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Earliest New Zealand

Chapter XI

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Chapter XI.

MARCH 3rd, 1824.—Sent to Mr. Marsden, as under, for New Zealand:—

Nine reports, fourteen halves.
One box, Rev. H. Williams.
One parcel, ditto.
Two parcels, Mr. King.
One parcel, Mr. Wiliam Hall.
Two for Rangi Hoo.
Two for Kiddee Kiddee.

MARCH 12th:—

Revd. Rd. Hill, 170lbs potatoes.
Mr. Samuel Butler, 112lbs

N.S.W.—REMARKS BY John Butler. 1824.

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 5th.—Mr. Marsden sent for me this morning to converse about the natives, and giving me advice, etc., etc.

Took the New Zealanders wholly under my charge this day, to instruct them. Heard them read, pray, and exercised them by way of question and answer.

FRIDAY, 6th. — Writing and teaching the New Zealanders.

SATURDAY, 7th.—Teaching the natives in the morning; in the afternoon, went to look at a piece of land belonging to Revd. Mr. Marsden, for the purpose of erecting the native institution, and for the instruction of missionaries' children.

SUNDAY, 8th. — Attended Sunday School morning and evening. Divine Service in the evening with the natives.

MONDAY, 9th. — This morning Mr. Marsden sent for me to his house, and gave me instructions concerning the clearing of the land for the Institution. Went with the natives over to the land, and set them to work.

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10th and 11th.—At work with the natives felling trees and brushwood, etc., etc.

12th.—At home, learning native language.

13th and 14th.—At work with the natives, clearing land, etc., etc.

15th. — Attended Sunday School morning and evening. Divine Service with the natives.

16th, 17th, 18th.—At the farm with the natives.

19th.—Went up to Mr. Marsden's in the morning about natives' clothing. Writing native language, and hearing lessons.

Remainder of the week writing and attending to the natives.

SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 22nd. — Attended the Sunday School, and Divine Service home.

FEBRUARY 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th.—At the farm belonging to the Institution. Went with Mr. Marsden to Hawkesbury Farm, to South Creek, etc., etc.

28th.—Teaching the natives, etc., etc.

SUNDAY, 29th.—Divine Service and Sunday School.

MONDAY, MARCH 1st, 2nd, 3rd.—Working the ground for potatoes at the Institution. Bought seven cwts., three quarters potatoes for eating, and planting, at 4/9 per cwt.

FRIDAY, 5th.—This morning, Tywanga came to bid us good-bye. He is returning to N.Zd. in company with Mr. Clark and Mrs. Clark, in a French ship named “La Coquille.” I made him a present of the following articles: one grindstone, one hammer, one handkerchief, one comb, a quantity of fish-hooks, soap, one bag, one waistcoat, one coat, one saw, and two hoes. He cried very much when he left our house.

I have been with the natives planting potatoes these two days past, and sowing beans, etc., etc., on the ground belonging to the Institution.

SATURDAY, 6th.—Employed at home.

SUNDAY, 7th. — Attended the Sunday School morning and afternoon.

8th.—Went down to Sydney on business, and returned in the evening.

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9th.—Went over to the Institution, and set out the fence between the factory wall and the ditch.

10th. — Attended to native instruction in the morning; afternoon, at the Institution, fencing.

MARCH 11th. — This morning, Mr. Jackson, the stonemason, came to my house to give me an account of lime, etc., etc. Mr. Jackson is the person employed by Mr. Marsden to do the stone work of the Institution for the New Zealanders. He informed me this morning, in the language of surprise, that Mr. Marsden had given the carpenter's work to a man named Charles——, one of the most drunken, and in other respects the most detestable character in this colony. Mr. Jackson, who is a very sober, steady man, expressed his feeling in the following manner:

“Mr. Butler,” said he, “I am surprised that Mr. Marsden should engage such a man as that to do the carpenter's work of this building. I am at a loss to assign a reason for his thus acting. I have recommended good men, and several respectable, honest tradesmen have applied for the job, and how he can prefer this Sabbath-breaker, this profane wretch, is really wonderful. If I was called before a magistrate this day, I would, yes, I would, say that this man is one of the most drunken blackguards in this country, and is now at a public house below, dead drunk.”

I told Mr. Jackson that Mr. Marsden did not consult me in any of his plans or operations, and therefore I could do nothing.

He answered, “If I had anything to do in it, or were I Mr. Marsden, I should have looked out for, and given the erection of such a building to a steady, respectable man, and not to one who will, as soon as he gets the money, not only get drunk, swear and fight, but entice all, or as many of the work-people as he can, to be partakers with him in his evil deeds! ! !”

This being the Fair Day at Parramatta, there are many people drunk, up and down the streets.

Mr. Marsden was at Walker's, the publican, almost all the forepart of the day, and caused the New Zealanders to dance for the diversion of the gentlemen. The Society will, of course, consider this a very worthy deed for so great a character to perform.

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In the afternoon I went to Balkham Hill, six miles from Parramatta, to visit a gentleman who has been ill some time; spent about an hour with him in the best manner. Took my little daughter with me, and she was much delighted with ride, etc., etc.

SUNDAY, MARCH 14th.—Attended Divine Service morning and evening, etc., etc.

15th.—Went to Government House to see His Excellency Sir Brisbane, Sir Thos., and was most kindly received by His Excellency.

16th.—Went to Sydney to see Major Goulbourn to ask for a grant of land for my son, Saml. Butler; was kindly received, and ordered to write to him on the subject.

17th.—Went to the Native Institution with the natives in the morning; afternoon, writing.

THURSDAY, 18th.—Went to Sydney with Mr. Lawry to see Mr. Thompson about my cabin, and to make a memorial to Frederick Goulbourn, Esq., for a grant for Samuel Butler; returned in the evening.

FRIDAY, MARCH 19th.—Instructed the natives in their lessons, and then went with them to the Institution to burn off the timber, etc., etc.

SATURDAY, 20th.—Instructing the natives in the morning; writing in the afternoon.

I am truly sorry to hear from Mr. Jackson that Mr. Marsden (according to his statement) employed the worst of characters to do the carpenter's work of the Institution.

This morning the bell announced the death of Mr. McDougle, the gentleman I went to visit last week. He was very serious about eternal things, and I hope he has entered that rest which remaineth for the people of God.

APRIL 3rd, SATURDAY. — During the last fortnight, Mrs. Butler has been very ill, insomuch that her life was despaired of several days; but blessed be God she is now pronounced out of danger, and I hope will soon be perfectly restored.

The native boys under my care go on exceeding well, and attend to instruction as much as can be expected.

MONDAY, APRIL 5th.—This morning Mr. Jackson, the stone mason, came to our house complaining of Mr. Marsden's hard usage to him. He had been to Mr. Marsden to get some page 368 money to assist him in carrying forward the building of the New Zealand Institution, he being a poor man, and not being able to complete such an undertaking without receiving part of the money as work was carried on. Mr. Marsden, he said, brought him a paper to sign whereon it was required that he, Mr. Jackson, should take half of the sum for the erection of the Institution in meat, to be forwarded by Mr. Marsden out of his own herd. To this Mr. Jackson would not agree, at which Mr. Marsden was very angry, and told Jackson that he should leave off, and that he would settle with him for what he had done, and get someone else to finish it.

Jackson complained of this (and I think very justly) as a hardship, because he had laid out all the ready money he had, and put himself to great expense in the purchase of a pair of bullocks, harness and cart, together with other things especially for this purpose; “But,” said he, “to attempt to reason with Mr. Marsden is like attempting to plead with a mad bull.

This is the language of all his domestics (at least all that I have conversed with).

Mr. Marsden's clerk, Mr. Kenyon, who it appears has served Mr. Marsden faithfully for these nine years last past, came to my place to tell me his grief concerning his family affairs, and Mr. Marsden's general carriage toward him. He also complained of Mr. Marsden's growing more and more oppressive every year. “I am afraid, totally afraid,” said he, “to speak to him upon any subject. And when I am compelled to go to him in a way of duty, or to give him any information respecting matters concerning the church, he is ready to snap my nose off. Not long ago,” said he, “my master married a couple, and the bridegroom gave me a five pound note for a present, and the sexton a present of four dollars; and the last Sacrament Sunday, Mr. Marsden quarrelled with me in the vestry just before Divine Service, about it, and used very hard language, and demanded three pounds out of the five given to me at the wedding, alluded to above, as his fees; but I refused,” said Kenyon, “to give it up till I had written to the parties to know if his statements were correct. At this Mr. Marsden got into a great passion, and told me to write at my peril about any such thing. When church was over, I consulted my friend about it, and he advised me by all means to write, and know the truth as soon as possible. This I accordingly did, and found to my satisfaction that what I received was intended for me. Mr. Mars- page 369 den has since found out that I wrote, and he has given me a good scolding for so doing. But,” said he, “Mr. Butler, what could I do? Was there not a cause?”

APRIL 7th.—Went down to Sydney on business, and returned in the evening.

APRIL 8th.—At home attending to my affairs.

FRIDAY, 9th.—At home preparing for my voyage.

10th.—Employed in writing a sermon.

SUNDAY, 11th.—This morning Revd. Mr. Marsden sent an invitation for me and Mrs. B. and child to dine with the family. After Divine Service we went to Mr. Marsden's, partook of a family dinner, and returned to church. After service, we went back to Mr. Marsden's to tea, and stopped to family worship in the evening.

MONDAY, 12th.—This morning Mr. Marsden sent for me to know if I was going home. I informed him I was.

Afternoon, I went to the Institution to see how the carpenters got on with their work.

13th and 14th.—Employed in instructing the natives, etc., etc.

15th.—This morning I went to Government House and took Samuel with me. His Excellency received us very kindly, and gave Samuel the occupation of three hundred acres of land, and further promised him his countenance and support. I thanked His Excellency very kindly, and we returned.

GOOD FRIDAY, 16th. — Attended Divine Service at church in the morning; Wesleyan Chapel in the evening.

17th.—Went to Sydney on business, and returned in the evening.

EASTER DAY, 18th.—Attended Divine Service and the Holy Sacrament.

19th.—Instructing the natives, etc., etc. I was quite surprised to find a box of medicines and several letters from our friends in England, sent down from Mr. Marsden's. These letters must have been in his possession more than two years. Is not this another proof of Mr. Marsden's negligence?

20th, 21st.—At home instructing the natives, and other business.

2nd.—Spent the fore part of the day at home. Went to dine with Revd. Mr. Lawry.

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23rd.—Went to Sydney on business, and returned on Saturday morning.

SUNDAY, 25th.—Attended Divine Service morning and evening.

26th.—Writing New Zealand language.

27th.—Mr. and Mrs. Hayward, Taheitean missionaries, dined at our house.

28th.—Mr. and Mrs. Carvosso dined at our house.

29th.—Mr. Hayward came to spend an hour or two in missionary conversation, etc., etc. Mr. H. informed me that it is his intention to return to Tahiti by the first opportunity.

30th.—At home writing the native language.

SATURDAY, MAY 1st. — At home writing native language.

SUNDAY, 2nd.—Attended Divine Service morning and evening.

MONDAY, 3rd.—At home all the day. Went to Gevernment House in the morning; took with me Madu and Shou. His Excellency was much pleased with their behaviour, and promised to give them a suit of clothes each. His Excellency also informed me that he was about to issue a proclamation, to prevent the outrages committed by the whalers and other ships touching their shores.

TUESDAY, 4th.—Went to Sydney on business, and returned in the evening.

I saw at Sydney Capt. Anderson, of the “Harriett,” whaler, who touched at Bay of Islands in December last. He has four New Zealanders on board as seamen. He also gave me some desultory account of the settlement at the Bay.

WEDNESDAY, MAY 5th.—This morning I went over to the Institution to see how they were getting on with the building. Mr. Jackson, the architect, informed me that he had been very ill used by Mr. Marsden on Monday morning, and in this wise: Mr. Marsden last week killed a bullock, and Mr. Jackson took the half of it to oblige Mr. Marsden, who again sent for him on Monday morning, saying he was going to kill another this week, and wanted him to take the half as before.

Mr. Jackson said he was quite willing to take it, but wished to be informed the price of what he had had.

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Mr. Marsden ordered him to go to Jones's, the butcher, and inquire the price he charged, “And whatever Jones charges,” said he, “you must pay me.”

To this Jackson objected, saying that he was to have what meat he took from him at the store price, which was known to all men, being put in the paper weekly. Moreover, Jackson stated to Mr. Marsden that Mr. Lawson, a gentleman for whom he had done a great deal of work, never thought of charging him more than the store price, as stated in the paper.

“This, Sir,” said he, “is a just price, and I am not willing to pay any more.” Jackson further said to Mr. Marsden, “Sir, had I known how you would have served me, I would never had had anything to do with the building. I expected to be treated with kindness and justice by you, as a Divine, but I was never treated so ill by a man of the world as I have been by you; and I have reason to be sorry for having to do with you or your concerns. I am an honest man, and wish to bring my family up in honesty, and the fear of God; but you would hinder me from this by keeping back what is my due. I never was shuffled about in this sort of way by any other man, much more a clergyman.”

But Mr. Marsden would not hearken to anything, and told Jackson he would have no more of his meat.

“Now, when I consider these things,” said Jackson, “what am I, Mr. Butler, to think of his preaching?”

I would here observe that Mr. Marsden informed me that he wished Jackson to take half the value of work in meat at the store price. But in this case, the poor man would be a great loser, much more than if he was to give the retail price charged by the butcher; in this case he would lose one third of the value of the whole.

I must here remark that in consequence of Mr. Marsden's treatment of Jackson, and employing such a drunken character to do the wood work, everything about the building has been done in a shameful manner; the whole of it has been condemned by two artists, and a part of it is to be pulled down. The wood work is done very badly, and a great deal of bad timber put in. It is truly grievous to see how things are carried on. It is a pity, a great pity, that a fund of charity should be thus squandered to no purpose.

THURSDAY, 6th MAY.—At home instructing the natives and writing New Zealand language. In the evening I received page 372 a letter from Mr. Marsden, who laid things to my charge which I knew not.

THURSDAY EVENING.—My natives went up to Mr. Marsden to inform him of their determination to go to England with me. Mr. Marsden was very angry with them, and said they must not go on any account. The natives' reply was, “We love Mr. Butler and mother, and wish to go with them.” Mr. Marsden then asked them if they did not like Port Jackson. They replied, “No, this land is no good for the New Zealand men. New Zealand men all die. You bury our countrymen all the same as (kararehe) a beast; you no cry, nor pray, when you bury New Zealand man! Pakeha die, plenty karakia; New Zealand man die, no karakia!” That is, when white people die, there are many prayers said; but when a New Zealander dies, there is no prayer offered for him, but he is buried like a beast—without ceremony.

“Mr. Butler go back to New Zealand, very good; no Mr. Butler go back New Zealand, very bad. No New Zealand man stop at Port Jackson; go back, go back.… By and by Mr. Butler come back to New Zealand, (kapai), good; No Mr. Butler come back, (ka pouri te ngakau) the heart will be distressed for him.”

These and many other things the natives said, to express their esteem for us, and their aversions to Mr. Marsden's proceedings.

In the evening went to chapel.

FRIDAY, 7th.—This day I have been at home, writing native language, etc., and this morning I heard of the arrival of the “Brothers,” Capt. Moltey. I immediately set off for Sydney, and found Mr. Davis and family all well, also Mr. Charles Davis, by whom also I received several letters. The vessel has had a good passage.

SUNDAY, 9th.—At home all day, reading and writing.

MONDAY, 10th.—Went over to the Institution to see the building, and how the mechanics go on.

TUESDAY, 11th.—Packing up for England, and other business.

WEDNESDAY, 12th.—Left Parramatta to go on board the “Midas,” for England; got all our things on board safe. The ship is not likely to sail for a few days, but we are permitted to remain on board.

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13th, 14th.—Getting my things put in order, and making my cabin as comfortable as possible.

Copy of Mr. Marsden's letter—verbatim—sent to me on board the “Midas,” 17th May, the day we were to sail. (Note:—The covering gives the date as May 14th.)

May 14th, 1824

Rev. Sir,

Shortly after you left Parramatta on the 12th inst., I was informed that you sent for Daniel Jackson, the stonemason, to your house, who is doing the stone work at the Seminary for me, and questioned him relative to the mode in which I payed him for his labour, and requested him to go down with you to Sydney, and to state in the secretary's office a conversation you had had with him on the same subject some time before. Jackson refused to accompany you well knowing that he had nothing to allege against me. You then laid a quantity of papers before him, which you wished him to sign. He requested you to read what you wanted him to sign before he put his name to the papers. When you had read what you thought proper, Jackson objected to sign the documents, being convinced you wanted those papers signed by him for the purpose of doing me an injury. I may here observe, if your intention had been fair and honest, and you only wished to know how I did pay Jackson, to prevent the Society from being cheated, you had no occasion to have asked him, because I had told you repeatedly that I was to pay Jackson in dollars; but as money was very scarce at the present time, I had spoken to Jackson and wished him to take from Jones, the butcher's, what animal food he wanted for his own private use, and for which he would be charged the price paid by the commissary, which is fourpence per pound, and the butchers' price is sixpence per pound, which would be a saving to Jackson of twopence per pound, and at the same time an accommodation to me, as Jones the butcher generally took what sheep I could spare, and I could settle Jackson's account with Jones. As to my paying Jackson in anything but dollars and animal food, nothing of the kind was ever proposed by me; as a proof of this assertion, he received nothing but dollars from me, and animal food from Jones. I have paid him two hundred dollars on account, and he may have received about £6 in meat from the butcher.

The buildings are only about four feet high as yet, so I think he has been pretty well paid for his work as far as he has gone. I had told you that Jackson was a rogue, and required to be well looked after. Tho' he is a rogue, he is too wise to be taken in by a stranger. From the character I had given him, you might think he might answer your purpose, but you never were more mistaken. I do most sincerely regret that you should so far forget what is due to your rank in society as to tamper with convicts, and trust your character in their keeping. I may ask you, not as a minister of the Gospel, not as a Christian, but as an honest man, what your private action was in asking Jackson to accompany you to the secretary's office to make statements there, and when he declined, to urge him to sign papers privately in your own house, with a view to defame my reputation?

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When I determined upon building the Seminary, (as it was then mutually agreed between us that you should remain at Parramatta until communications were received from home), I informed you what agreement I had made with the different mechanics, viz., the carpenter was to receive £90 in dollars for his work, the lime-burner sevenpence per bushel for lime in dollars, and account of which you kept yourself, and what the timber was to be per hundred feet, etc., etc. I should have said nothing to you about those subjects had I not believed that you would give an eye to these men as soon as you could have been accommodated with the school room, which was to be completed first on your account.

I only mention these things to show that you did not send for Jackson to your house and question him to gain honest information. Because that I had given you without asking for, but for purposes I need not mention. Do not suppose that I am under any apprehension that either you or the whole colony can injure me in any serious way. If you or five hundred convicts were to swear that I had committed murder, their oaths would not convict me of this crime, if no murder had been committed; nor will the Society believe that I have cheated them, until I call upon them for the payment of the buildings, and I am sure I shall not call upon the Committee for a shilling until the buildings are completed; and therefore there is no occasion for you to anticipate a crime that may never be committed. Allow me to ask you whom I have defrauded? Have I defrauded you, or have I defrauded any other of the missionaries or the Society in any one thing? You know well I can have no intention to do this.


The copy taken by Butler ends here, as this was all that Butler intended to deal with in the affidavits which follow. Again we have been fortunate, per kindness of the “Hocken” Library, in obtaining Marsden's version of the continuation, taken by himself for the purpose of sending it somewhere, as the postscript leads us to draw the inference. Butler took the little Maori half-caste to England with him, and this may have misled Capt. Thompson.

According to. Mr. Marsden's copy, the letter continues as follows:—

Let me recall to your recollection a few past events which ought to have taught you a useful lesson for the remainder of your days, and made you more cautious in what you did and said. When you visited N.S. Wales in the “Westmorland,” you offered to me the greatest personal insults in the presence of several gentlemen in Mr. Campbell's office, as the Society's agent, and you wrote to me at that time the most scandalous letters. How did I act on the receipt of those letters? (He paid up!) Did I not earnestly advise you to withdraw them, as they were public letters (?) and would injure you and not me? That I did not want to take any advantage of what you had done? You spurned my advice, and told me you would send them home to the Society. You did so, and the consequence was the Society authorised me to remove you from the Mission.

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Did I exercise that authority? No! on the contrary, I informed you it was my wish to bury in oblivion all that had passed. Many unpleasant differences took place between us both before and the last time I was at New Zealand, relative to the concerns of the Mission, from your obstinate determination to follow your own way, whatever the consequences might be. (Butler was sent out as Superintendent!)

These differences were very painful to me, as well as to your colleagues, but I could not remedy them without removing you from the Island—a measure I was unwilling to resort to, unless dire necessity compelled me. When you were accused of drunkenness on board the “Dragon,” I advised you to retire quietly from the Mission, and not urge an investigation into your conduct. I was convinced in my own mind from the state I saw you in the last time you were on board the “Brampton,” before she was wrecked, that your guilt would be proved, which would only tend to injure you more in the public opinion.

You rejected this advice and demanded an inquiry, when the charge was proved to the satisfaction of your colleagues. I had now only one line of conduct which I could pursue, which was to remove you from New Zealand. (Once again, please note—Butler was leaving New Zealand before the charge was made!) On our arrival in N. S. Wales, I advised you to be retired, and avoid all the rocks upon which you had formerly struck. You assured me you would, but I soon found that you had fallen into your former errors and were taking steps to ruin yourself more and more in the opinion of your superiors, and tho' I never saw what you wrote to the Society, yet from what I heard, I am satisfied you will have done yourself no good. When I heard that you were consulting with the gentlemen of the law, I recommended you not to take this step, for you could obtain no relief from them. Your case was too plain and clear; no legal argument could make it any better. Still you persevered, and you will see what the end will be. When you had made up your mind to return to England, I was informed you meant to take one of the New Zealanders with you, and that you had engaged a passage for him; this I could not allow, and asked you i[gap — reason: illegible] you had taken a passage for one. You replied you had not. I was not quite satisfied until I had seen Capt. Thompson, who informed me you had. I informed you what Capt. Thompson said. You still wished to convince me you had no such intention. About three weeks after, I was informed that you had taken passage for two. I then wrote to you. You still persisted that you had not. I wrote to Capt. Thompson on this subject, and afterwards saw him in Sydney, and he told me you had. Either you or Capt. Thompson must be wilfully incorrect. The two young New Zealanders told me they were going with you, and I have a very good opinion of their veracity. I told them that they could not go, with which they will be satisfied if left to themselves. I hope you will reflect on what I have said, and not rush headlong into more trouble and disgrace.

With respect to you, as agent of the Society, I must readily admit I have erred, but it has not been on the side of severity. Be assured if I am condemned by the Society when you arrive in London, I shall be condemned for not removing you from the Mission before this period; and for this I deserve to be condemned, for I have not done my duty. I wish you may see into your errors, and be duly affected by them, before you go too far; if you have any friends, take care and keep them, because you have occasion for them all. If you have any page 376 charges to allege against me, let me have them before you leave the colony, for they can be much better settled here than in London. If we could not settle them all, we might some, so you and your mutual friends might have less trouble.

I am, Reverend Sir,
Your most obedt., humble servant,


P.S.—I should not have deemed it necessary to have sent you this letter, if Mr. Butler had made that use of it I intended, which was to caution him against his improper conduct. If he is quiet, you may burn it.

Is this a letter replete with humility, “meek and lowly in heart,” devoid of “unruly temper, pride, passion, jealousy”? The postscript explains the letter. Butler is going to England, Dr. Lang and Rev. Lawry are going with him.

Lawry, who has known Butler both in New Zealand and New South Wales, and Lang, who wrote, referring to Marsden's love of the “cat,” and the brutality of his floggings:

“In some countries the clergy are often accused of taking the fleece, but New South Wales is the only country I have heard of in which they are openly allowed under a Royal Commission to take the hide also, or flay the flock alive.”

Butler denies the whole circumstance, and having no authority to book passages for two Maoris, would be unlikely to do so at his own expense. Marsden, knowing the sentiment of the C.M.S. expressed concerning the visit of Hongi and Waikato, appears to be putting in a “shot” at Butler under cover of this, and “burn it.”

(To wit)
JOHN BUTLER of PARRAMATTA in the TERRITORY of NEW SOUTH WALES, CLERK, maketh oath and saith that one DANIEL JACKSON of PARRAMATTA, stonemason, who this deponent hath been informed is a PRISONER of the CROWN, on the nineteenth day of May inst. appeared before DONALD McLEAN, ESQUIRE, one of HIS MAJESTY'S JUSTICES' ASSIGNEES to keep the peace in and for the TERRITORY of NEW SOUTH WALES, and then and therefore his corporal oath which he then and there took upon the HOLY EVANGELISTS of ALMIGHTY GOD deposed and swore: THAT he this DEPONENT either on the morning of the tenth, eleventh, or twelfth, before eight o'clock on one of these mornings, the said DANIEL JACKSON having been sent for, as the aforesaid DANIEL JACKSON deposed on the page 377 evening previous to one of those days by this deponent or by his son SAMUEL BUTLER, attended at this deponent's house, that he this deponent did then and there produce before the said DANIEL JACKSON a quantity of papers which this deponent requested the said DANIEL JACKSON to sign and that he the said DANIEL JACKSON swore he this deponent read part of the contents thereof, which were said to be relating to a contract between him the said DANIEL JACKSON and the REVEREND SAMUEL MARSDEN for the erection of an institution for the CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY, and as to the mode of payment for such erection, the manner of which payment the said JACKSON swore to me, one half in DOLLARS and the remaining part in property or to that effect. That he the said DANIEL JACKSON saw in the papers which this deponent produced to him (as he deposed) that he the said SAMUEL MARSDEN was employing very improper characters in the MISSION at NEW ZEALAND and this deponent saith that that part of the letter written to him by the said SAMUEL MARSDEN which states that after this deponent had left Parramatta he was informed that this DEPONENT had sent for the said DANIEL JACKSON to this DEPONENT'S HOUSE and questioned him relative to the mode in which he the said SAMUEL MARSDEN paid him for his labour, and requested him the said DANIEL JACKSON to go down with this DEPONENT to SYDNEY to the SECRETARY'S office there, and make statements tending to injure the character of the said SAMUEL MARSDEN, and that this DEPONENT then laid a quantity of papers before the said DANIEL JACKSON tending also to injure and defame the said SAMUEL MARSDEN in his character and reputation, which he this DEPONENT requested the said DANIEL JACKSON to SIGN, is false, and this DEPONENT saith that in confirmation thereof, he the said DANIEL JACKSON was never in his house on either the mornings of the tenth, eleventh or twelfth instants at the hour before mentioned, nor at any other hour of those days, save in the evening of TUESDAY the eleventh, when he came there to deliver a letter to this DEPONENT, which he requested him to take to ENGLAND with him, which letter was delivered to this DEPONENT, in the presence of MR. BEAN, MR. TUCKWELL and MR. WILLIAM SHELLEY, and immediately after delivering the same, he retired saying that he should have another to deliver to this DEPONENT before he left PARRAMATTA, which second letter was delivered to this DEPONENT in the PUBLIC STREET of PARRAMATTA on WEDNESDAY morning; and this DEPONENT further saith, that on MONDAY morning the tenth inst., he this DEPONENT received a message from the said SAMUEL MARSDEN requesting his attendance at his house, which this DEPONENT accordingly obeyed, and this DEPONENT was in company with the said SAMUEL MARSDEN till EIGHT O'CLOCK on that morning, and this DEPONENT saith that on the morning of the ELEVENTH instant he occupied his bed having on the previous day taken medicine, till nearly ten o'clock in the morning and that on WEDNESDAY morning this DEPONENT was in bed until called upon MR. BEAN and his apprentice, about the hour of half-past six o'clock, who both came for the purpose of page 378 assisting this DEPONENT in packing, loading and removing his goods to SYDNEY, which occupied till near NINE O'CLOCK and that several other persons were also in this DEPONENT'S presence and company during the whole time, and this DEPONENT saith, that the room in which the said DANIEL JACKSON has sworn the papers were produced and read to him was occupied by a Mr. Charles during the whole night of TUESDAY the eleventh inst., and this DEPONENT further saith that he never did produce before the said DANIEL JACKSON, a quantity of, or any papers whatever, either on the morning of the tenth, eleventh, or twelfth instants, nor on any other morning nor at any other time, and this DEPONENT lastly saith, that being about to proceed to England all and every, his BOOKS, papers and writings were packed up on the morning of the eighth inst., and that they have never up to this time been unpacked.
this 22nd day of May, 1824
(To wit)

Hannah Butler of Parramatta in the Territory of New South Wales wife of the Reverend John Butler clerk, maketh oath and saith, that she knows Daniel Jackson a stone mason, and who as this deponent has been informed is a prisoner of the Crown, that she this deponent was at the residence in Parramatta during the whole of the days of Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, and up to the hour of nearly ten o'clock on Wednesday morning, the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth instants, that the said Daniel Jackson was not at Mr. Butler's house during any part of those days, save in the evening of Tuesday the eleventh instant, when he came there to deliver a letter into his Mr. Butler's charge for England but immediately went away. And this deponent saith that from the circumstance of this deponent not leaving the house at any time during the above days, except on the Wednesday as aforesaid, it would be impossible for the said Daniel Jackson to have been there without her knowledge.

the 22nd day of May, 1824.

SATURDAY, 15th.—Remained on board, writing, etc., etc.

16th. — Went to Sydney Church and heard Revd. Mr. Cooper; in the evening I went to the Wesleyan Chapel.

MONDAY, 17th.—Went on shore to dine with Revd. Mr. Leigh.

SATURDAY, JULY 10th. — This morning our anchors were weighed, and we set sail for Old England. The “Midas” fired a royal salute and was answered by one of the vessels page 379 lying in the harbour. We left the heads precisely at twelve noon, with a fine breeze, which continued until evening.

During our eight weeks' stay at Sydney, we have been exercised by various trials, but none have been more poignant than the repeated promises made by the owners that the “Midas” should sail on a given day; but when the time came, it was put off again and again; and after Mr. Icely purchased the ship and cargo, he ordered the cargo to be taken out and examined, which took three weeks to accomplish; and after the cargo was replaced, several days were appointed, and put off, to the great annoyance of the passengers; but to none more so than ourselves, as we were without any settled lodgings. Nevertheless, we have to bless God for the many favours which we received from pious friends, but from Mr. and Mrs. Hyndes in particular. We lodged in their house upwards of three weeks, and they treated us with every possible mark of attention, and on our departure they accompanied us to the vessel, and came twice to see us after we had embarked for England.

SUNDAY, JULY 11th, 1824.—Mrs. Butler and self very poorly; our little daughter very ill indeed. Prayers on deck performed by Revd. Mr. Lawry.

MONDAY, JULY 12th.—Little Hannah very ill; myself rather better; Mrs. Butler much better. Fair wind.

TUESDAY, 13th.—This morning about four o'clock, the wind came on to blow from the southward by westward, the course we wanted to steer. (We left Sydney 10th July).

The wind gradually increased the whole of Wednesday, and in the evening the mighty billows rolled with awful grandeur, the howling tempest thundered through the rigging, and our straining vessel, sometimes ascending the rolling mountains, at others dreadfully plunging into the gulf below, was at times covered with foaming waters; this frightful scene brought painful forebodings to my mind of some misfortune and disaster near at hand. Unto Him, therefore, Who “holdeth the winds in His fist” and the seas “in the hollow of His hand,” Who saith to the raging elements, “Be still!” and a calm immediately ensues, I turned mine eyes and said: “O Almighty Eternal Lord God! wisdom and goodness, mercy and truth are Thine; Thou hast directed us in Thy holy Word to call upon Thee in the time of trouble, promising to hear the prayers of Thy people, and to deliver them out of their distress; O hear the prayer of Thy servant page 380 and send us help from Thy holy place; the floods go over our heads, and the stormy billows compass us about; my soul fainteth for very trouble, yet do I turn my eyes toward the mercy seat of Thy holy temple. O stretch out Thine omnipotent arm to save us, lest the deep swallow us up, and we sink like lead in the mighty waters; be merciful unto us, O Lord, pardon all our sins through Christ, and increase our faith in Thy promised help in this our time of need; and give us perfect resignation to Thy holy will. If we die, O receive us into the mansions of the blessed, where storms and tempests can no more assail; and if we are spared, may the remainder of our days be devoted to Thy service, in showing forth Thy praise, in speaking of Thy marvellous acts, and in telling out Thy wondrous works with gladness. O Lord hear, O Lord answer my prayer, for Thy mercy endureth for ever. Amen.”

I spent the night in reading, meditation, and ejaculatory prayer. The tempest continued to rage with increased fury, and during the night many heavy seas passed over our decks; indeed, the waves were continually breaking over one part or other of the vessel, and the water frequently ran through my cabin in streams.

About half past four in the morning, as I was sitting reading my Bible, a tremendous sea struck the ship on the weather bow, and placed her nearly on her beam ends, carried away her bulwarks on both sides down to the deck broke away the cable chain stopper, carried away the lower studding sail booms, washed overboard twenty-three hogs, drowned twenty-four sheep in the long boat, two goats, one kangaroo, one emu; one case belonging to Revd. Mr. Lawry, many casks of water and other things were swept into the billowing deep. The boat also that was covered over the sheep was stove in at the same time.

Down below the confusion may be better conceived than expressed. The candle by which I was reading (which was fastened very securely) was put out; my table and other things gave way; the bulk head was broken in, the sea came pouring down, so that I scarcely knew whether I was in the sea or not.

At this instant the second officer came flying down below, praying the chief officer to go on deck instantly, as he believed the vessel would go down except something could instantly be done. At this time the waters were pouring down into the cabins; boxes, chairs and other things rolling from page break
From a painting by John Butler, depicting the storm at sea.

From a painting by John Butler, depicting the storm at sea.

page 382 side to side; as for the steward's pantry, I never saw worse breakage: dishes, spoons, cups, saucers, pots, kettles and everything were thrown down and driven into the great cabin, and kept knocking about under foot. Added to this, it was with the greatest difficulty that any light could be kept in for any purpose.

However, by the mercy of God and the prompt measures of the captain, officers and crew, in starting all the water casks on deck, thereby easing the labour of the ship, and otherwise using their utmost skill, we were graciously preserved from a watery grave.

The captain ordered the vessel before the wind, and we were carried onward by the raging tempest amidst the mighty waters. In a few hours the gale abated, but the vessel had received so much damage, that it became necessary to return to Sydney for repairs and supplies. No lives were lost, as the vessel was lying to, and the watch on deck were aft.

The wind being fair, we now made rapid progress toward the place from whence we put out.

THURSDAY AND FRIDAY.—We made tolerable progress, and at half-past nine on the evening of Friday, the light-house on the south head appeared in sight, and we made the heads about twelve. There was a strong breeze blowing out of the harbour, and the vessel was obliged to work in; the pilot performed this part of the business in a masterly style, and we came to an anchor in Sydney Cove at nine o'clock on Saturday morning, July 17th, 1824.

Our clothes and bedding received so much damage in the storm that it became necessary to take everything on shore to wash, dry, etc., etc.

SUNDAY, 18th.—Went to the Asylum at nine in the morning to preach to the inmates. Returned home and went to chapel. Afternoon, went to the hospital to visit the sick, and to chapel in the evening.

MONDAY, JULY 19th, 1824.—Getting the remainder of my goods on shore, and examined them as to damage. I found them very wet with sea water, and they would inevitably have spoiled had we continued our voyage.

TUESDAY, 20th.—Occupied in getting my things a little in order.

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WEDNESDAY, 21st.—This morning I was sent for by Mr. Marsden, to go on board the ship “Pocklington” to obtain the names of several sailors, who were witness to an act of cruelty committed upon a New Zealander named Kotaha, by Mr. Brown, the chief officer of the said vessel. This cruelty was performed by beating the native with a rope, and striking him upon the head with a large stick. The men readily consented to appear in court to testify as to what they had seen relative to the outrage alluded to.

I next attended the police magistrate, D. Wentworth, Esq., accompanied by the native and Revd. Saml. Leigh.

Mr. Marsden, who alleged the complaint, did not attend in time to have the matter investigated, and it was put off till to-morrow.

THURSDAY, 22nd.—Attended the court as interpreter for the New Zealander, Kotaha. The magistrate patiently heard all that he had to allege against the officer of the “Pocklington,” but they one and all took the part of the officer, and the magistrate was obliged to dismiss the complaint.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Occupied in preparing my things for embarkation.

SUNDAY, JULY 25th.—Attended Divine Service, morning and afternoon. Mrs. Butler and I partook of the Holy Sacrament. In the evening went to chapel.

26th. — Wrote to Messrs. White, Hall, King, Kemp, and Shepherd, New Zealand.

SATURDAY, 31st.—Employed chiefly at home in reading, etc., etc.

SUNDAY, AUGUST 1st. — Attended Divine Service, morning and evening.

2nd, MONDAY MORNING.—Went to the vessel to see if it was nearly ready for sea.

Attended the monthly missionary prayer meeting, Princes Street Chapel.

3rd, TUESDAY. — Attended prayer meeting at Mr. Hynde's.

4th, WEDNESDAY.—Went on board the “Midas” to prepare my cabin.

5th, THURSDAY.—Employed at home, etc.

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6th, FRIDAY.—Attended the Criminal Court, to hear a trial between the crown and five of Mr. Hassell's men, for shooting three women, aborigines of New South Wales. It lasted the greater part of the day; but they were at length acquitted.

7th.—At home airing my clothes, etc.

8th, SUNDAY.—Attended Divine Service, morning and evening. Partook of the Holy Sacrament; found it a time of refreshing from the Lord.

MONDAY, AUGUST 9th.—This morning I went on board the “Midas” to learn when she would be ready for sea. Afternoon, at home; spent my time in reading, etc.

TUESDAY, 10th.—This morning I set off with Mr. Davis to Botany Bay. The country which we rode through was barren and sandy, yet in the barren wilderness we found sufficient to delight the eye and regale the fancy, so infinitely diversified are the works of nature, and calculated so exquisitely to please. We arrived at the top of the bay about eleven a.m., and we were not a little gratified with the beautiful prospect which presented itself to view. We were near the mouth of Cook's River, which meanders through the valleys, and empties itself into the bay. We also saw the spot where Captn. Cook first landed on these shores, and also George River, which is navigable for many miles for small craft.

There were many aborigines gathering oysters and catching fish. I asked one of the women who was cooking on the beach if she would roast me a few oysters, and she readily complied, and made them very nice. When I had eaten sufficient, I gave her some pence and a little piece of tobacco (of which they are very fond); she thanked me, and we left them.

The next thing we went to see was Mr. Lord's Blanket Factory, situated on the banks of the bay. Almost the whole routine of this business is performed by machinery, as also the grinding of grain into meal; at the same time, and after having gone through the building, etc., etc., we returned highly pleased with our journey.

In the evening myself and family attended prayer meeting at Mr. Hynde's.

AUGUST 11th.—This morning I went on board the “Midas” to know when she would be ready for sea.

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AUGUST 18th, WEDNESDAY.—This morning the “Midas” resumed her voyage, and we got as far as the heads, when the wind became foul, and we came to an anchor within the heads.

AUGUST 19th.—We left the heads this morning at seven o'clock, with a fine breeze and a fine day.


SUNDAY, 22nd AUGUST.—The morning being very fine we had Divine Service on deck. Mr. Butler read prayers, Mr. Lang preached.

MONDAY, 23rd AUGUST.—The morning very wet and windy; the whole day continued very rough and stormy.

TUESDAY, 24th AUGUST.—Fine day and fair wind.

WEDNESDAY, 25th AUGUST. — Fine day and fair wind.

26th, 27th, 28th AUGUST.—Fine weather and fair wind.

SUNDAY, 29th.—Divine Service; Mr. Lawry preached, Mr. Butler read prayers.

AUGUST 30th, 31st. — Weather very stormy, but fair wind. Lat. 56–30; lon. 136 south.

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1st.—This morning about four o'clock we made Bristow's Island, lat. 50/30, L. 166. The land along the southern shore is very bold, but entirely barren; several waterfalls are to be seen descending from the mountains, and falling into the sea from considerable heights. I again spoke to Captn. Thompson about the leakage in my cabin, and he told me he would do no more to it, altho' he knew it to be in a shocking state.

THURSDAY.—I went on shore with Mr. Lawry, and returned in the afternoon. Went up a river and saw Captn. Bristow's hut, which he built when he discovered the island. I also saw a fine penguin and some wild celery, and the wild cabbage tree. The brushwood is very thick, and the ground spongy.

FRIDAY.—Went on shore and got some walking sticks. The weather came on so bad that I was obliged to remain on shore all night in the sealing gang's huts. But the hut in which I went was cut off from the ship's side and cast adrift to the mercy of the sea. We had some pancakes fried in the fat of the mutton-bird, and some albatross and muttonbird for supper.

page 386

Mr. Lawry and a party went on shore, and they lost their boat, and were on the island all night. I sent a boat off in the morning to fetch them on board; they were very glad of such timely assistance.

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 5th, 1824.—Divine Service in the cabin. Mr. Butler read prayers; Mr. Lang read a sermon. “Be ye doers of the Word, and not hearers only.”

MONDAY.—Attending to Tommy Toki, a New Zealander who was taken very ill. For a time he was quite deranged, but when the medicine began to operate, his senses returned.

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7th, 1824.—This morning the weather abated, and the men began to weigh the anchor about nine o'clock, and in the afternoon we again set out to sea. When we arrived at this island, we met the “Elizabeth and Mary,” schooner, going out of the harbour, having on board the seal skins which she came for. Capt. Worth put the schooner about and came into the harbour, and delivered the skins to the “Midas.” He informed us that he had lately been at New Zealand, and felt sorry to inform us of the death of Captn. Dawson and his boat's crew, who were killed by the New Zealanders. Captn. Dawson commanded the schooner “Samuel,” New South Wales.

FRIDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 10th.—The weather has been very stormy since we left the island, with sleet and hail, and cold winds.

The poor New Zealander, Tommy Toki, is somewhat better, but continues much indisposed. Last night a rumour was spread in the cabin that the ship's register was lost.

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 11th. — This morning I asked Captn. Thomson what water we were allowed for cabin use, and he informed me that we were out upon an allowance of five pints per day for cooking and drinking and everything, and two and a half for the children; and this information he gave me in a tone which betrayed something of enmity in his mind, for he answered me in a very surly manner. Fine weather and a fair wind.

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 12th. — Divine Service in the cabin; Mr. Lawry read prayers; Mr. Butler preached. Divine Service in the evening; Mr. Lang performed.

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 13th.—This morning our water was served out, five pints to each person in the cabin, and five half-pints to the children. The allowance we find to be ex- page 387 ceeding short, as it is only wine measure; this will readily appear when it is considered that it is intended to serve for washing, and waste, which is often a good deal on board ship, and for cooking meat, puddings and soup, etc. This sort of treatment we thing strange at the first setting of our voyage. If we had been to sea any time, and had experienced contrary winds, we should have been prepared to put up with any difficulties, but thus to set out is certainly too bad.

SEPTEMBER 14th.—This day we had a very short repast indeed for dinner: two poor ducks, and a very small leg of mutton—say about four pounds—for fifteen people, and servants to dine after them; no pudding, pies or soup, nor scarcely any vegetables! ! The children find it exceeding hard for them, as their little stomachs are not prepared by age for digesting meat alone, or of being confined to hard biscuit to eat with it; indeed, the whole of the treatment on board this vessel is shameful. The captain suffers the cabin steward to abuse the passengers, and he doth not forbid him. Yesterday he abused Mrs. Butler at table at tea time, because she asked for a little more water in her tea, telling him it was too sweet. He replied: “Why, you think you are in a parlour in Sydney; you must put up with it, or go without.”

Mrs. Butler made no reply.

The little boy, Frank, has been ill for several days past, insomuch that we thought we should lose him; but through mercy he is better.

The weather is very fine, and the wind continues fair.

Tommy Toki, the New Zealander who has been very ill, is much better; we hope he will continue so.

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 15th.—The weather continues very fine, but the wind is unfavourable.

Frank, the little boy, is much better.

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 16th.—The day is very fine, but little wind, yet what is, is fair.

I rejoice that we have commenced evening service in Mr. Lawry's cabin at half past seven o'clock. Mr. Hall and Revd. Mr. Lang attend regularly.

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 17th.—The day very fine and the wind fair, tho' but little of it. Evening service; Mr. Hall read, Mr. Lawry prayed. No other passengers or any of the ship's crew attended, but Mr. Hall and Mr. Lang only.

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SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 18th.—Fair wind; fine day.

SUNDAY, 19th.—Divine Service in large cabin, morning and evening. Mr. Butler read prayers in the morning, Mr. Lawry preached. Evening, Mr. Butler preached.

The weather rainy, and strong breeze from the westward.

MONDAY, 20th.—The wind increased during the night, and this morning it blew a strong gale, with dark clouds and much rain.

TUESDAY, 21st.—The whole of yesterday was very uncomfortable indeed. The gale blew strong all the day, and in the evening the sea ran very high. The sea was continually coming over the vessel, in one part or other, all day long. In the evening we had a prayer meeting in my cabin.

In the night the wind suddenly shifted, and on account of the rain and thick darkness, the ship was taken aback, but no accident occurred save the splitting of the main top gallant sail; about midnight the wind blew very hard; the motion of the ship was very violent, the rain heavy, the darkness great, so that the scene became very dismal; but blessed be God for preserving mercy, we were brought to see the morning light in safety, when at the rising of the sun the wind abated, the clouds which had hung over us for several days were dispersed, and about noon the day became clear and a fine steady breeze directly aft.

At dinner I asked the steward for a little spirits water, and was denied; also for a little wine, and was denied; not even a drop of water to be had.

WEDNESDAY, 22nd SEPTEMBER.—Fine day and fair wind.

THURSDAY, 23rd SEPTEMBER. — Fine day and fair wind.

FRIDAY, 24th SEPTEMBER.—Fine day and fair wind.

SATURDAY, 25th SEPTEMBER. — Fine day and fair wind.

Mrs. Butler has been very poorly for several days past. Mrs. Davis has been very poorly for several days past, and in other respects treated with much neglect by the steward and captain. During this week, one end of the dining table has been laid with a clean cloth, and the other with a very filthy one, the division being in the middle. The end to which the dirty cloth was put is the end where myself, Mrs. Butler page 389 and child sit to eat. Many annoyances of a much worse nature we are obliged to put up with. It is of no use to complain, as the captain is not inclined to redress.

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 26th.—Mr. Lang preached in the morning; Mr. Lawry read prayers. In the evening, Mr. Lawry performed Divine Service.

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 27th. — Foggy weather, light winds, but fair. Mrs. Marr taken very ill.

The steward this day denied me a little spirit for Mrs. Butler, who is very poorly with pain and cold in the bowels; and he behaved in the same way at dinner to all present.

This evening we have had public prayers in the large cabin; many of the sailors attended.

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 28th, and 29th and 30th.— The wind has been foul during these last three days, and rather uncomfortable withal. Several quarrels have taken place between the captain and the chief officer and the steward. The steward is perhaps one of the most foul-mouthed men alive! He has been known to say this week that he would make the passengers eat their own dung before they reached the end of the voyage. He has insulted me in every possible way he could. I have complained to the captain, but can get no redress. However, by the general complaint of the passengers and officers, he is at length turned out of his office, to the great satisfaction of all parties, except the captain, who leans to him in a manner unaccountable to anyone but himself and another single individual, whom he particularly favours.

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 1st.—The wind of the heavens to-day is fair, and the weather fine on deck, but below in the cabin it has been very foul. Much altercation has taken place about the steward, and many black looks from the captain have been manifested; we hope all will end well.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, OCTOBER 2nd and 3rd.— The wind continues fair and the weather fine. I have been much in my cabin these two days preparing for the Sabbath. Notwithstanding all the broils which have taken place during the week, we have been enabled to perform prayers every night in the large cabin.

SUNDAY, OCTOBER 4th.—Fine day and a fair wind. Divine Service in the large cabin. Mr. Butler preached in the morning, Mr. Lang in the evening

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MONDAY, OCTOBER 5th.—Fine day and a fair wind.

WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY, FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—I have been very poorly, not able to get out of the cabin. I caught cold, which caused much pain in my limbs. The weather has been very fine the whole of the week; but things in other respects have not been so favourable.

SUNDAY, 10th.—Mr. Lang preached in the morning, Mr. Butler in the evening.

OCTOBER 11th, 12th, 13th.—We had a fine breeze for these last three days. The captain still continues to act exceedingly improper to the passengers. Mr. Sherwin has lost some bottles of brandy out of a case in his cabin, and it is pretty clear that rogue of a steward has been guilty of the foul crime; yet the captain appears determined to justify him in spite of everything.

OCTOBER 14th.—Fine day and a fair wind; myself restored to health.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15th, 16th.—We are now living much on salt provisions. Fine weather and fair wind.

SUNDAY, 17th.—Mr. Butler read prayers in the morning; Mr. Lang preached. Mr. Lawry preached in the evening.

MONDAY, OCTOBER 18th.—Dark day, but a fair wind. Myself and all in good health.

TUESDAY, OCTOBER 19th.—This day our water was again reduced to two quarts a man, and one quart for the children.

This day we had only one little piece of salt pork, and a small piece of salt beef, very lean.

This morning the sailors came aft and complained of their allowance of water. They remonstrated with the captain, but it was to no purpose; he spoke to them in the most surly manner, and ordered them forward, saying they should not have a drop more than two quarts a man a day. I understand their ration of food is also deducted in proportion. The men asked the captain for a greater ration in a very becoming manner, pleading their utter incapability to perform the ship's duty, with so little food and water. The captain then gave one of them a push in the chest, and threat- page 391 ened him severely. The real fact is that the captain uses the crew and officers in a shameful manner.

The weather is very cold, thermometer 40. The wind is fair, and the breeze strong, and we are within about one hundred miles of Cape Horn.

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 20th. — This morning we spake the ship “Indispensable,” a whaler, off Cape Horn, lat. 57/40, lon. 66 west; but as we were sailing before a very heavy gale, very few words passed. The night has been exceedingly stormy, with snow and sleet, and which is frozen to the rigging and cordage, and being accompanied by the howling winds and darkened sky, the sea continually breaking over the vessel in one part or another, the rolling billows carrying me up to the heavens, and then rushing headlong into the gulf below, formed a scene awfully terrific and sublime. But this evening we have been enabled to meet and perform prayer in the large cabin; beseeching the God of heaven to hear, and protect on the perilous ocean.

Our cabin is in a very wet condition, and sufficient to give anyone their death of cold, but it is no use to speak about it.

THURSDAY, OCTOBER 21st.—This morning at seven o'clock a sail was espied, and as we were running directly before the wind, we soon came up with her; we found her to be the “Enterprise” of Lynn. She was bound for Valparaiso, but then lying to, on account of foul winds.

This morning Capt. Thompson came to me in a surly manner, charging Mrs. Butler with threatening him with an action to recover damages for maltreatment. We surely ought to have some recompense, as we have been exceedingly ill-used ever since we have been on board.

The weather is more moderate than it was yesterday, and the wind fair.

OCTOBER 22nd. — This morning the weather became very fine, and the wind continuing fair, we have made rapid progress. Thanks be to God for His mercy and goodness.

Things go on in a very curious manner in the vessel; much dissatisfaction prevails; there is much to contend with, and great wisdom is necessary to know how to act.

OCTOBER 23rd. — Moderate weather, but foul wind. Employed in preparing for the Sabbath.

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OCTOBER 24th.—Divine Service in the large cabin; Mr. Butler performed in the morning; Mr. Lang in the evening. The weather continues moderate, the wind fair.

25th.—Weather moderate, the day rainy, the wind fair. All the passengers save one (Mr. Linney), and the ship's crew continue to enjoy generally good health, bless God for it.

SATURDAY, 30th OCTOBER. — This week has been a very good one, and we have much to be thankful for, as it respects the wind, weather and other mercies.

SUNDAY, OCTOBER 31st.—Mr. Butler read prayers, and Mr. Lawry preached.

SUNDAY EVENING.—Mr. Butler performed Divine Service. Saw an occasion to make some remarks on the levity manifested by some who should have known better.

NOVEMBER 1st, 2nd, 3rd, MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY.—Fair winds and fine weather. All on board in good health save one, a passenger named Linney. Mr. Hall and Mr. Butler have begun an evening exercise in Psalms only.

THURSDAY AND FRIDAY, 4th and 5th.—These two days have been very favourable, and we have much cause for thankfulness to God for His goodness.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Fine weather and a fair wind.

WEDNESDAY, 10th.—Fine day and a fair wind. In the evening Mr. Lawry had some conversation with Mr. Iseley about our treatment as passengers. Our treatment has been shameful during the whole of our voyage to the present time; we have little else but salt provisions, and that even in a very short allowance and badly dressed. In the morning we get nothing save a little rum, mouldy biscuit, or a little hard salt beef, wild fowl salted, or a bit of salt pork, all fat, etc. For tea, a little mouldy biscuit and salt provisions.

THURSDAY, 11th. — The morning fine and the wind pretty fair. Mrs. Marr began to abuse Mrs. Lawry and all the clergy this morning at breakfast time, but her son rebuked her, and then she quarrelled with him, etc., etc., etc.

FRIDAY, SATURDAY AND SUNDAY. — Fine weather. Mr. Butler performed Divine Service on Sunday morning; Mr. Lang on Sunday evening.

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NOVEMBER 20th, SATURDAY.—This week the weather has been very fine. Passengers and crew continue in good health, Linney and Mrs. Marr excepted.

NOVEMBER 21st, SUNDAY.—Divine Service on deck; Mr. B. read prayers; Mr. Lawry preached. In the evening Mr. Butler performed Divine Service.

MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY AND THURSDAY.—Lat. 22; heat 76 to 81 and 2. The weather very fine and a fair wind.

NOVEMBER 26th, FRIDAY.—Fair wind, fine weather. This afternoon the chief officer beat my little boy Frank. He struck in a savage manner, but the poor little fellow stood it well. He was playing with a small bit of rope which he picked off the deck, and the child was loth to give it up (it was only a strand), as he was amusing himself with it; and he seized it and took it from him, and then struck him.

NOVEMBER 27th.—Fine weather, and fair winds.

SUNDAY, 28th.—This day we altered our Sabbath, our time being twenty-three hours sooner than when we set out. Therefore, we made two Saturdays in this week, or rather two Sundays, so among the passengers: Service in the morning in Mr. Lawry's cabin; in the afternoon in the large cabin.

In the afternoon, as Mr. Wardle was sitting in the diningroom, Frank, poor little fellow, being thirsty, went and asked him for a drink, when, instead of giving the child some water, he gave him strong brandy and water, and the child never spoke afterwards for more than twelve hours. We were much alarmed, and exceedingly vexed, but in the circumstances we were obliged to pass over it without much ado.

NOVEMBER 28th, SUNDAY.—Mr. Butler read prayers on deck; Mr. Lang preached; in the evening, Mr. Lawry.

MONDAY, NOVEMBER 29th.—Fine breeze and a fair wind. In the afternoon we crossed the equinox, and about eight in the evening the god Neptune came on board to inquire after any new voyagers which might be on board, and promised to visit us on the morrow.

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 30th.—This day we have been much amused by the appearance of Neptune and his retinue. There were several shaved in the usual manner, and much mirth enjoyed by the sailors.

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DECEMBER 1st and 2nd. — Fine little breeze, but the weather is very hot. The cabins are very much so when shut up during the night.

FRIDAY AND SATURDAY.—Very hot, and our water being very short, we feel the effect of the weather considerably.

SUNDAY, DECEMBER 5th. — Mr. Butler read and preached in the morning; Mr. Lawry in the evening.

DECEMBER 6th to 18th.—Steady breezes.

19th.—Violent squalls.

DECEMBER 20th.—Made the island of Flores, bearing east eight or nine leagues.

DECEMBER 25th.—Spake the “Ninus,” of Dartmouth, bound to Oporto. Saw a large log of wood.

DECEMBER 27th.—At two p.m. spoke the “Heroe.”