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The Farthest Promised Land — English Villagers, New Zealand Immigrants of the 1870s

Primary Sources

Primary Sources

Unpublished Official Papers


Registrar-General's Office

R.G. 10 Enumerators' Schedules, 1871 Census of England and Wales (Selected parishes in Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Cornwall, Devon, Kent, Lincolnshire, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire).



Immigration Department

Im 3 Papers relating to individual immigrants
Im 4/1 Special Settlements—Feilding
Im 6/1 Special Settlements—Karamea
Im 10 Nominated Immigrants—Lists of passage orders
Im 15 Passenger Lists
Im N/4 Immigration Department, Nelson. Papers relating to the despatch of immigrants.
Im W/2/2 Immigration Department, Wellington. Registers of immigration under the Immigrant Land Act, 1873.

Hawke's Bay Province

HB 4/11 Superintendent. Local inward letters 1875–76.
HB 6/10 Superintendent. Outward letters 1876–77.
HB 7/1 (u) Superintendent. Office papers. Woodville Small Farm Association.

Nelson Province

NP 23/3 Papers Relating to the Karamea Special Settlement 1874–77.
NP 23/6 Karamea Store Book 1874–76.
NP 23/7&8 Vouchers relative to Karamea, 1874–77.


                      Papers laid on the Table of the Provincial Council, Sessions XLI, XLII. (For Reports from Andrew Duncan, Immigrant Agent.)

Unpublished Unofficial Papers


‘Caistor and Laceby Circuit Schedules’. MS, Lincolnshire County Record Office, Lincoln.

page 386

Christopher Holloway, ‘C. Holloway's book of jottings on New Zealand, with notes by the way, 1874–75, …’ Typescript, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington.


George Herbert White, ‘Autobiographical Sketches’, New Plymouth, 1952. Typescript in possession of Miss Judith White, Wellington.

Published Official Papers



  • Great Britain Parliamentary Papers.

  • Census of England and Wales 1871. Preliminary Report; Vols. 1–4.

  • Royal Commission on Agricultural Depression, 1881, PP.1881, 16;1882, 14.

  • Royal Commission on the Employment of Children, Young Persons and Women in Agriculture. PP.1867–69, 17; 1868–69, 13.




General Government


Nelson Provincial Council.

  • Votes and Proceedings, Session 24, 1874.

  • Provincial Government Gazette, Vols. 23–25, 1874–76.

Published Unofficial Records

‘Minute Book of the Oxford District of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union 1872–9’, in Pamela Horn, ed., Agricultural Trade Unionism in Oxfordshire 1872–81, Oxfordshire Record Society, 48 (1974), pp.25–108. (Original MS in Nuffield College, Oxford, MSS of the late G. D. H. Cole.)

Newspapers and Periodicals

Bedfordshire Mercury, 1874

Canterbury Journal, 1878

Church Gazette (Auckland), 1874

Colonist (Nelson), 1874–5

Daily News (London), 1878–9

English Labourer (London), 1875–7

Evening Post (Wellington), 1873–4

Hawke's Bay Herald, 1873, 1876, 1879

Kent Herald (Canterbury), 1873

Kent & Sussex Times (Maidstone), 1875–80

page 387

Kent Messenger and Maidstone Telegraph, 1872–4

Labour League Examiner (Boston, Lincs.), 1874

Labourer (Boston, Lincs.), 1875–9

Labourers' Herald (Maidstone), 1874–5

Labourers' Union Chronicle (Leamington), 1873–5

Lyttelton Times, 1873–4, 1879

Maidstone & Kentish Journal, 1874

Marlborough Press (Blenheim), 1872–3

Midland Free Press (Leicester), 1873

New Zealand Farmer (Auckland), 1888–90

New Zealand Industrial Gazette, 1883–4

New Zealand Mail (Wellington), 1875, 1880

New Zealand Methodist Times, 1929–36

New Zealand Wesleyan, 1874–83

North Otago Times (Oamaru), 1873

Stamford Mercury, 1874

Standard (London), 1878

Taranaki Herald (New Plymouth), 1874–7

Taranaki News (New Plymouth), 1875

Times (London), 1872–9

Weekly Herald (Wanganui), 1873–6

Yeoman (Wanganui), 1881, 1883

Books and Pamphlets

Arch, Joseph, Joseph Arch: The Story of His life told by Himself, London, 1898

Brewer, J. N., A Topographical and Historical Description of Oxfordshire, London, 1810

Broomhall, J., Fragments from the Journal of J. Broomhall, Esq., J.P., …, London, 1877

Bullen, Frank T., Advance Australasia, London, 1907

Carter, C. R., Life and Recollections of a New Zealand Colonist, 3 vols., London, 1866

Clayden, Arthur, The England of the Pacific, or New Zealand as an English Middle-Class Emigration Field, London, 1879

Cobbett, William, Rural Rides, ed. George Woodcock, Harmondsworth, 1967

Cyclopaedia of New Zealand, 6 vols., Wellington, Christchurch, 1897–1908

Elkington, E. Way, Adrift in New Zealand, London, 1906

Haggard, H. Rider, Rural England, 2 vols., London, 1902

Jefferies, Richard, Hodge and His Masters, Fitzroy ed., 2 vols., 1966

Kelly's Directory of Devonshire 1883

Leifchild, J. R., Cornwall: Its Mines and Miners, new impression, London, 1968. (First published 1853)

Lester, George, Grimsby Methodism (1743–1889), London, 1890

Memorial Sketch of Mr Francis Sowerby of Aylesby, [? Grimsby, ?1890]

Reid, R. C., Rambles on the Golden Coast of the South Island of New Zealand, 2nd ed., London, 1886

Simmons, Alfred, Old England and New Zealand, London, 1879

Simmons, Alfred, State-Directed Colonization: the proposal explained and defended…, [London, 1886]

Sturt, George, The Journals of George Sturt 1890–1927, ed. E. D. Mackerness, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1967

Stokes, A. G. Folliott-, The Cornish Coast and Moors, London, 1912

page 388

Tomlinson, Henry, Diary of… Voyage out to New Zealand…, Laceby, 1875

Tomlinson, Henry, A Farm Labourer's Report of New Zealand, Grimsby, 1876

[Trench, William R.] A Trip Round the World: Notes from Sea and Land, Kendal, 1906

Vogel, Julius, ed., New Zealand: Land and Farming in New Zealand, London, 1879

Wakefield, E. Gibbon, Swing Unmasked, London, [1831]

White, Richard Grant, England, Without and Within, London, 1881

White's Lincolnshire Directory 1872

Wilson, J. M., The Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1866–69

Young, Arthur, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Lincoln, London, 1799


Belcher, C., ‘On the Reclaiming of Waste Lands as instanced in Wichwood Forest’, JRASE, 24 (1863), pp.271–85

Berry, Joseph, ‘New Zealand at the Beginning of the Century’. Review of Reviews for Australasia, 15 January 1901, pp. 73–96

Clarke, J. A., ‘On the Farming of Lincolnshire’, JRASE, 12 (1851), pp.259–414

Karkeek, W. F., ‘On the Farming of Cornwall’, JRASE, 6 (1845), pp.400–462

Mann, H. H., ‘Life in an Agricultural Village in England’, Sociological Papers, 1904, pp.163–93

Morton, J. Chalmers, ‘Some of the Agricultural Lessons of 1868’, JRASE, 5 (New Series) (1869), pp.27–73

Pedder, D. C., ‘Service and Farm-Service’, Contemporary Review, 83 (1903)

Read, C. S., ‘On the Farming of Oxfordshire’, JRASE, 15 (1854), pp.189–276