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New Zealand's Burning — The Settlers' World in the Mid 1880s

10 Patterns

10 Patterns

1 For the key role of clocks in the modernising process see R.D. Brown, Modernization: The Transformation of American Life, 1600–1865, New York, 1976, pp. 134–5.

2 The daily and weekly work patterns of New Zealand settler women were much like those of early 20th-century American farm women as described in Joan M. Jensen, With These Hands; Women Working on the Land, New York, 1981, pp. 161–5.

3 AJHR, 1881, E-1B, p. 13.

4 Fernand Braudel, The Identity of France Volume II: People and Production, London, 1990, pp. 139–40.

5 Rollo Arnold, ‘The Village and the Globe: Aspects of the Social Origins of Schooling in Victorian New Zealand’, ANZHES Journal, 5, 2, 1976, pp. 1–12.

6 Hummer (Wagga), 10/9/1892.

7 Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The National Experience, New York, 1965, passim. See especially Chapter 10 (pp. 6572).

8 Budget and Taranaki Weekly Herald (New Plymouth), 30/4/1892, p. 9.

9 For this aspect of Otago's education history see J.D.S. Mckenzie, ‘Local Authority and Educational Development: A page 295 Study of The Otago Education Board from 1877 to 1899’, PhD thesis, University of Otago, 1973, pp. 29–33, 50, 62–3, 125–39.

10 A. Dorset to Mrs Wilkinson, 17/4/1884, Wellington Education Board, Outward Letters, EBW 1/10, National Archives of N.Z.

11 J.C. Dakin, ‘The prevalence of mutual improvement in adult education in New Zealand 1870–1915’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 10, 3, July-Sept. 1991, pp. 243–54.

12 See e.g. Rollo Arnold, ‘The Australasian Peoples and their World, 1888–1915’, in Keith Sinclair, ed., Tasman Relations, Auckland, 1987, pp. 52–70.

13 Maurice Keen, English Society in the later Middle Ages 1348–1500, London, 1990.

14 [J.D. Wickham], Ramblings by A Tramp, Auckland, 1888, p. 17.

15 TH, 9/1/1886.

16 R.T. McKenzie & A. Silver, Angels in Marble Working Class Conservatives in Urban England, London, 1968.

17 For Trimble in the role of pseudo-squire see Arnold, ‘Opening of the Great Bush’, p. 321.

18 Jefferson citations from A.W. Griswold, ‘The Agrarian Democracy of Thomas Jefferson’, American Political Science Review, 40, 4, Aug. 1946, pp. 667–8.

19 NZJH, 9, 1, April 1975, pp. 3–21.

20 For a good overview with a survey of the literature see Claire Toynbee, ‘Class and Social Structure in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand’, NZJH, 13, 1, April 1979, pp. 65–82.

21 Claire Toynbee, ‘Class and Mobility in Nineteenth Century Wellington: An Exploratory Study of Immigrants arriving 1840–1880’, MA thesis, VUW, 1979, pp. 8, 166–7.

22 Roberta Nicholls, ‘Elite Society in Victorian and Edwardian Wellington’, in The Making of Wellington 1800—1914, ed. D. Hamer and R. Nicholls, Wellington, 1990, p. 195.

23 Ibid.

24 G. Crossick, ‘The Emergence of the Lower Middle Class in Britain: A Discussion’ in G. Crossick, ed., The Lower Middle Class in Britain 1870–1914, London, 1977, pp. 21–5.

25 Charles Erasmus, In Search of the Common Good: Utopian Experiments Past and Future, New York, 1977.

26 Rollo Arnold, ‘Community in Rural Victorian New Zealand’, NZJH, 24, 1, April 1990, pp. 3–21

27 Richard Titmuss, The Gift Relationship: from Human Blood to Social Policy, London, 1970.