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Earliest New Zealand

Chapter II

page 22

Chapter II.

THE following description of mission stations is extracted from “Yate's New Zealand,” 1835.

RANGIHOUA.—A native village on the north-west side of the Bay of Islands, was the first place occupied; later on, the houses having become so dilapidated, it was recommended to remove the station to Te Puna, on the other side of the hill, in a small valley, formerly cultivated by the natives of that place; the landing is, however, unpleasant, and at times dangerous, on account of the steepness of the beach, and from the heavy surf that rolls in from the great Southern Ocean.

2. KERI KERI.— Next in succession to Tepuna, or Rangihoua, was first established on the arrival of Messrs Butler and Kemp from England. On the hill immediately adjoining the settlement, was a large native village occupied by the tribe Ngai-Te-Waki, with the warrior Hongi as their head. It is a beautiful and picturesque spot, situated at the confluence of the tide and of the fresh water stream from which it takes its name. The vale is an amphitheatre of small extent, but well situated from the prevailing westerly winds by the hills at the back, and from the east and north-east gales, by those in front. The waters of the Keri Keri fall over a rock about nine feet high at ebb tide, into a beautiful and extensive basin, and then pass on with the tide to the Bay of Islands. The river is navigable to within four miles of the settlement, for vessels of a hundred and fifty tons.

3. The settlement at PAIHIA was commenced in 1823. It is situated on the south side of the Bay of Islands on a pleasant piece of ground, a quarter of a mile in front, and containing fifteen acres of level land available for cultivation. At this place, the Rev. Henry Williams and Mr. Fairburn commenced their labours.

4. HOKIANGA (Shukehanga).—Cruise, 1820, says, “Its bleak and dreary appearance from the sea, holds out no inducement to the navigator to approach it; but the passage over the bar is perfectly safe for vessels drawing fifteen feet of water page 23 (or probably more), and the harbour is well sheltered and commodious. The river, which is wide and navigable for ten miles from its mouth, forms many deep coves; and branches into several smaller streams, the banks of which are beautifully wooded.”

5. WANGAROA.—(Cruise) Is a singularly and beautifully romantic place; the entrance is not more than half a mile wide, and it is impossible to discover it from any distance at sea, but it is deep quite close to land on either side, which is bold and steep, and when entered, is one of the finest harbours in the world, nor is there a wind from which it is not sheltered.

The interior is lined with lofty hills, richly wooded, and close to the western shore is a series of huge rocks, rising in most fantastic shapes, to an immense height, from the tops of which tumble many cascades that lose themselves among the innumerable trees and shrubs with which the bases of those stupendous piles are profusely covered.


WYCADDY (Waikare).—The structure of this village is one of the most beautiful I have seen in New Zealand, and deserves to be particularly described. It is built upon the banks of the Waitangi, which are about fifteen or twenty feet above the level of the water, and most of the huts are constructed in such a manner as to have a very pleasing effect. I observed some which verged upon the extreme edge of the bank, having on the opposite side an agreeable prospect of a large enclosed field, with the appearance of an English meadow; beyond this field the level ground disappears, and the hills rising gradually one above the other, display, with interesting contrast, the wild luxuriance of the fern, and the picturesque grandeur of the towering pine.

The river is about forty or fifty feet wide, and the water as clear as crystal, reflecting the polished pebbles over which it flows, and exhibiting in this manner a profuse variety of beautiful shrubs; while from its basin, numberless flocks of curious birds are continually emerging and still hovering on either side, blend with the scene and intwine with their gay plumage the sombre shades of the distant forest. The huts in page 24 this village are built of the same materials as in the other parts of the Islands, and are, generally, of the same dimensions, excepting the hut which was the residence of the chief, and this was the largest I had met with, measuring twenty-seven feet by eighteen, and nine feet in height; the door-way was not more spacious than any other hut, but it was decorated with some curious devices of nude sculpture.

Should an extensive settlement be ever formed in New Zealand, this neighbourhood—Lake Morberree (Omapere)— would form an admirable situation, the extensive forests which line one side of it would afford an immense quantity of timber. The soil is luxuriant in the extreme, and would yield a supply of food, under mild and equitable government, and spirit of sustained industry.

  • KAEO.—Inland in Whangaroa Harbour, and south of Whangaroa.

  • KARIKARI—Knuckle Point, north of Oruru Bay.

  • HOKIANGA.—West Coast harbour, due west of the Bay of Islands.

  • KAIPARA.—West Coast, about 100 miles south of Hokianga.

  • KAITAIA.—Inland from Rangiuna Bay and west of Oruru Bay.

  • KAWAKAWA.—Bay of Islands River, joins Waikare, 30 miles south of Keri Keri.

  • KAIHIKI.—Near Lake Mawe, Hokianga Harbour.

  • KIRIKOKAI.—At head of Keri Keri Inlet, 15 miles north of Russell, and known as Kororipo.

  • KOHURUANAKI.—Part of Kororareka.

  • KORORAREKA.—Close to Russell, south-east, across the bay from Keri Keri.

  • KERI KERI.—Six miles up that river, and north-west in Bay of Islands.

  • MATAURI.—On the East Coast mainland, inside the Cavelle Islands.

  • MATAWI.—On the Hokianga River.

  • MANGAKAHIA.—On Wairoa River, 20 miles south of Keri Keri.

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  • MANGAMUKA—A branch of the Hokianga River, on the northern side.

  • MANAWAROA.—A bay on an island in the Bay of Islands.

  • MANAWHENUA.—Inland wheat growing country, behind Keri Keri.

  • MANGANUI.—Southernmost of Oruru Bay.

  • MONGONUI.—Called the Tee, at the head of Bay of Islands Harbour.

  • MOTUROA.—An island, towards the Bay of Islands Heads.

  • OIHI.—First Missionary landing spot, Rangihoua.

  • OKURA.—N.W. of Keri Keri. 20 miles west of Rangihoua.

  • ORIRA.—A small river, in the centre of Hokianga Estuary.

  • ORAKA.—Okokako, on upper reaches of the Waitangi River.

  • ORURU.—A large bay (Lauriston), about 40 miles north of Bay of Islands.

  • OKAUKAU.—On shore at Manawaroa Bay.

  • PAKANAE.—A village up the Hokianga River.

  • PUKENUI.—A hill west of Waimate and east of Pakanae.

  • PUKEHOURA.—A large kainga on north shore of Bay of Islands, adjoining where Mr. Marsden preached his first sermon.

  • PAIHIA.—South-west, Bay of Islands Harbour, west of Russell

  • PAIATAI.—About 7 miles down Waimate River, towards Bay of Islands.

  • PAIROA.—Deep bay and spacious harbour, south side Bay of Islands.

  • RANGITARA.—Three miles from Keri Keri, now Rangitane.

  • RANGIAHOUA.—Westernmost of Hokianga Harbour.

  • RANGIHOUA.—On the headland, northern part Bay of Islands.

  • TAKOU.—A large settlement on the coast above Rangihou.

  • TAIAMAI.—Above Waimate, and between coasts.

    page 26
  • TPUATAI.—Three miles from the TI (Mongonui) (Te Waiti?). Now known as Tapuetahi.

  • TOWAIMATE.—Now known as North Waimate.

  • TEPAPA.—Inland of Hokianga River, towards Bay of Islands.

  • TE PUNA.—A roadstead north of Bay of Islands.

  • UTAKINO.—A branch of the Waihou.

  • UTAKURA.—Village on the Hokianga, on the road Horeke to Kawakawa.

  • WAIMA (TE).—Tributary of the Hokianga, about fifteen miles in length.

  • WAIPOU.—Settlement known as Waihou at Hokianga.

  • WAIKARE.—River, flows into southern side of Bay of Islands.

  • WAITANGI.—River between Keri Keri and Waimate. Settlement, on coast near Paihia, treaty signed here.

  • WAIMATE.—Between coasts halfway, the river enters the Waitangi.

  • WAIOMIO.—Village about four miles from Kawakawa.

  • WAIHOU.—River, adjacent northern side Hokianga River mouth.

  • WAIRIRI.—A Hokianga southern tributary.

  • WESLEYDALE.—Seven miles up the Whangaroa River.

  • WHANGAROA.—Harbour, about 20 miles above Bay of Islands.

  • WIRIA.—Inland, 4 miles south of Hokianga River mouth.

  • WAIRIRI.—Near Rangihou.

  • WHAKARAKI.—River, between Oruru Bay and Hokianga.

  • WHANGATAWATEA.—Ngatewaki Settlement, close to Keri Keri.

  • WHIRINAKI.—A river and locality about 14 miles up the Hokianga River.

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The period 1819 to 1824 is but sparsely referred to by writers, and were it not for extracts from journals published in the C.M.S annual records, we should be almost oblivious as to the stressful times experienced by the missionaries. Mr. Marsden was in New Zealand for short periods, chiefly travelling, and his own records are available, and have been extensively used; but from those who resided, suffered the shortage of supplies, and shouldered the requisite work from day to day, records have been singularly silent. Upon the coming of the Wesleyans, the journals have been fairly open to publicity, and much drawn upon by the Revd. Alex. Strachan, and others, but those kept my Messrs Kendall, Hall, King, Shepherd, Kemp and Butler have not been given the introspection, which, in justice to these often much maligned men, (Mr. Marsden himself is continually sweeping in his assertions) would show them in that favourable light which is their due.

The first English-speaking clergyman to visit New Zealand according to Mr. McNab, (Tasman to Marsden, page 154) was the Rev. James Bain; who accompanied Governor King to New Zealand in 1793, but did not land there. (Idem page 156). The Rev. James Elder called at the Bay of Islands in 1808. In March, 1814, Messrs. Wm. Hall and Kendall, laymen, went to New Zealand, and Mr. Hall read the first prayers in New Zealand; they returned to Sydney in August, and in November, with their wives, children, Mr. and Mrs. King, and three ticket-of-leave men, left finally to take up their abode as laymen-missionaries in New Zealand. Rev. Mr. Marsden and his friend Mr. Nicholas, accompanied them. Unattached to the Mission were Mrs. Hansen and her son Thomas—connections of the Kings by marriage—Capt. Hansen was in charge of the “Active.” While in New Zealand, Marsden baptised the first boy, born February 21st, 1815, son of Mr. and Mrs. King. (The first girl was born May 28th, being Mr. and Mrs. Hall's.) Mr. Marsden and his friend returned to Sydney in February, with a cargo of 4848 feet timber, 1344 lbs. flax, and fish and pork of a net value of £451 4s Od. He despatched the “Active” almost immediately, and she again returned with a full cargo in July, upon the departure of which, Mr. Wm. Hall commenced to build his house. The next voyage occupied too long, Capt. Thompson, therefore, replaced Capt. Hansen; and took with him to New Zealand, Mr. and Mrs. Carlisle and child; and Mr. and Mrs. Gordon and child. The “Active” returned with 6000 feet of timber, and a quantity of flax. In May, 1819, Mr. Leigh of the Methodist Mission, made a temporary visit to New Zealand in the “Active;” then, or in August, Messrs Puckey, Rus- page 28 sell and Boyle had also arrived in connection with the various phases of settlement work. They were followed on August 2nd, by Mr. F. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. Kemp, Mr. Samuel Butler and Rev. John and Mrs. John Butler, together with the Rev. Samuel Marsden, who accompanied them. The “Active” had arrived in Sydney before they sailed in the “General Gates;” but Mr. Marsden would not wait; his reasons advanced in his letter 28/7/1819, to Rev. J. Pratt,seem curious. Surely, it would not have cost the £300 to lodge these few settlers until the “Active” was ready? (They had arrived in the “Baring” at the end of June) and his statement also, that the “Active” could not have afforded room for them, is confronted by the knowledge of the number taken to New Zealand by the “Active” in 1814.

The “Active” was probably well filled with cargo, and it was not advantageous to permit the new Superintendent of the New Zealand Mission to inspect its contents, and to note the lengths to which the Mission was conducting trading operations, so concisely put in Mr. Marsden's first letter to Ruatara, 1814. “You will send the ‘Active’ full of moca, potatoes, lines, mats, fish, nets and everything.” With the arrival of Mr. John Butler we take up the threads of his diurnal progress, and can follow, and bear with these pioneers of settlement, the trials inseparable from close proximity to the dawn of civilization in New Zealand.


By virtue of the powers vested in me, I do hereby nominate constitute and assign you the Rev. John Butler a Justice to keep His Majesty's peace and for the preservation thereof and the quiet rule of Government of His Majesty's people within and throughout the British Settlements at New Zealand a dependency of the said Territory.

Given at Government House
Sydney, New South Wales,
this 24th day of July in the
year of our Lord 1819


Copy of the Rev. John Butler's Didimus Postatem.

The original sent to Sydney this day, Nov. 16th, 1840.

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“Where every prospect pleases, and only man is vile.” There is a river in the range I love to think about; Perhaps the searching feet of change Have never found it out. Ah! oftentimes I used to look Upon its banks, and long To steal the beauty of that brook And put it in a song. Kendall, the Australian poet, was the grandson of Reverend Thos. Kendall, of New Zealand. He died at an early age.

“Where every prospect pleases, and only man is vile.”
There is a river in the range
I love to think about;
Perhaps the searching feet of change
Have never found it out.
Ah! oftentimes I used to look
Upon its banks, and long
To steal the beauty of that brook
And put it in a song.
Kendall, the Australian poet, was the grandson of Reverend Thos. Kendall, of New Zealand. He died at an early age.

page 30


On November 12th, 1814, Thos. Kendall was appointed as Justice of the Peace throughout New Zealand and its contiguous islands. Again, on July 19th, 1819, Macquarie commissioned a clergyman, named Butler, to keep the King's peace and help preserve “the quiet rule and government of His Majesty's people within and without the British Settlements at New Zealand,” which were described in the commission as “a dependency of the said territory of New South Wales.” This appointment, as well as Kendall's, was no idle one, for Butler apprehended, and sent to Sydney, persons accused of disturbing the peace, and as late as 1840, the New Zealand Company, relying on the virtue of this commission, despatched Butler to Port Nicholson to act as Magistrate in its first settlement.

July 14th, 1819.

Marsden to J. Pratt,C.M.S.

As the Rev. Mr. Butler will write to you, it will not be necessary for me to trouble you with any long statements.… Having obtained the Governor's permission, and knowing the “Active” (108 tons) was too small to carry the passengers and their stores, and being absent on her voyage (arrived from N.Z. on July 30th, with 5246 feet timber and 3 tons pork) I determined to take the first vessel I could, in the harbour, in order that the Revd. Butler, etc., might as soon as possible, arrive at their place of destination and begin their work. I therefore hired an American brig (“General Gates”) 200 tons, who was in the cove, and the time fixed for our sailing is 25th inst.

The settlers for New Zealand would get no advantage in this colony, and heavy expense would have been incurred daily while they remained here, where everything is at such a price, and the sooner they begin their work, the longer time they will have to do it in. It is my intention to take over a few mechanics to enable them to put up the necessary buildings, church, houses, etc., and to form a regular government amongst them before I return……

I hope now to introduce Mr. Butler to all the leading chiefs, to conciliate their esteem, and to fix the settlement on a firm foundation. I cannot doubt the suitableness of the instruments you have sent out; their wisdom on the voyage and prudence since their arrival, convince me that they are fully bent upon their work, and if they can only begin at the right end, we may hope for a successful issue of their labours.

page 31

Then again, on July 28th, 1819, from Sydney, Marsden to Pratt, London:

I am on the eve of embarking for New Zealand, and expect to be on board as soon as I have closed this note to you. The Revd. J. Butler and his associates are well and in good spirits. The “Active” is now off the Heads, and has sent her boat in, as she cannot get in herself, from the contrary winds. I am happy to say all the settlers are well at the Bay of Islands, and going on well. Twelve New Zealanders are come over now in the “Active.” 16 will be left at Parramatta, two are learning to make bricks, one nail making, another in a blacksmith's shop, and the others will be employed in my absence, till the “Active” returns to New Zealand…. . In order to lessen the expenses, and to get them upon the field of action as soon as possible, I took up the ‘General Gates,’ in which I took four head of horned cattle, and some sheep, the mechanics and their families. Messrs. Butler, Hall, and Kemp are in great spirits. The young men who arrived in the boat delighted them much. I hope all will be well.

(Copy of a Letter—Thos. Kendall to Samuel Marsden.)

Rev. and Dear Sir,

I am greatly surprised that you should treat me as an inventor of tales respecting your daughter, when I only was desirous to inform you of tales which were in circulation among the natives, and which ought certainly to be put a stop to. It was but justice to you and your children that you should be so far apprized as to apply a proper remedy. Those reports are far from being new. Tuatera (Ruaterra) was the first man who spoke disrespectfully; all his friends, and even (Shungi) Hongi, were in the secret; Tooi and Tetadda were worse than all the rest. How could I discharge my duties to God, if I had not consulted with those who were best acquainted with you, on the most proper means to be adopted for telling you of these most vile assertions? I am satisfied I have had no ill wishes toward you in anything I may have said, and many others (if they would but be candid enough to acquaint) know just as much as me. We know nor assert anything improper of your children as facts, but were grieved to hear them evil spoken of.

I am,
Rev. and Dear Sir,
Your faithful servant,



(“HOCKEN” COLLECTION.) Marsden to Butler.

Jany. 12th, 1820.

My very Dear Sir,

I have the pleasure to inform you that we had a fine passage in the “Active” to Port Jackson, where I found all my family well, and daughters shortly after at the Lord's Table. I had suffered much anguish page 32 of mind when at New Zealand at the very horrid idea which some entertained of my children, my spirits were more wounded than at anything I had met with in life. They devote their time to instruct the ignorant, and to guide the poor wanderer; no wicked insinuations will ever cause me to relinquish my labours for the good of the New Zealanders, and I bless God that He has honoured me with such a feeling, which I hope will attend me to the grave. Your son Samuel is very steady, and behaves well. I think his visit to Parramatta will be a real service to him. He has no companions to lead him wrong, and he sees none but the best characters this colony affords. I think you will find him more inclined to do all you wish when he returns to you. He is just treated as if he was my own son, and is under no painful restraint, and free from care, and will do well I have no doubt.

With respect to myself, I can say but little. As yet, I have not seen the Governor since my return, nor am likely to see him. How matters will end I cannot tell as yet, but I think I shall earry my point—our difference is now before the House of Commons. The whole state of the Colony will now come before the House. I think the Governor will not remain long in the Colony. Whether I shall return to England or not is yet uncertain, but I rather think I shall remain where I am. Several members of the House of Commons have warmly espoused my cause, and have pledged themselves to see justice done to my character. The Governor must be very angry. What will be done here, I cannot tell as yet; no doubt every attempt will be tried to do me all the injury possible. I have determined to maintain the contest to the end. The foundation on which I stand is truth, and I only have to maintain my ground and not be driven from my post by any attacks, and then I must conquer. I may have hard to fight. We are expecting arrivals from England every day, when I shall know more. I think it probable two King's ships will come out, and after they have landed their prisoners, will visit New Zealand. In short, if they do, I shall visit you again if I can obtain permission, and see how you are going on. I hope you will go on well. Always bear in mind the importance of the work in which you are engaged, and what an honour you enjoy. You cannot magnify your office too much, nor think too highly of your situation as an ambassador to the heathen. Much will depend upon your wisdom, patience and perserverance, and I hope you will possess all these virtues. You know well what a state the Mission was in when we first arrived; when I saw what those sent out to instruct the heathen were doing, my very heart was pained within me. I trembled for the consequences. Their sin appeared exceeding great to me, and I did think then, and have thought since, that if God intended to be merciful unto them, he would bring them into sore affliction. When Mrs. Gordon's father called upon me (who is a pious man), after my arrival at Parramatta, before he saw his daughter, I told him Mr. Gordon had neglected his duty, and I feared on that account he would have some affliction. The next news I had, Mrs. Gordon died in Sydney; none of them saw their conduct in the same light I did, they appeared to be stupid and insensible. Mr. King, I think, will sooner or later be convinced of his error. I hope he will continue now to do what is right, and not fall again into the snare of the devil. I do expect the Society will take very serious notice of his conduct.

(Oh, reader! pause. Do not gasp at the sentiments of the gentle Marsden; in the days of old, it was customary to enjoy the writhings of some poor heretic at the stake, while fire consumed the tortured body. A good description of a page 33 refined flogging may be obtained from that inflicted upon a lad named Patrick Galvin, under Marsden's orders and supervision, detailed by Joseph Holt in his Memoirs. What sympathy had Marsden for poor Gordon? These men, or most of them, were selected by Marsden himself, and placed in an uncultivated locality in 1814, by him; yet not until August, 1819, did he visit them, and then but to chide and deride. Their sin, this, that they had not procured bumper cargoes for Mr. Marsden's brig, the “Active.”
Butler! it will be your turn soon to fall into the snares of the devil, but his name is not Satan.)

The letter continues:—

It will give me the greatest gratification to find you all go on well, and that the work prospers in your hands. The field is open for your labour, and you must succeed in the end. I have had repeated conversations with the Commissioner respecting New Zealand, and hope Government will attend to it when present powers that be are removed. I shall embrace every opportunity to promote the interests of the country you live in, so that you may depend at all times upon my support while I remain in this Colony. I hope my difficulties will be less than what they have been in time. I have sent over Mr. James Shepherd to live with Te Morengha and his party. You will give him all the aid you can in building him a little house, as he is well acquainted with gardening, grafting trees, etc., etc., so that he will be very useful in all these respects. I will send him some assistance as soon as I can. Should the King's ships come, I will try to send the horses, etc.

You will be so good as give our kind respects to Mrs. Butler; she will be gratified to know that her son is well, and goes on well. I think he will now be weaned, and when he comes back again, she will not regret that he came with me, as he will be more likely to be a comfort to her, than if he had never been from her. I shall send the wheat, etc., etc., in the “Active.”

I remain,

Dear Sir,
Yours affectionately,


To Rev. John Butler.
Rev. S. Marsden to Rev. J. Pratt.
Jany. 14th, 1820.

Rev. and Dear Sir,

I first drop a line to say that I returned from New Zealand after four months. I left all the settlers well, and the Rev. John Butler——.

Nothing can be more encouraging than the prospect at New Zealand. I visited many districts. All the natives are very anxious for instruction. Mr. Butler did not expect to find them so ready for all improvements. He was very much pleased with his situation, as far as respected the inhabitants——.

To Pratt.
page 34
Feby. 7th, 1820.

Rev. and Dear Sir,

I must now write to you about the “Active.”

As the Revd. John Butler has come out Superintendent of the Missionary settlement, I wish now to be relieved of all responsibility relative to the “Active,” from the 1st August, 1819, the period she returned from New Zealand. I have to request the Society to take the vessel into their own hands, from the above period, with all the profits and losses. I have had her valued; the report of her survey and valuation I have forwarded to you, for the information of the Society. I have judged it best, with the advice of Mr. Robert Campbell——to fit the “Active” out as a whaler. She can attend to all the concerns of the Settlement, and still procure oil for the benefit of the Society, towards lessening her expenses……There is nothing at New Zealand that will pay her expenses. The duty upon the timber, and the Port expenses of various kinds are so ruinous, that she ought not to come into this harbour more than once a year, if it can be avoided……

Mr. Butler is in New Zealand, and can forward the interest of the vessel; hitherto this has not been the case. Tho' the settlers were deriving every comfort from the vessl, yet they were totally unconcerned in general about her interest…. . I had got all the supplies on board of her for the settlement, and also a number of natives who were returning home, when the “Dromedary” arrived; but, as the “Dromedary” is going to the Bay of Islands, I have taken out all supplies, and the natives also, and put them on board the King's ship.

I have some very fine youths with me now who are acquiring the English language very fast. I brought Mr. Butler's son back again with me to take charge of these boys, and to devote his time to their instruction. By the sons of chiefs living together in civil life and all paid equal attention to, they will form attachments that will destroy that jealousy which has kept their tribes in continual war——. If the “Active” succeeds, the expenses will gradually cease. Should the Society not approve of purchasing the “Active,” I will thank you to have her insured for the amount she is valued at—£1500. If they should take her, they will take her for the valuation put upon her. I shall be obliged to draw upon you for about half her purchase money, and shall leave the “Active” as security for that sum, should she be returned to me again, or if she gets a cargo of oil, I will send the amount to repay the £750 which I now draw upon you for. Her outfit as a whaler will also have to be charged to my account, but not her expenses on her last voyage to New Zealand, from 1st August to 1st December,—as she was during that four months wholly in the service of the Mission.——. A very nice young man, whom I have long wished to employ in the Mission, truly pious, and his heart engaged in the work, is going over with me. His name is James Shepherd, a native of the colony. His father is a very pious man. I sent him once to visit New Zealand to see the natives, and he has been very desirous of devoting himself to the work of the Mission. He understands gardening, grafting of trees, etc. A man of this kind will be of infinite service.

I have, etc.


Rev. J. Pratt.
page 35

The indications are towards the acquisition of the “Active” being chiefly for trading purposes, rather than missionary work, and although the New Zealand settlers had been offered five per cent. of the profits by Marsden, their settlements were upon sites quite unsuitable for this purpose, nor had they the time at their disposal to procure the flax, pork and timber. The natives were interested in war, and the means of war, and currency per medium of fish-hooks, axes, etc., soon became but as “paper money,” one native remarking, upon being paid with axes, “What shall I do with all these?”

The suggestion, “Mr. Butler is now in New Zealand, and can forward the interest of the vessel,” is surely sufficient proof of the commercial aspect in Mr. Marsden's mind, but poor Butler had his hands full, in dealing with the necessities of the Mission. And with his face set against traffic in powder, balls and muskets, was absolutely restricted in purchasing power. Of this Mr. Marsden must have been well aware during that period 1814 to 1819, in which he owned the “Active,” and within that period, the “Haweis.” The Society's instructions given Butler are clear, see page 43, Life and Work of Marsden: viz.—

In December, 1815 (1819?) when the Rev. John Butler, their first clerical Missionary, entered on his labours in New Zealand, he and his companions were exhorted thus, “The Committee would observe that they wish, in all the missions of the Society, that the missionaries should give their time as much as possible, and wholly, if practicable, first to the acquisition of the native language, and then to the constant and faithful preaching to the natives …… Do not mistake civilization for conversion. Do not imagine when heathens are raised in intellect, in the knowledge of the arts, and outward decencies about their fellow countrymen, that they are Christians, and therefore rest content as if your proper work were accomplished.”

It is interesting to see that he paid £1400 for the “Active,” and now, after five years, has her insured for £1500, and asks the Society to take it over at that price.

Marsden to Pratt (Historical Records).
Feb. 7th, 1820.

By the “Surrey” I informed you of my intention to visit New Zealand with the Revd. John Butler and his colleagues, which I did. I page 36 herewith forward you my journal for the information of the Society—.

Should you see a document published in the Sydney Gazette, relative to the human heads brought from New Zealand, you will not, I trust, give credit to such a statement. It appeared about six weeks ago. It came from the old quarter——.

Idem. Feby. 12th, 1820.

A letter, Marsden to Pratt, stating, inter alia, “It will require a positive order from the Committee that all the settlers' wives assist in instructing the natives in everything they can, and their sons and daughters as they come of age——. I directed Mr. Kendall's older son to be put into the carpenters' gang, and his daughter into the school. I had forgot to mention that I had purchased a large grant of land from Shungi, and have sent you the deed. It is in a fine situation, rich land and well watered, convenient for the harbour.


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