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New Zealand's Burning — The Settlers' World in the Mid 1880s


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I Primary Sources


Cardiff Dairy Company Records, MSS, Taranaki Museum.

Kennedy, W.L., ‘Stratford History’, MS 091 [c. 1939] P, ATL.

New Plymouth Sash and Door Factory and Timber Co., Shareholders' Register, MS, New Plymouth City Library.

Skinner, William Henry, ‘Diary 1886’, MS, Taranaki Museum.

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A Official Publications

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By-laws of the Borough of the City of Wellington, 1/11/1877, Wellington City Corporation.

New Zealand Census Returns.

New Zealand Parliamentary Debates, 1882–1887.

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B Directories, etc

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Harvey, D.R., Union List of New Zealand Newspapers before1940, Wellington, 1985.

Hawke's Bay Almanack, 1885–1886.

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Taranaki Almanac, 1885.

Wellington Almanack, 1878–1885.

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C Newspapers

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Auckland Weekly News.

Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (New Plymouth).

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Colonist (Nelson).

Daily Telegraph (Napier).

Egmont Star (Hawera).

Evening News and Hawke's Bay Advertiser (Napier).

Evening Post (Wellington).

Evening Press (Wellington).

Feilding Star.

Grey River Argus (Greymouth).

Hawera Star.

Hawke's Bay Herald (Napier).

Hawke's Bay Weekly Courier (Napier).

Hummer (Wagga, N.S.W.).

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Marlborough Express (Blenheim).

Marlborough Express Weekly (Blenheim).

Nelson Evening Mail.

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Patea Mail.

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Star (Christchurch).

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Waikato Times (Hamilton).

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Wairarapa Daily (Masterton).

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Woodville Examiner.

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D Periodicals

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New Zealand Country Journal.

New Zealand Farmer.

E Books, pamphlets and articles

Brett's Colonists' Guide and Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, ed. T.W. Leys, Auckland, 1883.

Brewer, Pamela, ‘Starting a Farm at Cardiff in Taranaki’, Historical Journal: Auckland-Waikato, 24, April 1974, p. 31.

Brodrick, G.C., English Land and English Landlords, London, 1881.

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Clayden, Arthur, British Colonisation: A Colonial Want and an Imperial Necessity, London, 1891.

Clayden, Arthur, The England of the Pacific, London, 1879.

Clayden, Arthur, A Popular Handbook to New Zealand, London, 1885.

Combs, H.E., Growing up in the Forty Mile Bush, Hamilton, 1951.

Hulke, W.K., Golden Rules for Butter Making, New Plymouth, 1882.

Hursthouse, C., An Account of the Settlement of New Plymouth in New Zealand, London, 1849.

Inglis, James, Our New Zealand Cousins, London, 1887.

Mulgan, Alan, Home: A Colonial's Adventure, London, 1934.

Payton, E.W., Round About New Zealand, London, 1888.

Pennefather, F.W., A Handbook for Travellers in New Zealand, London, 1893.

Wakefield, Edward, New Zealand after Fifty Years, London, 1889.

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, Swing Unmasked or, The Causes of Rural Incendiarism, London, [1831].

Wellington Fire Underwriters' Association, Special Block Tariff for the City of Wellington, Revised and Corrected up to August 23rd, 1886, [Wellington, 1886].

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[Wickham, J.D.], Ramblings by A Tramp, Auckland, 1888.

II Secondary Sources

F Books and pamphlets

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Arnold, Rollo, The Farthest Promised Land: English Villagers, New Zealand Immigrants of the 1870s, Wellington, 1981.

Bayliss, Warren, Takapau: The Sovereign Years, 1876–1976, Hastings, 1975.

Braudel, Fernand, Civilization and Capitalism 15th–8th Century, Volume I: The Structures of Everyday Life, New York, 1981.

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Braudel, Fernand, The Identity of France. Volume II: People and Production, London, 1990.

Boorstin, Daniel J., The Americans: The National Experience, New York, 1965.

Brown, Lucy, Victorian News and Newspapers, Oxford, 1985.

Brown, R.D., Modernization: The Transformation of American Life, 1600–1865, New York, 1976.

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Cathcart, B.C., ‘Water On!’ The First Hundred Years of the United Fire Brigades' Association of New Zealand, Palmerston North, 1978.

Chambers, J.D., and G.E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revolution 1750–1880, London, 1966.

Clarke, A.H., The Invasion of New Zealand by People, Plants and Animals, New Brunswick, 1949.

Cranfield, G.A., The Press and Society from Caxton to Northdiffe, London, 1978.

Day, Patrick, The Making of the New Zealand Press 1840–1880, Wellington, 1990.

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Eaddy, P.A., ‘Neath Swaying Spars; the Story of the Trading Scows of New Zealand, Auckland, [1939].

Eldred-Grigg, Stevan, A Southern Gentry: New Zealanders who Inherited the Earth, Wellington, 1980.

Erasmus, Charles, In Search of the Common Good: Utopian Experiments Past and Future, New York, 1977.

Frost, Lionel, The New Urban Frontier: Urbanisation and City-building in Australasia and the American West, Kensington, N.S.W., 1991.

Gardner, W.J., The Amuri: a county history, Culverden, 1956.

Gardner, W.J., The Farmer Politician in New Zealand History, Massey Memorial Lecture, Massey University, Palmerston North, 1970.

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Graham, G.W., & L.J.B. Chapple, Ellesmere County: The Land, The Lake, and the People, 1864–1964, [Leeston], 1965.

Hamer, David, New Towns in the New World: Images and Perceptions of the Nineteenth-Century Urban Frontier, New York, 1990.

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Hebert, R.F., and A.N. Link, The Entrepreneur, New York, 1982.

Hight, James, and C.R. Straubel, eds., A History of Canterbury, I, to 1854, Christchurch, 1957.

Hill, R.S., The Colonial Frontier Tamed: New Zealand Policing in Transition 1867–1886, Wellington, 1989.

Hobsbawm, E.J., and G. Rudé, Captain Swing, London, 1969.

Jensen, Joan M., With These Hands; Women Working on the Land, New York, 1981.

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Kear, Gordon, A Century of Service: A history of the Palmerston North Fire Brigade 1883–1983, Palmerston North, 1983.

Knox, G.A., ed., The Natural History of Canterbury, Wellington, 1969.

Leslie, M., L. Baker and I. Church, eds., Patea: A Centennial History, Patea, 1981.

McAllister, Campbell, Old Taranaki and its Mountain, Wellington, 1976.

Macdonald, Charlotte, et al, eds., The Book of New Zealand Women: Ko Kui Ma Te Kaupapa, Wellington, 1991.

Macgregor, M.E., Early Stations of Hawke's Bay, Wellington, 1970.

McKenzie, R.T., and A. Silver, Angels in Marble: Working Class Conservatives in Urban England, London, 1968.

McLean, Gavin, The Southern Octopus: The Rise of a Shipping Empire, Wellington, 1990.

Main, Colleen, ed., Our Lesser Stars: Twelve New Zealand Biographies, Auckland, 1990.

Mander, Owen, Cardiff School and District Centennial, [Cardiff, 1986].

Millar, J. Halket, High Noon for Coaches 1879–1979, 2nd ed., Wellington, 1979.

Moore, T.N., Hawera Fire Brigade 1882–1982: A Centennial History, Hawera, 1982.

Ogilvie, G., Banks Peninsula: Cradle of Canterbury, Wellington, 1990.

Philpott, H.G., A History of the New Zealand Dairy Industry, 1840–1935, Wellington, 1937.

Pyne, Stephen J., Burning Bush: A Fire History of Australia, New York, 1991.

Reed, A.H., The Story of the Kauri, Wellington, 1953.

Roche, Michael, History of Forestry, [Wellington], 1990.

Ross, John O'C., Pride in their Ports: The Story of the Minor Ports, Palmerston North, 1977.

Ryan, Mary P., Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790– 1865, Cambridge, 1981.

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Scanlan, A.B., 100 Years of Firefighting: The New Plymouth Fire Brigade 1866–1966, New Plymouth, 1966.

Scholefield, G.H., Newspapers in New Zealand, Wellington, 1958.

Scotter, W.H., Ashburton: A History with Records of Town and County, Ashburton, 1972.

Simmonds, E.J., NZEI 100, Wellington, 1983.

Stone, Lawrence, The Past and Present Revisited, London, 1987.

Stone, R.C.J., Makers of Fortune: a Colonial Business Community and its Fall, Auckland, 1973.

Tennant, Margaret, Paupers and Providers: Charitable Aid in New Zealand, Wellington, 1989.

‘The Tawhiti Flour Mill’, Typescript Notes, Tawhiti Museum, Taranaki.

Tltmuss, Richard, The Gift Relationship: from Human Blood to Social Policy, London, 1970.

Tucker, Robert C., Politics as Leadership, Columbia, Missouri, 1981.

Voisey, Paul, Vulcan: The Making of a Prairie Community, Toronto, 1988.

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G Articles

Armstrong, John, ‘The role of coastal shipping in UK transport: An estimate of comparative traffic movements in 1910’, The Journal of Transport History, 3rd series, 8,2, Sept. 1987, pp. 164–78.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The Australasian Peoples and their World, 1888–1915’, in Keith Sinclair, ed., Tasman Relations, Auckland, 1987, pp. 52–70.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘British Settlers and the Land’, in J. Phillips, ed., Te Whenua, Te Iwi: The Land and the People, Wellington, 1987, pp. 27–41.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘Community in Rural Victorian New Zealand’, NZJH, 24, 1, April 1990, pp. 3–21.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The Country Child in Later Victorian New Zealand’, in Australasian Victorian Studies Association: Conference Papers 1982, ed. H. Debenham and W. Slinn, Christchurch, 1983, pp. 1–15.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘North Island Education, 1871–1877: “The Great Leap Forward”’, New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 8, 2, Nov. 1973, pp. 112–31.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘North Island Education, 1878–1882: “Filling the Gaps”’, New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 9, 2, Nov. 1974, pp. 112–31.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The Patterns of Denominationalism in Later Victorian New Zealand’, in C. Nichol and J. Veitch, eds, Religion in New Zealand, Wellington, 1980, pp. 76–110.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The Village and the Globe: Aspects of the Social Origins of Schooling in Victorian New Zealand’, ANZHES Journal, 5, 2, 1976, pp. 1–12.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The Virgin Forest Harvest and the Development of Colonial New Zealand’, New Zealand Geographer, 32, 2, Oct. 1976, pp. 105–26.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The Wellington Education Board 1878–1901: Grappling with Educational Backwardness and Advancing Settlement’, ANZHES Journal, 6, 2, Spring 1977, pp. 43– 55.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘Women in the New Zealand Teaching Profession, 1877–1920: A Comparative Perspective’, in R. Openshaw and D. McKenzie, eds, Reinterpreting the Educational Past, Wellington, 1987.

Bagwell, P.S., ‘The Decline of Rural Isolation’, in G.E. Mingay, ed., The Victorian Countryside, London, 1981, Volume I, pp. 30–42.

Bowen, Elizabeth, ‘Time, Period, and Reality’, The Listener, London, 8/11/1956, pp. 751–2.

Boyd, Mary, ‘John Davies Ormond’, in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Vol. I, page 308Wellington, 1990, pp. 324–5.

Crossick, G., ‘The Emergence of the Lower Middle Class in Britain: A Discussion’ in G. Crossick, ed., The Lower Middle Class in Britain 1870–1914, London, 1977.

Dakin, J.C., ‘The prevalence of mutual improvement in adult education in New Zealand 1870–1915’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 10, 3, July-Sept. 1991, pp. 243–54.

Fairburn, Miles, ‘The Rural Myth and the New Urban Frontier: an Approach to New Zealand Social History, 1870–1940’, NZJH, 9, 1, April 1975, pp. 3–21.

Franklin, S.H., ‘The Village and the Bush’, in John Forster, ed., Social Process in New Zealand, Auckland, 1969, pp. 102–43.

Galt, Margaret, ‘Doing Well for Bella: Foreign Mortgages in the New Zealand Financial System, 1885–1901’, NZJH, 18, 1, April 1984, pp. 50–65.

Griswold, A.W., ‘The Agrarian Democracy of Thomas Jefferson’, American Political Science Review, 40, 4, Aug. 1946, pp. 657–81.

Hawke, G.R., ‘Acquisitiveness and Equality in New Zealand's Economic Development’, Economic History Review, 2nd Series, 32, 3, Aug. 1979, pp. 376–90.

Jensen, Joan M., ‘Butter Making and Economic Development in Mid-Atlantic America from 1750 to 1850’, Signs, 13, 4, Summer 1988. . , pp. 813–29.

Jobberns, G., ‘Life and Landscape in New Zealand’, New Zealand: Inventory and Prospect, Wellington Branch, N.Z. Geographical Society, Wellington, 1956.

McGibbon, Ian, ‘Henry Stokes Tiffen’, in Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, pp. 539–40.

Mackay, Duncan, ‘The Orderly Frontier: The World of the Kauri Bushmen 1860–1925’, NZJH, 25, 2, Oct. 1991, pp. 147–57.

Nicholls, Roberta, ‘Elite Society in Victorian and Edwardian Wellington’, in The Making of Wellington 1800–1914, ed. D. Hamer and R. Nicholls, Wellington, 1990, pp. 195–225.

Pawson, Eric, and Neil Quigley, ‘The Circulation of Information and Frontier Development: Canterbury 1850–1890’, New Zealand Geographer, 38, 2, Oct. 1982, pp. 65–76.

Reed, Mick, ‘The Peasantry of Nineteenth-Century England: a Neglected Class?’, History Workshop, 18, Autumn 1984, pp. 53–76.

Rimmer, Peter J., ‘The Changing Status of New Zealand Seaports, 1853–1960’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 57, March 1967, pp. 88–100.

Toynbee, Claire, ‘Class and Social Structure in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand’, NZJH, 13, 1, April 1979, pp. 65–82.

Ville, Simon, ‘The Coastal Trade of New Zealand Prior to World War One’, NZJH, 27, 1, April 1993, pp. 75–89.

Wells, Roger, ‘Rural Rebels in Southern England in the 1880s’ in C. Emsley and J. Walvin, eds., Artisans, Peasants and Proletarians, 1760–1860, London, 1985, pp. 124–65.

Williams, Michael, ‘Clearing the United States forests: pivotal years 1810–1860’, Journal of Historical Geography, 8, 1, 1982, pp. 12–28.

Wynn, Graeme, ‘Pioneers, politicians and the conservation of forests in early New Zealand’, Journal of Historical Geography, 5, 2, 1979, pp. 171–88.

H Theses

Arnold, M.N., ‘The Market for Finance in Late Nineteenth Century New Zealand with Special reference to Rural Mortgages’, MA thesis, VUW, 1981.

Arnold, Rollo, ‘The opening of the Great Bush, 1869–1991: a social history of the bush settlements of Taranaki, Hawke's Bay and Wellington’, PhD thesis, VUW, 1971.

Fletcher, Ian R., ‘Parties in the New Zealand House of Representatives 1870–1890’, MA thesis, University of Canterbury, 1982.

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Mckenzie, J.D.S., ‘Local Authority and Educational Development: A Study of The Otago Education Board from 1877 to 1899’, PhD thesis, University of Otago, 1973.

Patterson, B.R., ‘Reading between the lines: People, politics and the conduct of surveys in the southern North Island, New Zealand, 1840–1876’, PhD thesis, VUW, 1985.

Toynbee, Claire, ‘Class and Mobility in Nineteenth Century Wellington: An Exploratory Study of Immigrants arriving 1840–1880’, MA thesis, VUW, 1979.