Proceedings of of the Kohimarama Conference, Comprising Nos. 13 to 18 of the "Maori Messenger."
Wednesday, 11th July, 1860
Wednesday, 11th July, 1860.
Mr. McLean opened to-day's proceedings by a short speech in which he again directed the attention of the meeting to the various subjects embraced in his Excellency the Governor's address. He pointed out the desirability of keeping, as far as possible, to the subject under discussion, and suggested that, for the sake of order, the chiefs of the several hapus should address the meeting in rotation, those who spoke yesterday giving place to others who had not yet expressed their opinions.
Hone Ropiha then requested the meeting to keep order, and not to be holding private conversations whilst speeches were being delivered.
Hori Kingi Tahua then addressed the meeting in the following words:—
Here is my speech, listen the Native side, listen also the English. Many years since, the Europeans landed at the Bay of Islands. I invited them on shore. Since then the name of the Queen arrived in New Zealand, and I befriended it. After that came the Pakehas. Some of the Pakehas were killed—I avenged their death—I heard of the murder of Europeans at the South; I came from the North and avenged their death. After that came the Missionaries and the Gospel. It spread from North to the South. After that again the Governor arrived. I invited him on shore; from (the North) he came to Auckland,—the colour (flagstaff) was erected at page 19 Maiki—the Pakeha fell (at Kororareka); this was my first evil—I ill treated the people whom I had invited and entertained. This was my sin. After that myself and grandfather, Kawiti, visited Kororareka to see Governor Grey. The Governor said, "Kawiti, do not look at what is past." Kawiti consented to the word of Governor Grey, and promised to cease from all disturbances. I consented to this, and said, It is good. Then this Governor visited the Bay of Islands. We held meetings for the purpose of erecting the flagstaff at Maiki at our own expense—we consented to this, erected the flagstaff and called it the Union of the two Nations. Pakehas, I have done—I shall return to my work—I shall return to my home,—to peace and to agricultural pursuits. Listen yon: I do not like evil—no, not at all.—I say, let these two people, the Pakehas and the Maori, be united. That is all. I have finished.
Te Manihera: Chiefs of New Zealand! Listen you: I am from Ngapuhi. Chiefs of the Pakeha, listen you, I am from Wangarei. I have entered the Government—the Government and the Faith—I embraced it from the first. Let us grow under the Queen's Government. My speech is finished.
Wiremu Tete: This is I—from the Bay of Islands. I will deliver my speech to you, the Pakehas. Of old I heard that the Pakehas were to be the Parents for us, the inhabitants of New Zealand—and I have constantly resided with the Pakeha to this day.
Wi Pohe: Listen the people. I am from Ngapuhi. Listen yon. It was the Pakeha that planted love amongst us (referring to former exterminating wars carried on by the Ngapuhi). Do not conjecture who I am. I am a Ngapuhi. By way of conclusion I let Tapsel go to Maketu—this was on the white (European) side. I let my daughter (Toha) marry to Wherowhero of Waikato—this was on the brown (Native) side. The time of our identifying ourselves with the interests of the Pakeha was when the flagstaff was erected at Maiki: this was our consenting for ever and ever.
Te Taurau: I am front Ngapuhi. The Assembly—I am from Wairoa. This is my speech to you—there is but one name in heaven—Jehovah—so there but one name upon earth—the Queen. Let us then rest under the (Queen's) Government
Tohi te Ueurangi: All the Europeans and; all the Natives, salutations to you, I will speak of page 20 my thoughts. The Pakehas are asking, "Are the speeches of this man correct, or of that man?" Let me tell you that my words are correct. I give thanks to the Governor, and to the Queen also. He shall be my people, he shall be my support, because my father is dead. If I divulge all my words, you will say, "Are they true?" or, "How are they!" I will cease speaking here.
Mangonui: I salute you, O ye Europeans! I entered under the first Governor, and under the second also. The speech regarding the colour is correct. What I desire is the union of the European and Maori races,
Wiremu Kingi Kaitara: I have nothing to say: my kindness is not of to-day. Even before the Law came to this country, I sought to avenge the white man. When the Europeans were killed in the Bay of Islands, my parents stood up, and avenged their death. It is long since I entered upon the system of the Queen and Governor.
Hakitara: My word is this, Kindness to you for ever and ever. I will say nothing more. I will finish here.
Matene te Whiwhi: Mr. McLean, there is nothing else to be said. Light has been thrown upon the subject by you, by the Europeans. My word to-day is, The Europeans are parents to us. In the first instance, when the Europeans began to flock hither, Mr. Marsden came: afterwards came Governor Hobson, then the Europeans began; to find a footing in the country, and they began to find (work for) hands. You brought the system hither. First you brought baptism, and we were baptised in the name of Christ. That was completed. There has now become only one Christ, and one Governor: we have become one in (our allegiance to) the Queen. For this reason, O Governor, have we come down hither on this occasion. Now, O Mr. McLean, this is my opinion, that is, that these races should become united under the Queen. Let there be but one Sovereign for us, even the Queen. We have been invited hither by the Governor to express our opinion. It is well, therefore, that there should be but one system. Leave it not for the hidden voice, or unknown tongue, to disapprove, or cause to misunderstand. Yours is a hidden, or unknown tongue; as ours is also. Even though it be so, let the Queen unite us. Let the consideration rest with the Queen, for some person to enlighten both the European and the Native side; that we may resemble elder and younger brethren. Mr. McLean, my speech ends here.
Te Ahukaramu: I salute you, O ye Europeans! Let me utter my thoughts; The good point in Europeans, according to my mind, was the fact of their introducing the Gospel. These are the things which I desire. First, God: se-page 21condly, the Queen: thirdly, the Governor. Let there be one Queen for us. Make known to us all the laws, that we may all dwell under one law.
Hohepa Temaihengia: Salutations to you, Pakehas! I am desirous that you should make known to us a part of your Laws. Let this be the Manner of shewing your regard for us, namely, that we should have a part of the laws, and you the other part. I shall now sit down.
Horomona Toremi: Salutations to you, men of Ngapuhi, of Te Arawa, and of Waikato. I have been in the mire for the last twenty years. Listen, ye Pakeha gentlemen! It is by your menns that I am permitted to stand forth now. You (the Pakehas) are the only Chiefs. The Pakeha took me out of the mire: the Pakeha washed me. This is my word. Let there be one Law for all this Island. Mr. McLean I have finished.
Ropata Hurumutu: Listen, that I may tell of the good things. It was the first Governor who brought good I to New Zealand. That Governor has disappeared: nevertheless his successor inherits his goodness and his Justice. The Governor's measures with Rangihaeata and Te Rauparaha were just; for those Chiefs were Induced to say, Be kind to the Pakeha.
Nopera Te Ngiha: Listen, ye people! It was the Governor's letter that brought me, from my house. My commencement was with the Governor, and my subsequent career has been with the Governor. This is my first subject. The second subject I have to speak of is my land. Formerly Kawhia was my abode, but finding that it was all swampy land, I left it, and found my way to another corner of our Island. After this, Ministers came here. They came by way of the sea. In. my opinion it is with the Governor to consider, and to decide between the good and the bad. This is all I have to say. Let love and goodness emanate from the Governor. Let the Governor alone have the control.
Horopapera, Pukeko: Listen to me; ye Pakehas and Maories. The Pakeha washes away my ignorance, and I become enlightened. When we sold a piece of land, then we saw the Governor—the Governor who seeks the union of the Pakeha and Maori races. Let Wi Kingi and the Governor settle their own business. The subject now is union (of races).
Te Rira Porutu: Salutation to you, the Chiefs of this place, of Auckland. There was not any one at my back prompting me to come to this meeting. The Governor washed me. and I am clean. I do not understand the changings of the heart. I have nothing more to say.page 22
Kuruhou: The Government shall be my kingdom for ever and ever. I have no other word, but the Governor and the Queen for us.
Te Manihera te Ngatoro: Mr. McLean, listen, that I may give utterance to my thoughts in this runanga. Let me tell you I shall not be quite friendly with you yet. Through these Chiefs we shall find out the matter between Wi Kingi and the Governor. But you understand I have no concern with Kingi. My eye is directed towards the Governor. I will not yet attach myself. I must first see friendship between the Governor and Wi Kingi. I shall then cross over to the Government. Te Puni remained behind at Wellington. What I have to say then is, search out the nature of the Governor's affair with Wi Kingi. Let their affair be made plain in the course of our proceedings, and I shall then attach myself to you (the Governor), and you shall be my father. It was this that brought me here.
Wiremu Tamihana: My business is to make known the grievance. Let me state my grievance. It is this. Our lands are not secured to us by Crown Grant. Every man is not allowed to get a Crown Grant to his land. Another grievance is the manner of negotiating land purchases. Notwithstanding there be only two or three consenting to the sale, their words are listened to, and the voice of the majority is not regarded. However the Laws are good, and the hospitals for the sick are good.
Hemi Parae: The Governor brought me here. Let me repeat it, the Governor was the originator (of this meeting). The two things on which I lean, are the Laws and the Queen. I came here to give expression to these sentiments.
Parakaia Te Pouepa: The Queen sent Missionaries, and they came to New Zealand. This is all then I have to say; I shall give my attention to my Missionary. I offer my thanksgiving to my father-in-law the Governor, and to my mother-in-law, the Queen. Governor Grey gave us Missionaries; and up to the present, under Governor Browne, we have the same. Is it possible that the thoughts of men should now turn backwards? Back to what? I do not approve of the plausible sayings of a certain tribe. Listen, Mr. McLean. Listen, also, people of the runanga. Let the Queen bind us together as in a bundle. Let God keep us together. This is all
Moroati Kiharoa: There is no diversity of opinion amongst us. Te Rauparaha was seized by Governor Grey in order to try us, and he kept him in custody (with the same view) until he was released, When the Governor found that we behaved well, he sent Te Rauparaha back.page 23
Wi Katene te Manu: Listen, ye people! I am the least among my brethren. I came to listen. I shall keep the Laws, even unto death. This is all I have to say at present.
Te Hapimana: I have come to seek an outlet for the Maori. There is no difference of opinion. My people of Ngatitoa, you must side with the Queen. This is all.
Te Manihera: Listen, ye people! This is my speech. Let us cooperate in the doings of the Governor. Listen, all of you. I side with the Governor.
Epiha Karoro: Salutation to you, Pakehas, for you are another people. But we are now united. My own piece (of land) I have not seen (i. e. the proceeds). As to the affairs of Wiremu Kingi, the fault is with the Maories—with those who sold the land. Where the Governor was wrong, was in being in too great haste to fight. Formerly I saw some things that were wrong, but now all the wrong is on the Maori side. In my opinion had the Maories not taken part with William King, then you would have been able to suppress it. But, listen, all of you. I accept the Pakeha as my father. This is all. These are my last words, Let the love of God rest upon the Queen.
Ihakara Tokonui: Mr. McLean, let me tell you of the origin. I mean the origin of my thoughts. In former times the evil that prevailed in this Island was War: now the Gospel has been received. Under the old system, Peace was established, and on the morrow another war was commenced. When Christianity came, then for the first time were made manifest the good things of the Pakeha and the evil things of the Maori. The people of this island are committing two thefts. One is the "Maori King," for they are robbing the Pakeha of his name. You alone, the Pakeha. possess what is good: we, the Maories, have nothing good. When I first saw you I was ashamed of myself. And here is the other. You know what the bee is. Some bees work, some bees are lazy. You are like the working bee. You fill your hive, whether it be a box or an empty tree. But the Maori is like the other bee—the lazy one. And the Maori takes advantage of your work. I have another parable. When I looked upon the native rat, I thought it would not soon become extinct. But I look now, and it has been altogether exterminated by the present, or Hawaiki rat. Enough of that. I have now a word of disapproval. Why did you not write to us when the evil commenced? Had we been convened at an earlier period to consider this evil, then perhaps it had been right. This is all I have to say.page 24
Te Keene: Listen, people of the runanga! I have two subjects to speak of. One is, the Laws, I shall speak of that presently. The other subject is, the Governor. Listen, all of yon. My body shall not be severed from that of the Governor, because my adherence commenced with Governor Hobson. I asked that Governor "Will you not consent to become my father?" He replied "Yes, I will be a father to you." He said that he would be my father, and that the Queen should be a mother for us all. Wherefore my opinion now is in accordance with the Governor's. The Queen shall be my sovereign, and the Governor also for me. The other subject is the Laws, of England. It appears to me that there are two codes of Law—the one of God, the other of man. The Governor has said that there is the same law for both European and Maori. Now, when I asked five shillings per acre for my land, the Governor reduced the price to sixpence. Therefore I have no law. On this account am I grieved. Only the shadow of the Law belongs to me. An other instance. I took a gun to a Pakeha to have it repaired. The Government said, No. Therefore, I have no law. These laws are given to me to look at, not to participate in. Hereafter perhaps we shall have a law whereby the white skin and the red skin shall be equal.
Wiremu Hopihana: Listen, people of the Runanga! I belong to the Waiohua. The people of this place have disappeared. I look, and behold! the Pakeha occupies my place. In the beginning Symonds came, and I shewed him kindness. I consented to let Symonds become my father. Symonds told me that there was another above him, whom I might never see. But only two years had passed by, when he appeared. It was the Governor. Friends, this is the Waiohua. Here is life for us. The Laws of England are not given to me, nevertheless, let the parent exercise affection towards his son. Here is Hauraki, Waitemata, Kaipara, and Waikato. We are all under one father. The Governor shall be my father. Let us at once become parties to the union (of the two races).
Patara Pouroto: My allegiance dates from a former time. I have nothing else therefore to page 25 say about that subject. Enough, Then, of that. Here is another subject. I mean the color (flag) That is child's play. As to the King movement, that belongs to Waikato. I say to my Pakeha friends, be kind to us. I have another matter to speak of. The Governor was wrong here. Had he in the first place sent us to confer with Wm King, and he had proved obstinate, it would then be time for the Governor to punish him. Where; is the love of the Governor for New Zealand, that we may know what union is? Let us have one common Law. At present guns and powder are kept from us. This is the end of my speech.
Te Wataruhi: Listen, ye tribes. According to the old tradition this land is a fish, and the man by whom it was hauled up was Maui. Here I intend to remain, even unto death.
Hemi Metene Te Awaitaia: I shall make the Governor's address the subject of my speech. I shall speak first of the 4th clause, namely,—"In return for these advantages the chiefs who signed the Treaty of Waitangi ceded for themselves and their people to Her Majesty the Queen of England, absolutely and Without reservation, all the rights and powers of sovereignty which they collectively or individually possessed or might be supposed to exercise or possess." That was the union of races at Waitangi. I was there at the time, and I listened to the love Of the Queen. I then heard about the advantages of the treaty. I shall speak in the second place on the 16th clause of the Governor's address, namely,—" I will not now detain you by alluding to other matters of great importance, but will communicate with You from time to time and call your attention to them before you separate. Let me, however, remind you that though the Queen is able without any assistance from you to protect the Maories from all foreign enemies, she cannot without their help protect the Maories from themselves. It is therefore the duty of all who would regret to see their race relapse into barbarism, and who desire to live in peace and prosperity, to take heed that the counsels of the foolish do not prevail, and that the whole country be not thrown into anarchy and confusion by the folly of a few misguided men." Listen, Mr. McLean, that I may tell you my thoughts. In my opinion the greatest blessings are, Christianity and the Laws. While God spares my life I will give these my first concern. When I commit a wrong, then let me be brought before the Magistrate and punished according to law. Those are the good things. Listen again, Mr. McLean. This is the conclusion to which I have arrived. I have said enough now, but I will go back to my tribe, and will resume the consideration of these subjects on another occasion.page 26
Hira Kingi: Friends, hearken! I did not join the Queen's party for a long; time. When the Pakeha Maori came here I did not join, but when the Missionaries came, then I came under the wing (or protection) of the Queen. (A song.) That song is my reply to the Governor's address.
Ta Horohau: I represent the evils of Waikato—the great evils. Listen all of you! The King is over there, but the Queen is here. That is the substance of my speech.
Eruera Kahawai: Listen, ye people! There is no one to find fault with the Governor's words. His words are altogether good. (Song.) It was the introduction of the Gospel that put an end to our evil ways. Yes, my friends, it was Christianity alone that did it. It put an end to thieving and many other sins. I have already entered the Queen's party. We have now a new parent, the Queen. We have now the protection of the Queen. We have abandoned our old ways. The rule now is kindness to the orphan (charity), peace, and agricultural pursuits. I shall not turn to the Maori side I have now come under the wings (protection) of the Queen. The father on that side is the Governor. (Song). My words then are, "As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be."
Kihirini: I am a Maori. Let me tell of the first things. There was no evil in them. In the first place came the Missionaries. Formerly it was death, but I have been saved by Christianity. Now we have become united in the name of the Queen. I am like the bird called Pipiwarauroa. The (foster) parent of that bird is the Piripiri. She (the Pipiwarauroa) lays her egg in the nest of that bird, leaving to her (the Piripiri) the hatching and rearing of it. And when the young comes forth it cries "Witiora-witiora." The Piripiri is not its real parent. So also with me. It is through the Queen that I have been permitted to stand here, and to enjoy life. The protection of the Queen is right This (protection) shall be as a house to me. The rain may beat on page 27 the outside of the house, but I am inside, that is, I am with the Queen.
Winiata Pekamu Tohiteururangi: The only thought that has occurred to me, is this—in former times I had but one lord (ariki), and now I shall have but one lord—only one. I shall have but one rule—not two. In the course of the speeches we shall discover the opinions of this man and that man (each member). This is all.
Hori Kingi Te Anaua: I gave my adherence to the Governor long ago. (Here there was a song.) I have nothing else to speak of but love and good works. Should another tribe interfere with what is mine, it will be wrong. This is my adherence to the Governor. You invited me to attend this meeting. But, let me say, I shall keep my lands. My speech is ended.
Te Mawae: I have nothing to say. My words follow those of Hori Kingi (i.e., the same as). I will be kind to the Pakehas at my place (Whanganui). I do not agree with the Waikato proceedings (Song). As to my pakehas, they are in my charge. If Waikato kill any of them, then I shall be the payment. Listen, people of Waikato [looking round towards them.] If you threaten to join the Ngatiruanuis, to attack my Europeans of Wanganui, you must first cut off my head. The Europeans of Wanganui and I are one; and [using some gesticulations with spear in hand, the speaker said] who dare attack the Pakehas of my river Wanganui? They are under my charge. If I injure them, it is my affair; but let no one else attempt to do do so.
Tamati Aramoa: There is Only one word for us to give utterance to now. It is, the Queen. Listen all of you. (I am) for ever joined to the Queen. I have sent to the Queen my token of allegiance—a green stone mere. This is my song for the Governor. (Song). Lister, all of you. Ngatiapa and Whanganui will not engage in war. The Whanganui people will devote all their attention to peaceful pursuits and the cultivation of the soil.
Hori Kerei: Listen, all ye people. I have nothing new to say. The speeches are good. Let my words end here.
Pehimana: I have come to seek after something good. I have come that our thoughts may be grafted into each other—that our thoughts may become one, in the spirit of good will. Let good works be my riches, and the riches of my Pakehas.
Ihakara: Now, listen to me that I may speak. I have gathered my goods into one house, (Song). These are the things that command my admiration—Christianity and the Governor's Law. (Song). Thus we have two fountains. There is no other direction for our speeches, but the Queen and the Governor.page 28
Tomkura: I have nothing to say: the Gospel brought me here. I came that I might hear the words of the Queen and the Governor. This is all I have to say.
Hoani Wiremu Hipango: Friends, listen. In the first place the Missionaries came. Pakehas came and they called this land New Zealand, thus altering its name. So, all the sayings, of the present time are different from the past. I came that I might give utterance to my thoughts. Let the Laws be made known in every place that all men may honour them. I want you to prepare a Law for me now. I want to sea the Maori and the Pakeha united, that their goodness may be mutual. My speech ends here.
Wi Waaka: Call forth, Mr. McLean, that I may make known my thoughts. I am listening to things good and bad. We have long since received the Laws of Christianity. I am striving now to understand the Laws of the Queen. See! I stretch forth my hand for them. I have never polluted myself with blood. I am endeavouring to find out some new rule for my guidance. Let me have it that I may judge whether it be good or bad. Listen to my Waiata. (Song).
Raniera Te Iho: Salutation to you, Mr. McLean and the others. We came to listen to speeches. I first came to understand in the time of Governor Grey—under him and Mr. McLean. They came and planted the tikanga at Wairarapa. As yet I know only the name of the Pakeha. Justice rules in New Zealand. I offer my land, in the proper manner, to the Governor. True the land passes across to the Governor, but then I get my price for it. Should I afterwards stretch forth my hand after my land, that would be wrong. I prove my allegiance to the Queen by parting with my lands. (Here there was a song.) There is no other direction for our speeches. I give up my land to Queen Victoria, and to the Kings and Queens, her successors. As to that talk at Waikato I know nothing about it. Had our forefathers handed down that name (the Maori King) then it would be right. My choice is with the Pakeha who first brought that name here. I have no other subject to speak on, inasmuch as my land is parted with. Two objects have my adherence, God and the Queen.
Tamati Hapimana: Salutation to you, people of the Runanga. Salutation to you, Mr. McLean. This is my speech, listen to it. I stand here now, for I came to listen to the speeches of this meeting. I am willing to be the servant (or slave) of these page 29 tribes. Still, I have my own opinions, and I would have you listen to them. Mr. Smith, you remember my words last summer—the words I uttered in the presence of the Governor. The Pakehas behaved ill in the early times. I mean in the times of my forefathers. When Captain Cook's ship came to anchor my forefathers went to look at her, and the Pakehas fired at them. Afterwards Captain Harris, a Pakeha, came, and I showed kindness to him. Look, Mr. McLean, my hands are clean; they have never been soiled with Pakeha blood. See, I have Pakehas settled with me, and Missionaries too. Mr: Williams (Bishop) instructed me in the doctrines of Christianity. I have but one Law—the Law of God. It was through the Missionaries that I came to know what was right. It was like God's command to John," Go and prepare the path," &c. For the Missionaries came first and cleared the way, and afterwards the Lord came. But you give us the dark side of your Laws. You make the law void where it concerns us. This is my Waiata-listen to it (Song).
Meeting adjourned by Mr. McLean till next day.