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Earliest New Zealand

Chapter X

page 334

Chapter X.

Rev. S. Marsden to Rev. J. Pratt.
January 13th, 1824.

Revd. Sir,

I have this day suspended the Revd. John Butler from all connection with the C.M. Society, until the pleasure of the Committee is known at home. It was intention to have sent him to England, if I could have prevailed upon him to have gone, as I did not know what step to take excepting this. When I received your letters on the 10th inst., I was much relieved; I then saw my way clear. I had an interview with Mr. Butler this morning, after I had written my letter to suspend him, a copy of which I have forwarded to you.…. I have informed Mr. Butler…. that as he was now suspended from all connection with the Society, he was at liberty to act as he thought proper until his case was laid before the parent Committee; that I would hire him myself if he would quietly retire into the interior, and put the New Zealanders under his care. He consented to my terms.

Idem. February 21st, 1824.

Writing to proposal to build a seminary at Parramatta for native youths and the missionary children, he concludes:—

The workmen are now at work and will continue until it is finished. I have six New Zealanders with me now, who are much rejoiced to see the foundation marked out; they are all young men of family. The Revd. John Butler has charge of them under my directions.

I remain, etc.,


The “copy” referred to is not among Butler's effects. The “Hocken” Library, Dunedin, possesses a copy taken by Marsden, and sent to someone by him, no doubt written with careful circumspection, after two months' ruminating, in order to make his footing good with the C.M.S., in his quarrel with Butler. To the Library we are indebted for their kindness in supplying this copy.

Rev. S. Marsden to Rev. John Butler.
January 13th, 1824.

Revd. Sir,

Previous to my leaving New Zealand, and ever since, I have been greatly enbarassed in my own mind to know what to do in your case. page 335 The unhappy differences between you and Mr. Kendall, united with other causes, rendered your removal from New Zealand no longer a matter of choice, but of necessity. After you had been accused of inebriety on board the “Dragon,” and I had received the opinion of your colleagues upon that charge, my embarrassment was increased. Tho' I do not think you are addicted to that sin, yet I do think that in moments of great vexation and passion, you are liable to fall into it.

From the state of mind you were in on that day when you left Kidee Kidde for the Tees, it has ever been impressed upon my mind that you were overcome, whether you drank little or much.

(Butler had told Marsden that he was tired of such falsehoods being propagated and would leave the Mission and go Home.)

From maturely considering all that occurred in New Zealand, I thought it would be more for your interest and honour, and for the interests of the Mission, for you quietly to retire to Europe, and stated this to you both verbally and by letter. I have repeatedly mentioned the subject since our arrival in New South Wales. You always seemed unwilling to return to England, at present. I told you a few days ago that my responsibility was great, and that if we could not come to some final determination relative to your return, I should take the opinion of Mr. Justice Field and some of his colleagues, when you might attend our meeting and hear what their sentiments were.

On Saturday evening, the 10th inst., I received despatches from the secretary of the C.M. Society, the Rev. J. Pratt,which supercedes the necessity of my calling a meeting, as the only question I had to submit to them was relative to your return to England. From the instructions I have received, I shall not feel myself authorised to furnish you with a passage home until I hear from the parent Committee again. The only question now to be decided is, what am I to do in the meantime? Had I suspended you from all connection with the Society, at the time I received the opinion of your colleagues on the charge against you for inebriety, I should have been fully justified in doing so, and the Society may now disapprove of my conduct in not having done this. However, this was a measure too painful for me to adopt at that time. I also thought it was more probable that you would never return again to New Zealand, and that if you quietly retired to England, the members of the parent Committee, with their united wisdom, and you might settle your concerns better than I could do, and bring less discredit upon the Mission, and be less injurious to yourself. As the parent Committee does not authorize me to furnish you with a passage to England, I am brought to the same difficult and painful point again, viz., either to suspend you from all official connection with the Society until your case is submitted to the consideration of the Committee, or to continue you in the service of the Mission. As I cannot send you home, I have only one line of conduct to adopt, under the circumstances you are placed, in order to do impartial justice (?) to save the credit of the Society and myself from any unjust censure, and that is to suspend you from the service of the Society as a missionary belonging to it, and therefore you must consider yourself suspended from this time. At the same time, until the whole case is submitted to the parent Committee, and answers received, I will employ you as I would any other individual on my own responsibility, in instructing the New Zealanders who are now at Parramatta, or may hereafter come. If you approve page 336 of my proposition, it must be under the express condition that you put yourself wholly under my direction, and devote your attention to the improvement of the New Zealanders, and live in a retired manner. I shall rejoice if you can retrace your steps, if you can subdue your stubborn and unruly temper. Pride, passion, jealousy, and a worldly spirit have been the bane of the Mission. If these can be put off, and the missionaries become clothed with humility, God will bless their labours. Let your past experience make you more cautious, more watchful, and more lowly.

If you can only learn of Jesus the lesson which He hath taught His followers, viz., to be meek and lowly in heart, you may still redeem your missionary character, and be useful in the great cause, and happy in your own soul; but you never can in any other way. I must now leave what I have said to your consideration, and judge for yourself what you ought to do.

I am, Rev. Sir,
Your most obedient, humble servant,



[Quite a nice accommodating and gentle letter, gracious in texture and structure, and eminently suitable for submission to the “united wisdom” of the parent Committee to whom this was sent. Herein Marsden omit to state that his letter to Butler suggesting he should leave N.Z., was written on November 1st, whereas the accusation was not made until later on, and that what he was to do with Butler must have been contemplated before the charge arose.]


First.—It is ordered that no person engaged in this Mission shall be allowed, upon any account or pretence, to acquire or hold any private or individual property, real, landed or personal, in New Zealand, or with any ship or person touching there, but only for the general account of the Mission.

Eighth.—That the Reverend John Butler, Superintendent of the Mission, appointed by the Committee of the Society, shall superintend, direct, order, and manage all and every matter and thing whatsoever, and of every kind, nature and degree belonging to, affecting or concerning the Mission in New Zealand; and that all and every person engaged in it, and attached to the Mission shall be subject to and obey his orders and directions, according to their several offices, trades and calling.……

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Tenth.—That the Superintendent shall keep a regular journal of all the transactions of the Society, and its several members, including himself, a copy of which shall be forwarded quarterly to the agent in New South Wales, and the Committee in London.…. .

[Verily the road to “Avernus” is paved with good intentions.]

When Mr. Marsden laid down Rule No. 10, he hardly anticipated that Mr. Butler would so assiduously fulfil it, and naturally, some of the entries forwarded for his perusal, and for the Committee in London, were not calculated to “keep the noiseless tenor of their way.” Such constant attacks were being made upon his commercial activities in Australia (which culminated in his being—perhaps over-harshly), dismissed from his office as a magistrate), that he could not tolerate any more being raised by Butler, What was applicable in Mr. Kendall's bearing to Butler, was equally so towards the other missionaries (or should we read settlers), as Mr. Williams was the only ordained missionary among them.

We must search deeper than this letter for the intention at the base of Mr. Marsden's mind.

Butler, as Superintendent in New Zealand, was amenable to the C.M. Society, but not to their agent; but once removed from New Zealand and from his position, he was within Mr. Marsden's coils.

The differences between Butler and Kendall were purely secular, as Mr. Kendall had already ceased to be connected with the Mission.

Mr. Marsden's distress over the whole circumstance is “buncum;” it was his usual method of writing, and as such on a former occasion, drew from a letter, Lachlan Macquarie to Lord Sidmouth ("Essays of Rev. Sydney Smith on Botany Bay,” page 412), the following:—

“As to Mr. Marsden's troubles of mind, and pathetic display of sensibility, and humanity, they must be so deeply seated, and so far removed from the surface, as to escape all possible observation. His habits are those of a man forever engaged in some active animated pursuit; no man travels more from town to town, or from house to house. His deportment is at all times that of a person the most gay and happy. Where his hours of sorrow are spent, it is hard to page 338 divine, for the variety of his pursuits, both in his own concerns, and in those of others, is so excessive, in farming, grazing, manufactories and transactions, that with his clerical duties, he seems, to use a common phrase, “to have his handsful” of work. And the particular subject to which he imputes this extreme depression of mind is, besides, one for which few people here will give him credit.”


“Firm as he (Marsden) was, and lion-hearted when danger was to be met, his nature was very gentle [Yes! Very!] and his affections both deep and warm. And he had now to rebuke some of the missionaries whom he loved [To rebuke?] as his own soul, and even to dismiss one of them.…… Several chiefs, among whom was Tooi, warmly took up the cause of the missionary who had been dismissed.…. After some further explanations, the chiefs were satisfied that Mr.—— had violated our laws, and brought all this distress upon himself.”

The accusation against Butler, one would naturally conclude, would have been sifted forthwith, and he immediately asks that such be done, and upon the ground where his defence lies. Not so, this would not suit Mr. Marsden, whose intention had been to obliterate Butler; and it is not until January 13th, 1824—long after they had left New Zealand—that Marsden writes to the Rev. J. Pratt,Church Missionary House:—

“I have this day suspended the Rev. John Butler from all connection with the C.M. Society. It was my intention to have sent him to England, if I could have prevailed upon him to have gone,” etc. (Page 616, “Historical Records,” McNab.)

Well! Well! Butler wanted to go, and would not have required much pressing, especially as he would be sent, and his fares therefore paid. Why, therefore, did Butler go at his own expense shortly afterwards?

Again, “Brett's New Zealand":— ”It has been found requisite to separate from the Society two members for conduct disgraceful to their profession. Marsden says, ‘I had many a battle to fight for years with some of the early settlers, who turned out to be unprincipled men.’”

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The same old tune, characteristic of the man, always decrying the wickedness of the Mission settlers. Read this (written on his voyage out):—“ I am surrounded,” he says, “with evil-disposed persons, thieves, adulterers and blasphemers. May God keep me from evil, that I may not be tainted with the evil practices of those among whom I live.”

Who were these unprincipled men? Mr. Wm. Hall and Francis Hall, both honest missionaries? James Kemp, King, Gordon, Carlisle? No fault can be found with these. There remain Kendall, Cowell, and Butler. Kendall's work will always be a monument to him, and up to the period of his leaving for England, 1820, little fault, and that secular, has been found with him. He was suspended by Marsden, July 22nd, 1822.

James Shepherd went to New Zealand in March, 1821, and Cowell in January, 1822 (the latter left with Butler in 1823).

Page 245 “Brett's N.Z.”—“ Mr. King,” Nicholas states, “was in receipt of £400 per year, which his business produced him in the settlement (New South Wales), and Mr. Hall was probably equally profitably engaged, and going to New Zealand, would, even in Port Jackson, be considered the high road to wealth.”

Careful consideration leads one to the conclusion that the whole undertaking was a commercial one; of which the spiritual part was paid for by the Church Missionary Society, and the commercial—a side-line of Mr. Marsden's—in which the two became inextricably confused. When the private trading interfered with the “side-line,” it became necessary to place a limit on the operations, a five per cent. commission. “I spoke to the settlers upon the subject, and told them my opinion, and that I could not allow them to have any private trade whatever.” (Page 247, “Brett's N.Z.”)

Where here is the highroad to wealth? The settlers hence-forward dealt privately with the whalers; and although the “Active” certainly collected cargoes, the results were not satisfactory to Mr. Marsden.

When Mr. Butler arrived upon the scene, this had to end. What happened after Mr. Butler left is no concern of ours, except this, that with the falling years, the scriptural side of Mr. Marsden became strongly pronounced, and upon his death, in 1837, it is recorded: “And thus the man, honoured page 340 in his death, whose life had been one long conflict with obloquy and slander. With few exceptions his enemies had died away, been gradually led to abandon their prejudices, and now many of them loved and revered the man. whom they had once hated and despised.” (Marsden's “Life of Marsden.”)

Alexander Strachan, in his “Life of Samuel Leigh,” page 200, viewing the subject from another angle, is more generous to the New Zealand missionaries than Mr. Marsden, whose strictures remind one of that little adage about an unclean bird and its own nest.

Strachan, in referring to the statement (published in the “Church Missionary Intelligencer,” and suspiciously like the emanation of Dr. Lang), “The missionaries landed on the shore of the Bay of Islands in December, 1814. Not till the year 1825 was a first convert given them, and a second in 1827.” Strachan rejoinders,

“Let it be observed:—

That from 1814 to 1822 (1819?), the Society was represented by a few mechanics who had no authority to form a church, nor even to preach.


After the arrival of the first clergyman, the Rev. John Butler, the secular and spiritual systems were perpetuated, which contemplated civilization first, and conversion as an ulterior object.


Yet, nothwithstanding the imperfections of the system,…. . much spiritual good has been done.

“We are bound, in justice to those early labourers, to vindicate them from the implied censure. Possessing, as we do, manuscript journals of their proceedings, written upon their own establishment by disinterested parties, we are able to assure the contributors to the Church Missionary Society that the preceding statement is not in accordance with ascertained facts.…. . We regret to witness the attempt that is being made to depreciate the labour of these men, and to attribute the good that has been done in New Zealand to the appointment of a bishop, and the establishment of an ecclesiastical heirarchy.

“We advance no claim on behalf of the first missionary agents that is not absolutely due to candour and truth. They served their generation according to the will of God, and, with one exception, left the world without personally making any demands upon the gratitude of posterity. Yet, we affirm page 341 that they laid the foundation of those measures that have issued in the commercial elevation of New Zealand. In their heroism and teaching originated the noble collegiate and educational institutions that now adorn the country. The statesman may smile, but they were the pioneers who won those beautiful islands for the British crown.……. What company of commercial speculators ever thought of establishing themselves in New Zealand, for the purpose of testing the quality of the soil, or of ascertaining its mineral resources, until the artisans of Marsden, and the missionaries, Butler and Leigh, had demonstrated to modern scepticism that, under the guardianship of the God of Daniel, good men could live among lions? Up to that time the mariner whose ship was stranded upon its shores yielded to despondency, and felt that his days were numbered. Like a lighthouse in the midst of surrounding darkness and desolation, the first missionaries repelled the waves of savage violence, and maintained their position. Their coadjutors and successors have been subjected to the misrepresentation of colonizing companies, whose cupidity they checked, and the insinuations of vacillating local government, against which they were obliged to appeal; yet have they done more to consolidate the peace of the country, to promote public confidence (without which there can be no permanent prosperity in any state), and to improve the social condition of the people, than all the civil enactments, the military establishments, and fiscal regulations of the politician.”

JAMES SPENCER deposeth that he formerly belonged to AMERICAN SCHOONER “COSSACK,” and that he was wrecked in the said vessel at the HEADS of the RIVER SHUKIANGAH on SUNDAY, APRIL 27th, 1823, and on the 5th MAY following he came to the house of the REVD. John Butler in a distressed state, having lost all he had in the vessel, and was kindly taken by the REVD. John Butler, and that he remained at the house of MR. BUTLER some months waiting an opportunity to get away from NEW ZEALAND, and was treated in every respect with kindness and attention. That during that period he had the opportunity of witnessing the indefatigable industry of MR. AND MRS. BUTLER in the work of the MISSION and the good of the NATIVES. That in his house he never beheld anything but order and propriety, coupled with unvaried attention to the comfort and instruction of the many natives he employed, and those who were daily going to and fro from his house.
He further states that during his residence at MR. BUTLER'S, he generally made one of MR. BUTLER'S boat's crew, in going up and down the HARBOUR, on the business of the MISSION, and that he was one of the boat's crew page 342 the day MR. BUTLER went to pay for the land at the TEE, A SETTLEMENT belonging to a CHIEF named TARAYHA and his son OKEEDA, that he was with MR. BUTLER the whole day. That he went with MR. BUTLER on board the brig “DRAGON,” to seek after the chief and his son. That MR. BUTLER was perfectly sober when he went on board the brig “DRAGON,” and so when he returned to the TEE, and that his former statements in NEW ZEALAND are the truth and nothing but the truth.


Affidavits were sworn before Jno. Wilde, Judge Adv. N.S.W., on January 29th, 1824, by Samuel Butler and Ann Butler, son and daughter-in-law, both of Parramatta, to the effect that while resident at a place called the Tee in New Zealand, the Revd. John Butler had been at their house on the morning of 27th October, 1823; that at six in the evening he took a boat and went down the river, and returned about nine o'clock in the evening. That he, the said John Butler, never took sufficient spirits to make any man in health the least inebriated; that he was perfectly sober when he left the house, and that he was perfectly sober when he returned.


Mr. Samuel Butler deposeth, that on October 27th, 1823, that his father and mother and Mr. James Shepherd came to the Tee, the station under his care and charge; that the object of his father's coming, and bringing Mr. Shepherd with him, was to pay for the land chosen for the station.

That when they arrived, having been several hours upon the water, and come fourteen miles in a heavy sea, he took them into his house (or rush hut), when Mrs. Butler, Jnr., set such refreshment before them as she had.

Afterwards, the chief Tarayha and his son, not being at the station but were gone to the brig “Dragon” to sell hogs for muskets and powder that his father, Mr. James Shepherd, and himself, went about the estate, making some observations as they passed along, and thus continued until dinner was ready, which was about two o'clock or something later; that they all dined together in his hut, after which, they again took a walk, and waited for the chief until about five o'clock in the evening, but they did not return. Having therefore, in conjunction with his father and Mr. Shepherd, set apart the trade to be given for the land, and having made every other necessary arrangements, he prepared his boat as fast as possible, in order to take his mother and Mr. Shepherd to the Kiddee Kiddee, and in order to speak to Mr. Marsden about what had passed between Mr. Marsden and his father in the morning, and which had given his father much anxiety of mind, and to convince Mr. Marsden of the falsehood of those reports

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Further, that as the chiefs were gone to the “Dragon,” and uncertain when they might return, his father, who was to be left to finish the business in hand, determined to go to the vessel after the chief, and accordingly manned his boat and we set off together, and kept in company for some miles, as we had to pass the vessel on our way to Kiddee Kiddee.

Mr. Samuel Butler further declares that he was in his father's company the whole time from the arrival at his station; that he neither ate nor drank but in his presence, and that his father was perfectly sober when he left to go on board the “Dragon;” that he had made every inquiry about his return, and both the native servants, as well as Mrs. Butler, declared to him that his father returned in the same sober state as when I left him.



November 8th, 1823.

Messrs. Butler, Hall, King, Kemp, and Shepherd.

As I am about to leave New Zealand for a time at least, and scandalous reports have been raised of me, I deem it necessary for the justification of my character, to put the following questions, in order that you may speak according to your knowledge of me, and have no reason to speak differently after my departure.

1st.—Have I ever lived in any known sin such as drunkenness, adultery, or any other crime since you have had an opportunity of knowing me? Rev. John Butler No!
Mr. Wm. Hall No!
Mr. King No!
Mr. J. Shepherd—I believe he lived before he was married in disobedience to his parents.
(Butler was born 1781 married 1798.) Mr. James Kemp No!
2nd.—Do I live in open sin, and am I worthy of censure? Rev. John Butler No!
Mr. Wm. Hall No!
Mr. King No!
Mr. J. Shepherd No!
Mr. James Kemp No!

These questions were asked in the presence of the Revd. Mr. Marsden and the Revd. Mr. Leigh.



AFFIDAVIT OF MR. E. S. HALL. (Copy from the “Hocken” Collection.)

Edward Smith Hall, of Sydney, in the territory of New South Wales, gentleman, being duly sworn upon the evangelists of Almighty God, solemnly maketh oath and saith that he is acquainted with Samuel More, master mariner, and late com- page 344 mander of the merchant ship “Brampton,” some time since wrecked at the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, and that he, this deponent, verily believes the said Captain More to be an active intrepid man in his profession or calling as a master mariner, but at the same time knows him to be extremely lewd and profane in his ordinary discourse.……*

And this deponent further saith that in consequence of such shameful and profane remarks of the said Samuel More, he verily believes the said Samuel More would take pleasure in exposing and exaggerating the infirmities, and in misrepresenting the manners and conversation of any man making a profession of religion. And this deponent further saith that he hath known the Reverend John Butler ever since his arrival in New South Wales, and from his own knowledge and the intelligence he, this deponent, has from time to time learned from visitants at New Zealand, he verily believes the said John Butler to be by far the most active, zealous, pious, moral, and useful missionary in the Church Mission established in the said Island.


Sworn at my office in
Maquarie Place, in Sydney,
in the Territory of New South
Wales (where no stamps are used)
this thirtieth day of
January, 1824.
Before me,
Judge Adv. N.S.W.


(Now in the “Hocken” Collection.)

Wm. White, of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, having been in New Zealand for several months, and having had frequent intercourse with the brethren of the Church Missionary Society, and especially with the Rev. John Butler, to whose kindness and assistance in the establishment of our Mission in New Zealand we owe much; and whose moral conduct is now called in question, begs to state that he never saw anything in Mr. Butler's conduct as a Christian and a minister of Jesus Christ which could possibly be construed into a blot on his moral character; nor does he hesitate to say that he believes the present reports in circulation to be the invention of wicked and designing men.


page 345

REV. WALTER LAWRY TO REV. John Butler. (In the possession of the “Hocken” Library.)

January 9th, 1824.

My very Dear Sir,

If by contributing my humble testimony to your missionary and Christian career, since I have had the honour of your acquaintance and friendship, I can in the smallest degree serve you, it will afford me no inconsiderable happiness.

On my arrival in New Zealand in 1822, I was highly gratified and delighted to find the missionaries in a state of peace and activity, which I considered bespoke their piety, and encouraged blooming hopes of success.

But allow me, my dear Sir, the liberty of saying that your docile, humble, and pious conversation made a deep impression on my mind. It did me good. While in the colony, your mind had been greatly tried; the conduct of your brethren toward you, I considered far from pleasant, or proper toward you. The Society's agent more especially grieved you.

But when I saw your spirit and conduct at New Zealand, and witnessed the maturity and wisdom of your plans, together with your unwearied, unremitted industry in promoting the noble objects of the Society, and compared them with the sweet, condescending and affectionate manner in which both yourself and Mrs. Butler were pleased to welcome and care for Mrs. Lawry and myself, I was at a loss to express the grateful feelings of my heart. It was then my opinion, and the opinion of those who were with me that you were the most calculated for extensive usefulness of any man among all the excellent brethren of that Mission; this is still my opinion.

As to the vile and wicked slanders which certain persons have maliciously propagated concerning you, no one will believe them save those who wish to do so. I believe that those who know your proceeding in your Mission, and are unbiassed by party feelings, are forward to allow you to be an eminently pious and useful minister of Jesus Christ. I hope you will see your way clear to return to New Zealand, and that God will then bless you with all blessings in your suffering, misrepresented, and yet hopeful Mission.

Please to accept, Rev. and dear Sir, my grateful tribute of thanks for the Christian kindness which I have witnessed at your hands.

I am your aff. brother,


Wesleyan Missionary.
Rev. John Butler.

J. Dunmore Lang, M.D., to Right Hon. Lord Durham, 1839.

The Mission was originally established, and for a long time systematically conducted, on the principle of first civilizing, and then Christianizing the natives. Reversing the Apostolic plan, the missionary page 346 carpenter, the missionary boat-builder, the missionary ploughman, the missionary rope-spinners, were all set to work at their various occupations, and the natives were expected forthwith to imitate their example; in fact, the Mission settlement in New Zealand was for a long time a complete lumber yard, or factory, in which all sorts of labour were going on; but the proper labour of the missionary—the very clergyman, for there was only one on the island—being in no respect different from a common agricultural labourer, except that he mounted a pulpit and read prayers in a surplice every Sunday.

That clergyman, the Rev. Mr. Butler, told me himself in the year 1824—the year he left the New Zealand Mission and returned to England—that during the previous season he had ploughed and sown eleven acres of land for wheat at the Mission settlement on the Kidi Kidi River, with his own hands, having previously, with the assistance of his son Samuel, who was afterwards drowned in New Zealand, grubbed up the whole of the ground, which had been originally overgrown with tall fern.

Fortunately, indeed, a laborious occupation of this kind was more congenial to the taste and habits of Mr. B. than labour of a more intellectual or missionary character, for, previous to his ordination to foreign parts, and his appointment to the office of Superintendent of the Church of England Mission in New Zealand, and Justice of the Peace in that island, under the government of New South Wales, he had merely been the out-of-door clerk, or foreman, of a large London establishment, for forwarding goods by common carriers and canal boats.

For some time the missionary settlement with its workshops, its bell to ring the people in and out, etc., was an exact copy of the lumber yard in Sydney, and some of the natives were quick-sighted enough to see the difference, and to act accordingly. For when the stout missionary ploughman, who was the only ordained missionary on the island, at the time I allude to, arrayed himself in his canonicals and read prayers on Sunday, the natives shrewdly observed that he was the only rangitira or gentleman among them, and that the rest were only “cookeys,” or slaves.

Brett, in his “Early History of New Zealand,” remarks: “Butler was eminently an agriculturist, and offended the ‘unco guid ’ in New South Wales by his bucolic tastes.”

Be that as it may, it was a case of produce or starve, and when Rev. Saml. Leigh, the Wesleyan, came to Keri Keri, the location of Butler, Hall and Kemp, he writes:—

“It resembles a neat little country village, with a good school-house lately erected in the centre. When standing on an eminence near, we can see cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses, houses, fields covered with wheat, oats and barley, and gardens richly filled with all kinds of vegetables, fruit trees, and a variety of useful productions. In the yards may be seen geese, ducks and turkeys; and in the evening, cows returning to the Mission families, by which they were supplied with good milk and butter. The settlement forms a most pleasing object.”

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Samuel Marsden himself wrote a justification of his own farming propensities, page 19, “Life of Marsden,” by Rev. J. B. Marsden. “His farming was on a much more extensive scale however, for when he went to England in 1807, he owned twelve acres of wheat, ten acres barley, six acres oats, half an acre in peas and beans, eight acres in potatoes, seven acres in orchard and garden, five hundred acres fallow, and two thousand, three hundred and twelve acres in pasturage—in all, two thousand eight hundred and fifty-five and a half acres, with besides, goats, hogs, and cattle, one thousand one hundred and eighty-two sheep.

An Agreement between THOMAS HANSEN and the REVD. SAML. MARSDEN on behalf of the CHURCH MISSION ARY SOCIETY at 10/- per week and rations, commencing AUGUST 21st, 1819.

Such sum will be paid to him on the SOCIETY'S account as long as the REVD. MR. BUTLER shall find his services necessary for the general benefit of the SETTLEMENT. He the said THOMAS HANSEN is willing to continue in the employ of the CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.

JAMES BOYLE, Saltmaker, MANAWAURA, was paid £9 5s for goods stolen from him by natives, January 7th, 1820.

GEORGE HARRISON commenced 9th March, 1820.


Wm. Hall, Snr.
Wm. Bean
Wm. Puckey
Wm. Fairburn.
Geo. Gordon and family, L. 9/11/19
Jas. Kemp
John. King
Francis Hall
Hannah Hansen
Thomas Hansen and son
Mrs. Hansen
James Boyle
Richard Russell.page 348
Geo. (the brickmaker) a native
Geo. Harrison.
—— Johnson
John Lee.
—— Carlisle and family, left 9/11/19
Wm. Hall (Jun.), left 9/11/19
Saml. Butler, left 9/11/19


Bean, George Thomas Born Oct., 1819.
Bean,— — Christened May 15th, 1821
Hall, (girl, Dinah?) Born May 28th, 1815
Hall,— — Born before 1818.
Hall,— — Christened Mar. 7th, 1821
Hansen, William Brend Christened June 30th, 1823
Fairburn, Elizabeth Christened Aug. 29th, 1821
Kemp, Henry Christened Feb. 11th, 1821
Kemp, Elizabeth Christened Mar. 3rd, 1823
King, Holloway Born Feb. 21st, 1815
King, William Spence Christened Feb. 27th, 1820
King, J—— W—— Christened 1816
King, Samuel Lee Christened Mar. 16th, 1822
King, Joseph Christened Nov. Ist, 1823
Kendall (somewhere about six children)
Shepherd (boy) Born July 26th, 1823.
Christened by Marsden Aug. 17th, 1823 (Strachan)

The “Active,” on her first trip, December 22nd, 1814, carried thirty-five passengers, among whom were (excluding natives), the Rev. Samuel Marsden and his friend John Liddiard Nicholas as visitors, and as permanent resident lay-men missionaries and assistants, Messrs. Wm. Hall and his wife Dinah, their son Willie, aged three (through ill-health all returned to Sydney in 1826), Thomas Kendall (who was eventually drowned off the Australian coast), his wife Jane, and his three sons, Thomas, Henry and William, King, his wife Hannah and son Philip, who was a baby in arms, and not aged fifteen as records state, Mrs. Hannah Hansen (wife of Capt. Hansen of the “Active”), and her son Thomas; also three ticket-of-leave men, Walter Hall, Patrick Shaffery, and Richard Stockwell.

page 349

On August 28th, 1816, John Shergold, Sarah Mackenzie, and Joseph Rogers and wife are listed as arriving, and for the Mission, 1817, Messrs. Carlisle, wife and child, and Charles Gordon, wife and child. Butler enters the name George Gordon (not Charles) in the account books. Therein also appear John Kendall, Joseph Kendall and Susannah Kendall; these must have come with their parents in 1814.

Thos. Hansen (sen.) and his son's wife were also in New Zealand about this time.

On August 12th, 1819, James Kemp and wife, Francis Hall (who left in 1822), Rev. John Butler and wife, Hannah, son Samuel, and daughter Hannah, Rev. Marsden, also probably James Boyle, saltmaker, William Bean, carpenter, his son (who died the following year aged three), and William Fairburn, wife and family; the total arriving, including chiefs returning, being twenty-two persons.

In February, 1820, there arrived John Lee (sent back at a later date by the committee), and James Shepherd, also Thomas Foster, George Harrison, and Richard Russell, and George, a native brickmaker, who had learnt his trade at Parramatta. About this date, W. G. Puckey, wife and daughter were in New Zealand (probably arrived August 12th, 1819).

On February 2nd, 1822, Rev. Leigh and wife, and Mr. William White of the Methodist Society, arrived, also Mr. Cowell and wife. [Was this the Cowell who helped Te Rauparaha to snare Te Maiharanui at Kaiapoi in 1830?] Other names appear in Luke Wade, and James Spencer.

Mr. Stack came in February, 1823, and on August 3rd, 1823, there arrived the Rev. Henry Williams, Mrs. Williams, and three children, several domestics, together with Rev. S. Marsden; and for the Methodist Mission, Mr. and Mrs. Turner and Mr. Hobbs.

page 350


(1) Ko Heehee-o-Tottay Tote
Hihi (Williams)
Te Ihi (P. Smith)
Te Keddee Keddee
(2) Ko Heenau Hinau (Drummond) Wedee Nakee
(3) Ko Heevee Evee (Cruise)
Iwi Tahi
(4) Ko Hengi
(Killed Kororareka 1830)
Hengi (Williams) Mongonewee
(5) Ko Hoodoo-roa Ehoodoo (Cruise)
Ururoa (W'ms and Smith)
Ahuoodoo (Leigh)
Ahududu (Turner)
Te Kedee Kedee
(6) Ko Keera Okeeda (Cruise)
Pakeeda (Hall)
Okita (Drummond)
Kira (P. Smith)
Son of Tareha
(7) Ko Kookoopa Kukupa (P. Smith) Wypou
(8) Ko Kyhoo Weedee Nakkee
(9) Ko Kynga-dooa Not Hongi's brother who died 1815
Kaingaroa (C. Kemp)
(10) Ko Kytarra Kaiterra (Cruise)
Son of Pomare (P. Smith)
(11) Ko Mattangee Matangi (P. Smith)
Chief of Waima
Son of Whare-Maru
Matenga (C. Kemp)
(Upper Waihou)
(12) Ko Mattayheeka Wytangee
(13) Ko Moka Moka (W'ms and Smith)
Alias Kainga Mata
Brother of Whare Rahi and Rewa
Te Keddee Keddee
(14) Ko Motoee Matohee Pyhea
(15) Ko Moroo Wanga-tawha-tea
page break
TAMATI WAKA NENE, Chief of Ngapuhi.

TAMATI WAKA NENE, Chief of Ngapuhi.

page 352
(16) Ko Moodeewenoa Muriwhenua
Mowhena of Hokianga (Cruise)
(17) Ko Moodeewye Moodewye (Earle)
Moodooi (Cruise)
(Died from wounds 1828)
(18) Ko Moodoopynga Murupaenga (P. Smith)
Born about 1760
(Killed 1826)
(19) Ko Nay-nay Nene (Earle)
Whaka-nene (Williams)
Died 1871
Te Pappa
(Te Papa)
(20) Ko Ngawday Ngaure (P. Smith)
Killed at sea, White Island, 1831.
(21) Ko Pattoohonay Patuone (Earle, Smith & W'ms)
Eruera Maihi Patuone
Died 1872, aged 108 (P. Smith)
Te Pappa
(Te Papa)
(22) Ko Pomarree Pomare (Williams)
Pomarree (Cruise)
Whetoi (P. Smith)
Killed about 1826 at Waikato
(23) Ko Po-roa Poro (Cruise)
Paru (Yate) died of phthisis, 1829
Parore-Te-Awha (?)
(P. Smith)
Younger brother of Hihi-o-Totahi
(Ngaitewaki Tribe?)
(24) Ko Ra Ti Raha (?) (P. Smith)
Son of Papa who was massacred at Rotorua, 1822
Rawa (Leigh)
Hara, chief of Ohaiawai
(25) Ko Rewha Rowa (Cruise)
Rivers (Earle)
Rewa (Williams)
Riwhi or Manu (P. Smith)
Not Rewha Rewha of Waikato, who was killed in 1826
Te Keddee Keddee
page break
High Priest of Hokianga River entrance.

High Priest of Hokianga River entrance.

page 354
(26) Ko Rookoorookoo Ruky Ruky (Earle) Knucklepoint
Adoodoo (Oruru)
(27) Ko Shawrakkee Hauraki
Our ally, killed at Waikare, 1845 (?)
(Kerikeri) (Paiatai)
(28) Ko Shongee-Heeka Hongi-hika
Hongi (Cruise, Earle and Williams)
Born 1777 (Gudgeon)
Died from wounds, 1828
Te Keddee Keddee
(29 Ko Shopay Tahkoo (Takou)
(30) Ko Shottay Akaeigh (Earle)
Hotaiwa of Mangakahia (?)
(31) Ko Toh'kee Hiki (of Williams)
Te Heke (of P. Smith)
(32) Ko Toh'oho Taoho (P. Smith) Kyparra-Roroa
(33) Ko Toh'rayha Tarrea (Cruise)
Tareha (Williams)
Tariah (Earle)
Tareha-Ngakuti (Smith)
(An enormous man)
(Born 1780) and of Kaihu
(34) Ko Tawywye Tawaewae (P. Smith) Mattowee
(35) Ko Tangee-to-doodoo Tangi-te-ruru Wykatto
(36) Ko Taweero Te Waero (?) (P. Smith)
(Killed at Mototawa, 1822)
(37) Ko Tawtaddee Te Kooa Kooa
(Kawa Kawa)
(38) Ko Toenga Te Waenga (?) (High Priest) Weedea
(39) Ko Toreetoonooa Toretumua (P. Smith) Toh'wy-mattee
(North Waimate)
(40) Ko Towuhee Tohi Tapu (Williams)
of Paihia Towi (Cruise)
Te Weddee Wedee
(41) Ko Warree-mo-kiki Wharetomakia (?) (P. Smith)
Wharemokiki (Killed at sea, 1831)
(42) Ko Wohwee Mootooroa
(43) Ko Warree-pork Wharepork (Earle)
Wharepoaka (Smith & Wms.)
Rangee Hoopage 355
(44) Ko Wettohee Whetoi or Pomare
(Probably son of Pomare)
(45) Ko Weeteedooa Witirua North Cape
(46) Ko Weeveea Wevere (Cruise)
Weveah (Hall)
Whiwhia (P. Smith)
Waitea (Drummond)
(Elder brother of Tetoro)
(47) Ko Wydooa Wairua (P. Smith)
(Nephew of Hongi)
(48) Ko Wydooa Waidua (Cruise) Mattowdee
(49) Ko Te Ahhee Hae Hae (Leigh)
Ahee Ahee (C.M.S.)
(Died 1832)
(50) Ko Te Ahheetoo E'I'Too (Leigh) Weedeea
(51) Ko Te Hay Tyhami
(52) Ko Te Hoodee-o-kunna Gunna (Cruise)
Anodeo Gunna (Leigh)
Turi-o-kuna (P. Smith)
Te Uriti (?)
(53) Ko Te Hoohoo Pukenui (Pakanae)
(54) Ko Te Kannawha Te Kanawa (P. Smith)
Killed by Hongi
(55) Ko Te Kahwekka Te Kaweka (Monga-mooka)
Te Waittee
(56) Ko Te Kayha Te Kaiha Mangakahea
(57) Ko Te Koeekoee Te Koikoi (Williams)
(Died 1829) (Smith)
(58) Ko Te Kokee Tekokee (Cruise)
Te Koki (P. Smith)
De Kookie (Earle)
(Died 1829)
(59) Ko Te Kopiddee Te Waraw
(60) Ko Te Korrakorra Kro Kro (Cruise)
Koro Koro (Williams)
Karo Karo (P. Smith)
(Born about 1760, killed 1823)
(61) Ko Te Koa-shoa

and many others.
A northern chief of the name was slain at Kaiapoi, S.I., in 1828 with Te Pehi Weddee Nakee
(Whirinaki)page 356
(62) Ko Te Kykoomoo Kaikumu Te Keddee Keddee
(63) Ko Te Ky-whiwah Kaipiha (?) of
Whangarei (Smith)
(64) Ko Te Mongitee Son of Hengi
Te Manga (?) aged 90 in 1877
Mango (Williams)
(65) Ko Te Moko Moco (Hall) Wytangee
(66) Ko Te Morenga Timoranga (Cruise)
Te Morengha (Williams)
Chief of Taiamai
Brother of Perihika, who died 1820.
(67) Ko Te Nana Tinana of Kapua (?)
Tenaana (Williams)
Te Nana (Nicholas)
Te Kiddee Kiddee
(68) Ko Te Payree Te Pari (P. Smith)
Chief of Ngatipo Tepperre (Cruise)
(69) Ko Te Pohee Tepuhi (P. Smith)
Tippooi (Cruise)
Wanga-roa (Wangaroa)
(70) Ko Te Rakow Nephew of Whareumu Range-hoo
(71) Ko Te Rangee Te Rangi
(Brother of Korokoro)
(72) Ko Te Ta-onewee Te Taunui, Chief of Otakura (Brett 382)
Tetony (Cruise) (Our ally in 1845)
Shoke Anga (Oraka)
(73) Ko Te Ta-onga Weedeea
(74) Ko Te Tawhamahooay Korora-reka
(Koro Rareka)
(75) Ko Te Arra Te Ara
Tara (P. Smith)
(Died Dec., 1825)
Ahera (Turner)
(Kaimimi River)
(76) Ko Te Toddoo Born about 1775 (P. Smith)
Te Toru (brother of Whiwhia
Tetoro (Cruise and Earle)
page 357
TITORE, a Bay of Islands Chief.

TITORE, a Bay of Islands Chief.

page break
(77) Ko Te Toolay Titore (Williams)
Titore or Takiri (P. Smith)
(Killed 1838)
(Koro Rareka)
(78) Ko Te Wahha Weedeenakkee
(79) Ko Te Warreeow-nownee Whareoneone Manga-kohea
(80) Ko Te Warreehoomoo King George (Cruise)
Whareumu (W'ms & Smith)
Shulitea (Earle)
(Killed 1828)
(Brother of Kinikini)
(81) Ko Te Warre-newee Wharenui (Rewarded by committee in N.Z. for humane treatment of prisoners) Te Keddee Keddee
(82) Ko Te Warre-pappa Ngapuhi leader
Wharepapa (P. Smith)
Te Takou
(83) Ko Te Watta Wata (Yate) Te Akau
(84) Ko Te Werra Kaiteke (P. Smith)
Te Wera (P. Smith)
Shourakkee (Marsden)
(near Keri Keri)
(Went to East Coast to live, Gisborne)
(85) Ko Te Wyro Henry Waru (?) (P. Smith)
or Te Waero of Ngapuhi
[Killed at Rotorua, 1822 (?)]
Te Keddee Keddee

A large number of these names appear in works dealing with the natives of that period, and can be traced. It is difficult to understand the omission of others who were personally well known to Mr. Butler. Possibly they were of inferior rank, for some called chiefs by one writer are called servants by another. This list was evidently compiled soon after his arrival in England, either from memory or from notes in his possession.

Yates refers to Paitaro of Manga Kaua Kaua, Kaheke of Kaikohe, andAtua Haereof the same locality.

Earle in his 1827 visit to New Zealand, mentions Kiney Kiney as brother of King George (Whareumu), Punga Punga and Arangy Tooker; the last two being referred to as Pango and Rangitukia by Williams.

page 359

Atoi of Matowe, related to George (otherwise Te Ara chief of Wangaroa); perhaps he was Whetoi, alias Pomare.

Te Kukihi of Kawa Kawa, who may be Tekoki of Paihia.

Wharerahi, chief of Paroa, re-christened Hori Kingi.

Kekeao, chief of Ahuahu.

Moetara, chief of Pakanae.

Rev. W. Williams, “Christianity Among the New Zealanders,” among others, names:—

Kaha Kaha (son of Hengi), Pana Kareao, Waharoa, Paerata, Tama, and Poti, Whaare, Ripi (son of Hongi), aged 15 in 1820, called Repero by Cruise, and Ripiro by P. Smith.

Mr. Percy Smith has several names of fighting chiefs who, unless they possess the not infrequent alias, partly the result of an unwritten language, are unmentioned in this list.

Perehico (Cruise), brother of Evee, died in 1820, discarded his name and took an island name.

Wyacaddy (Cruise), youngest brother of Koro Koro.

Benny (Cruise), or Kaipo, uncle to Koro Koro, born about 1750, killed in action 1823.

Cruise mentions Tooi (alias Tupaea, died October 17th, 1824.)

Keevee Keevee (known as Kivy Kivy by Earle), Shungie of North Cape, Cowerapopo, Towretta, Tetatta and Hinaki; last three names of Thames. From this latter district, Williams mentions:—

Terohou, Rukuata, Tekupenga; and from Waikato:—

Te Whero Whero and his brother, Te Kati; Whare Kawa.

The following are possibly Butler's first translations.—



A karra! A Pa! e dunga, e te rangee, Toa Ingoa wysho ke a tabboo,


Hiree Mi quoi tou rangitiera tanga, hiree mi,


Kea rongo attoo te wenooa nei ke tou mayhanga mi, paynei me te rangee ka rongo;


Mo taynei Ra, to matou tinno oranga mo matou,


(a) Wakka warree warree quoi to matou nei mahhee keeno, paynei okei ke to matou warree warree nga ke te mahhee keeno o ratou, kea matou.


Kawa matou a wanga ke te keeno; wayhaya matou i te keeno. Na! He a quoi te Rangateera tanga, ke a quoi te kahha; ke a quoi te wakka pipi, I heenei a —— po noa.

Kea pono.
page 360


Ka waka pono ow na ke ta Atua ko ta matua taboo waka ara ara oke, nanu i anga ta Rangi, ma te wenooa.

Ka waka pono Au na ke a Jesus Christ, ta tamaete nake nake o te Atua, na, ko to tato Atua;

Kooa to ra oke ea e ta Wydooa Atua, Ka Wanai ia Mary a Wyine taka kau, kooa maroo ea Pontius Pilate, Kooa crucified, a; ka mate;

Kooa ote ta tangoo, kooa ake ea kedaro ke ta po; na, kooa ara ea e ta mate, e ta ra toroo oke; na, kooa kake ra oke ke roonga ki ta Range.

A, a noho ano ia ki ta renga renga matou e ta Atua, ta matau teboo waka ara ara;

No reda oki ea a aere myae, a waka wa ki nga maa ora, ke nga maa mate;

Kawaka pono au na ke ta Wydooa Atua.

Ki ta anga gnatu o nga tangata ka toa ke ta Atua;

Ke ta py o nga tangata ka anga (atu) ke ta Atua, ke ta o ke anga my o ta rongo ke nga tangata shara, ke ta aranga ka toa tonga o ta tangata, ke ta oranga ka toa tanga oke, ake, ake, ake. Amen.

A hoonga, no ta Tamaete no ta Atua. A to mato matooa teboo, a noho ana ki ta range; ke a taboo to ingoa ra Ma waka mau ta rongo o nga tangata katoa ia koe, ma waka rete oke ta anga o nga tangata o ta wanooa ke to wakaro, ma ta range ka rete.

Ma omy ano aena, a ty oranga ma mato.

A shea my ra ta rongo ke a mato, ma mato ano oke o ohea ana ta rongo ke nga tangata, a keno ana ke a mato.

Ka ara ae na mato ke ta waka pake pakenga o ta Wydooa keno, waka ora ra mato e ta keno; nau ano oke ta tangata katoa, ma ta kaha, ma ta he he, amooa a;

Ake, ake, ake, Amen.



A Jehovah! A Atua newee quoi, na 'au te mahhinga katoa tanga ke dunga ke te rangee, ke darro ke te wenooa.


A Atua pi quoi ke te tangata. Na' au ra okee e wakatupoo ai te tangata, na'au ra okee tona teenana, me tona wydooa.

page 361

Na au ra okee te ki, na' au ra okee te wye, na' au ra okee te maya whakka kahoo.


Na au ra okee to matou Toopoona, A tangata pi ra okee Hea, e tana whakka—toopoonga ya quoi a ngakau pi ra okee tona ngakau, a ngakau rangee madeeay.


Away! koa warree warree ra oke to matou Toopoona ke te pi, koa keeno, koa keeno tona ngakou ke a quoi, koa mahooay tona keeno ke roto ke tona hoodee, kohea ra oke to matou nei keeno ke te ngakau, kohea to matou hayhanga.


Whakka pi mi quoi ke a matou. Hoodee mi tou Wydooa a whakka mannawha tanga mo matou, ke a kahha ai matou ke te mahhe pi. Whakka rerree attoo matou te ngakau pohoodee; tongowea mi te ngakau maramma, whakka rerree attoo te ngakau keeno: tongo mea mi te wakaro pi; whakka rerree attoo te korayro keeno, tongo wea mi te korayro pi, whakka rerre attoo te mahhee kenno, tongo wea mi te mahinga pi, kia pi tonoo ai to matou nei wakaro, me te korayro okee, me te mahhinga oke Kia Ora.


Teehakkee mi quoi kia matou ke to po, ke to ao. Whakka rongo attoo matou ke to mayhanga mi, ke roto ke a Jesus Christ taynei Heenoee tanga, kia pono.

Whakka rerree attoo te korayro keeno tonga wea mi te korayro pi, whakka rerre attoo te mahhee keeno tonga wea mi te mahhinga pi ke a pi.

Tanga kea pono.


A Atooa neu newee! A kittay mi enna ra okee quoi ke roto ke te ngakau, ki te Heengangarro o nga tangata katoa; oree rewwha a tahhee maya e ngarro ya quoi, Hoodee mi quoi tou Wydooa, a wakka inannowha-tanga mo matou, ke a pi ai te wakkaro o matou nei ngakau kia tikka ai, kia tikka tonoo to matou nei arroha ke a quoi; ki a wakka pai tonoo attoo matou ke tou Ingoa tabboo. Ke roto kea Jesus Christ taynei Heenoee tanga, ke a pono.

page 362


Na Jehovah aynei tononga e tono mi ai ki te Tangata.


Na, awa a attooa kay mo'ou ko au annake tou Atua. A Jehovah, arroha mi quoi ke a matou, kea pi ai to matou nei ngakau, ke a rongo attoo matou ke tou tononga mi nei.


Awa ra oke quoi a wakiro ke te pappa a deetinga Atua A deetenga ra okee ke tay tahhe maya ki dunga ke te rangee, ke darro ke wenooa okee, ke darro ke te moana e kou te wenoo. Awa ra okee quoi a titteero attoo, a tangee (puremoo) attoo ke aynei maya. Ko'au ra okee ko tou Atua okee, ko te Atua too poto ra okee au.

Ka whakka too atoo au tokoo diddee ke nga tammaneekee e te kieno a nga Madua ti noa attoo ke nga hoodee o nga tangata whakka keeno ke an. Na! a pi enna ra okee au ke te manno o nga tangata ka roha ka rongo.


Awa ra okee quoi a tonga tonga noa ke tou rayo te ingoa o tou Atua. Aquorree te Atua a payna, a pi Hea ke te tangata tonga noa ke tona ingoa.


Kea mahayra ra okee quoi ke te whakka pi ke te Ra Tabbo. A honna nga Ra a mahhee ai quoi kea otee ai tou mohhinga katoa tonga. A Ra Tabboo ra okee te Ra Wittoo, na tou Atua ra okee, Awa ra okee quoi a mahhee e taynei ra—Ko quoi, ko tou-tamitee, ko tou tammaheenee, ko tou pononga tane, ko tou pononga waheenee, me 'ou karaddee okee, me te tangata kay okee, a nohho anno ke roto ke tou kahinga. Na! A honno nga Ra e te mahhinga katoa tanga o te rangee, o te wenooa, o te moana, me nga maya katoa e tay Atua. A nohho madeeay anno ra oke Hea e te ra Wittoo, kohea te ra Wittoo, nana e pi ai, e tabboo ai.


Kea pi attoo quoi ke tou madua, ke tou madua waheenee ke a whakka newee ai, mo te roa ra okee o tou nohhowanga ke te wenooa nei, na te Atua e tookoo mai ke ya quoi.


Awa ra okee quoi a pattoo noa ke te tangata.


Awa ra okee quoi a pooremoo kai.


Awa ra okee quoi a tyhi.,


Awa ra okee quoi a whakka tekka noa, te korayro, ra nei, te mahhinga ra nei, o to shoa.


Awa ra okee quoi a heehanga ke te warree o tou shoa, awa ra okee quoi a heehanga ke te waheenee o tou shoa, ke tona pononga tane ra nei ke tona pononga waheenee, ra nei, ke tana karaddee wawahhea ra nei, ke tona karaddee ma tanganga ra nei ke ana maya katoa.

page 363

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS as printed at Paihia, New Zealand in 1840, showing the alteration from the phonetics to present orthography:—

Turi 1. Aua ra ki a koe etahi Atua ke atu ki mua i a hau.

Ture 2. Aua hoki koe e hanga i tetahi wakapakoko mou, i tetahi ritenga o tera i runga i te rangi, i raro i te wenua, i roto i te wai i raro o te wenua. Aua hoki koe e koro-piko ki a ratou; aua i mahi mo ratou; na, ko a hau a Ihowa ko tou Atua, he Atua tupato, a e wai ana i nga hara a nga matua ki nga tamariki ki te toru ki te wa o nga wakatupuranga o ratou e kino ana ki au: a ka atawaitia e au nga mano e aroha ana ki au, e wakarite ana i aku ture.

Ture 3. Aua hoki te Ingoa o Ihowa tou Atua e waka huatia noatia; ekore hoki e meinga e Ihowa he tangata tika te tangata e wakahua noa ana i tona Ingoa.

Ture 4. Kia mahara ki te ra hapati, kia tapu; eono nga ra e mahi ai koe, a mahia katoatia tau mahi; na, ko te ra witu te hapati o Ihowa tou Atua. Aua ra e mahia tetahi mahi i taua ra, e koe, e tou tamaiti, e tou tamahine e tou pononga tane me tou pononga wahine, e ou kararehe me tou manuwiri i roto i au tatau. Eono hoki nga ra i hanga ai e Ihowa, te rangi, te wenua, te moana me nga mea katoa o roto; a okioki ana i te ra witu; na reira i wakapaingia ai te ra hapati e Ihowa, a wakatapua ana.

Ture 5. E rongo ra koe ki tou matua tane, ki tou matua wahine, kia roa ai tou noho i te wenua e ho mai ana ki a koe e Ihowa tou Atua.

Ture 6. Aua koe e patu.

Ture 7. Aua koe e puremu.

Ture 8. Aua koe e tahae.

Ture 9. Aua tou hoa e korerotia tekatia.

Ture 10. Aua koe e hiahia ki te ware o tou hoa; aua ano hoki koe e hiahia ki te wahine o tou hoa, ki tona pononga tane, ki tona pononga wahine, ki tona okiha, ki tona kaihe, ki tetahi ranei o nga mea o tou hoa.

* See “Life of Turner,” page 35: They endured eleven days at sea with one of the most profane captains they ever knew.