork and potatoes), but they would not sell them for our articles of barter.”

(Did Mr. Marsden rectify this ?)

“Brett's N.Z.,” page 317, July 3rd, 1824.—Mr. Williams wrote, “We shall this day cook our last potatoes, and have been out of pork for some length of time. Indeed, the provisions of all the settlements are short, and should not a vessel arrive in a little time, we shall be driven to eat fernroot.”

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In Bay of Islands,
New Zealand,
April 11th, 1820.


In July of last year the brig “General Gates,” Captain Briggs, master, being in the Harbour of Port Jackson, the agent of the Church Missionary Society, the Revd. Samuel Marsden, took her up to convey me and my colleagues to the Bay of Islands, in New Zealand, the place of our destination.

We sailed from Port Jackson July 29/19, and shortly after we had got to sea, several felons were discovered to be on board (I believe five) belonging to the colony of New South Wales.

On my arrival at the Bay of Islands, August 12th/19, there being no British ships in the harbour, nor any jail to confine these convicts in, I made no official demand on Captain Briggs to deliver them up, and the “General Gates” sailed from the Bay of Islands on or about the 15th of September, having these convicts on board. She has returned and is now lying in the harbour. I therefore feel it my duty, as Resident Magistrate, to communicate to you the above circumstances in order that necessary steps may be taken to secure and return them to the colony and Government of New South Wales, for whom

I am, etc.,


Resident Magistrate, Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
Capt. R. Skinner, H.M.S. “Dromedary,” Bay of Islands.

AN AGREEMENT between Thomas Hansen and the Rev. Saml. Marsden.

On behalf of the Church Missionary Society at 10/- per week and rations commencing August 21st, 1819, which sum will be paid to him on the Society's account as long as the Rev. Mr. Butler shall find his services necessary for the general benefit of the Settlement and he the said Thos. Hansen is willing to continue in the employ of the Church Missionary Society.

Paid Mr. Gordon on account of Mr. Hansen, Nov 9th, 1819.

1 piece of blue cloth, 18 yards at 18/- 16 4 0
1 piece Waistcoat, 5½ yards at 6/- 2 2 0
1 piece Waistcoat (marked F.H. 22) 2 2 0
1 piece Mixture, 21½ yards at 16/- 17 4 0
1 piece light print, 12½ yards at 2/6 1 11 3
1 piece brown print, 5 yards at 3/6 17 6
1 piece dark blue, 15 yards at 3/6 2 12 6
1 piece light blue, 14 yards at 2/6 1 15 0
£42 6 3

Paid Mr. Marsden, Sept. 7th, 1820.

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The following articles appear in the accounts of 1819 and 1820, as having been sold from the store to various settlers:—

To WM. BEAN.—Calico, dungaree, cloth, hat, shoes, thread, powder, butter, rum, brandy, print, bed ticking.

To GEO. GORDON.—Calico, print, dungaree.

To James Kemp and JOHN King.—Miscellaneous articles, as also to Francis Hall, Wiliam Hall and Mr. Kendall.



To Mrs. HANSEN and Mr. HANSEN.—Each, shoes, as also to HANNAH HANSEN and THOMAS HANSEN.

To James Boyle.—Numerous articles, including hatchets, chisels, axes, knives, etc.

To RICHARD RUSSELL.—Much the same.

To GEORGE.—Frock, trousers, shirt, black handkerchief, axes, hoes, hatchets and reaphook.

(George being the brickmaker, a native, who learned his trade at Port Jackson.)

To GEORGE HARRISON.—Blankets, jacket, and minor items.

These accounts are, as a rule, countersigned by the recipient, on date of balance, and balanced by bills drawn on or in favour of Mr. Marsden, Sydney.

A “gift” book also appears to have been kept, in which items given to natives on account of the Society were duly entered. This procedure was carried out until Mr. F. Hall took over the duties from Mr. Butler.

At a meeting of the Committee, August 14/20, it was resolved, in reference to Mr. Kendall's return from New Zealand, and the visit of Shunghee and Wykato:


That Mr. Kendall, in coming to this country under the circumstances stated by him, has acted in opposition to the known Regulations of the Society; that page 90 the reasons assigned by him for coming do not justify his breach of these Regulations, and that the Committee do, therefore, though with much regret, from the value which they feel for his former service and character, highly disapprove his conduct in returning.


That while the Committee will receive, and treat with all kindness, the chiefs who Mr. Kendall has brought with him, they entirely disapprove of their coming to this country, as every advantage of gradually increasing intercourse with Europeans may be had by visiting, under Mr. Marsden's directions, the colony of New South Wales, without the expense, inconvenience and dangers attending a voyage to England, and that the Committee, do, therefore, strictly enjoin on all persons connected with the Society in New Zealand, that the wish of any native in future to visit this country be referred wholly to Mr. Marsden, and the other friends of the Society in New South Wales.

Extracted from the minutes, Nov. 27/20.






That under the peculiar circumstances of the New Zealand Mission, and in consideration of Mr. Kendall's large family, he be authorised, in case Mr. Marsden sees no objection to the measure, to draw on the Secretary for his salary in favour of some person in this country, and that if any other of the Society's settlers in New Zealand shall desire to draw his salary in this manner, he be, with Mr. Marsden's concurrence, allowed to do so.


That indents, containing particulars of the articles wanted, and of the objects to which they are to be appropriated, be prepared annually, or more frequently if circumstances require, at a meeting of the missionaries, schoolmasters and settlers of both stations, and that the said indents be sent to Mr. Marsden for his approval, and to be forwarded by him to the Secretary.

Extract from the minutes, Dec. 16th/20.