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Figure 1.—Maps of the Cook Islands: a, locality map of Cook Islands; b, Rarotonga: c, Atiu: d, Aitutaki: e, Mangaia: f, Mauke Figure 120.—Lashing of gunwale rail to underbody: 1, gunwale rail; 2, underbody; 3, lashing; 4, inner ledge (paevai); 5, outer ledge. a, Atiu; b, Mauke; c, Mangaia. The outboard side is to the left Figure 123.—Outrigger canoes: 1, hull or underbody; 2, gunwale rail; 3, bow cover; 4, stern cover; 5, float; 6, fore boom; 7, after boom; 8, thwart; 9, carrying stringer; 10, bow projection (tara kokiri); 11, stern post. a, Atiu: length, 14 feet 2 inches; note slope of bow and tara kokiri projection (10), blunter stern with short upward projection of stern cover (4); carrying stringer (9) passes above after boom (7) and thwart (8) and below fore boom (6). b, Mitiaro: length, 13 feet 10 inches; … Figure 124.—Boom attachments to float. 1, float; 2, boom. a-c, Mangaian and Rarotongan straight boom with long branch and projecting end (3) for lashing with: a, two stays; b, three stays; and c, four stays. d-f, Atiu, Mauke, and Mitiaro curved boom with short branch, no end projection, and stays attached to boom on inner side of branch: d, Mauke with one inner stay; e, Mitiaro after boom with one outer stay; f, Mitiaro fore boom with two outer stays; g, Aitutaki with Y-shaped connective (4) Figure 126.—Atiu paddle (Bishop Mus., C2914). a, front of paddle: length of shaft, 1,538 mm., of blade, 585 mm., total, 2,123 mm.; diameter at end of shaft, 35 mm., of smaller projection, 22 mm., at middle, 44 mm., at shoulder with blade, 38 mm. transversely and 32 mm. front to back. b, enlargement of front of blade: width at shoulders (1) 92 mm., at widest part (2), 222 mm.; median ridge (3), 212 mm. long and 15 mm. wide, notched on sides and incised at lower end with owner's initials, M.K.; t… Figure 135.—Canoe bailers: a-c, Atiu (Bishop Mus., C2836); d-f, Mauke (Bishop Mus., C2837). a, side view with sloping back: greatest length, 241 mm.; front depth, 117 mm. b, upper surface: square front, curved back; front width, 152 mm.; width at back of slots, 155 mm.; slots on either side of median bar handle, 119 mm. by 39 mm. and 116 mm. by 38 mm.; handle, 22 mm. wide and 21 mm. thick, c, front opening: upper surface, 152 mm. wide; widest part, 155 mm. d, side view with square back: depth f… Figure 137.—Plan of double canoe, Atiu. a, side view, b, view from above: 1, section of platform between canoes; 2, thole pin stringer, c, section of hull (1) and gunwale rail junction (2). d, boom lashing to gunwale rail, e, bow cover, f, stern post (1); 2, canoe stern; 3, stern cover, g, carving on fore end of stern cover. (Drawn by T. W. Downes.) Figure 140.—Atiu eel trap (Bishop Mus., C2850). a, mesial section of trap: total length, 495 mm.; greatest diameter, 255 mm.; diameter at small end, 101 mm.; length of funnel, 310 mm.; funnel at opening about 65 mm. (2.5 inches) in diameter, extends as an even cylinder (1) for about 158 mm.; increases in diameter (2) by addition of four more warps for about 72 mm., and still more (3) by addition of eight more warps for about 82 mm. which brings it to outer circumference (4); warps are bent over… Figure 146.—Flying-fish net ('uata), Atiu. a, frame and net: 1, handle (kakau); 2, frame (tutu) of two branches of ironwood lashed to handle, diverged by spreader (3), and distal ends lashed together; length of frame opening between spreader and distal end, 41 inches; greatest width, 21 inches; 3, spreader or crossbar (tiare) lashed to handle end and sides of frame with neat fly-flap pattern in sennit (fig. 147). 4, sennit lashing to strengthen spreader. b, lashing of frame rods to handle: 1, h… Figure 147.—Fly-flap lashing technique on Atiu net. a, end of handle with crossbar placed against end thus dividing bar into right and left half; one end of cord is fastened to end of handle with a running noose; cord passes obliquely upward from left and takes a complete turn (1) around right bar, crossing on top of bar. b, cord descends obliquely on back to left of handle and loops around front to right. c, from right side of handle cord ascends obliquely at back to form complete turn (2) aro… Figure 157.—Throwing discs (Bishop Mus.): a, b (6565), island not recorded; c, d (C2822), Atiu. a, side view: cross diameters, 126 and 119 mm. b, edge view: rim thickness, 23 mm.; center thickness, 44 mm. c, side view: cross diameters, 148 and 144 mm. d, edge view: rim thickness 26 mm.; center thickness, 43 mm. (C2822 has circles drawn on each surface with a pair of compasses but they are modern additions without art significance.) Figure 172.—Atiu and Mauke clubs: a-e, Atiu; f, Mauke. a, narrow blade with blunt unflanged point (Fuller coll., 318). b, very narrow blade, with straight flanged point (Fuller coll., ?). c, shortest club with widest part of blade near tip; blunt point with faintly incised double chevron (Fuller coll., L.M.S.). d, long point with fairly wide blade; double flanged chevron point (Fuller coll., L.M.S.). e, narrow blade with triple chevron motif (1); two sets of four barbs (2, 2); slight enlargemen… Figure 187.—Cook Islands spears, a, Atiu spear (Fuller coll., 3120): four-edged point; remaining length, 1,720 mm.; greatest width of blade point, 41 mm. and thick ness, 21 mm.; lower end of shaft, 33 by 31 mm. b, Atiu vero (in field): length, 12 feet, 4 inches; leaf point (1), 4.7 inches long, greatest width, 1.5 inches and thickness, 0.65 inch; middle shaft diameter, 1.6 inches; lower leaf point (2), 4.3 inches long, greatest width, 0.8 inch, thickness, 0.5 inch. c, Atiu vero (in field): leng… Figure 188.—Cook Islands slings. a, Atiu technique of pouch: 1, sennit, forming margin; 2, coir cords in pairs caught in close rows of two-pair interlocking weft (4); 3, coir cords separated and caught simply in two-pair interlocking weft (5). b, Rarotongan sling (Bishop Mus., C8861): pouch (1) formed of nine lengths of sennit, plaited in check from middle toward either end; length, 145 mm.; middle width, 50 mm.; at ends, braid plaited into round plait (2) 70 mm. and bound with two-ply coir cor… Figure 19.—Cook Islands seats. a, small Atiu type (Bishop Mus., C8882): seat (1), 19 inches long at sides and 18.75 inches in middle; width, 9.25 inches at ends, 8.75 inches in middle; edge 0.5 inch thick; height above ground, 4 inches in middle, and 6.12 and 6.62 inches at ends: leg (2) curved, heart shaped in section, with edge (3) toward middle transverse line; foot (4) expanded, heart shaped, with apex toward middle line. b, long Aitutaki type (Auckland Mus., 12994): seat (1), 7 feet, 9 inc… Figure 215.—Wooden god from Atiu (British Mus., L.M.S., 94/35). a, wooden figure: height 350 mm.; width of head 105 mm. by 108 mm.; width lower end 113 mm.; head (1) dome-shaped with six vertical elliptical slots (2) crossed by middle bar (3), dividing head into six elliptical panels (4) which are carved on outer side; constricted neck (5) followed by vertical arches (6) on same vertical lines as head panels and radiating equally from common center to form upper series; upper ends of arches hav… Figure 216.—Feather decoration of Atiu god: a, coir cord (1) 2 mm. thick with end (2) doubled over and feathers (3) attached to it with thread of bast (4). b, strip of coir fiber (1) 25 mm. long with straight end (2) to which feathers were tied, served as intermediate holder to attach to a cord (c). c, fiber holder (1) attached to doubled-over cord (2) by thread lashing (3). d, two separate bunches (1, 1) of black feathers lashed around quills (2) and lashed (3) to doubled-over coir cord (4). e… Figure 219.—Large sennit feather god, Atiu (British Mus., L.M.S. coll., 572). a, total length 450 mm., circumference at top (1) 330 mm., at middle 520 mm., lower end (2) 415 mm.; foundation sennit thick and coarse, ranging from 10 mm. wide and 4 mm. thick to 25 mm. wide and 12 mm. thick; strands of fiber used in plies bound together by single coir fiber before plaiting; some of internal braid lengths covered with feathers on one side in same manner as outer sennit, evidently due to more braid b… Figure 24.—Cook Islands fan (British Mus., L.M.S.). a, outline; length of plaited part, 395 mm.; base width, 430 mm.; length of external handle, 130 mm. b, front, showing short butt knobs (1, 1), raised flange (2) divided in middle line, rounded body (3) with large perforation, bilateral curved flanges with lower end (4) incised with chevrons and upper end (5) notched, terminal flange (6) with perforation below it, and plain lashing (7) of fine cord. c, side view with same numbering as b; upper… Figure 259.—Tahitian pounders found in Cook Islands: a, Atiu (Otago University Mus., D.34, 399). b, Rarotonga, owned by Makea Ariki. c; Mauke (Otago University Mus., D.34, 559). d, head of type c. Measurements in millimeters. Dimensions Height Head Width Neck Base Weight (oz.) a 155 83 42 119 53 b 142 124 46 141 c 165 97 50 138 77.25 Figure 265.—Polynesian cloth beaters (ike, i'e): a, Atiu, Cook Islands; b, Mangaia, Cook Islands, finishing beater; c, Tahiti; d, Marquesas; e, Austral Islands, general form; f, Tubuai, Austral Islands, crossed pattern; g, Rapa, crossed pattern; h, Hawaii, general form; i, Hawaii, zigzag pattern; j, Mangareva, showing wide smooth surface (1) and narrow grooved surface (2); k, Easter Island; l, New Zealand; m, Tonga Figure 266.—Types of poncho (tiputa). a, Tahiti: slit neck, plain sides and lower borders; yellow cloth with red fern leaves. b, Mangaia: slit neck, plain sides and lower borders; painted design. c, Atiu: circular serrated neck; plain sides and lower borders, breadfruit bast without design. d, Mangaia: circular serrated neck; serrated sides and lower borders; perforated triangular and lozenge motifs. e, Mangaia: circular serrated neck; serrated sides and fringed lower border; perforated motifs.… Figure 38.—Rarotongan chief's headdress. a, side view of coir cap denuded of feathers: upper part (1) consists of oblique parallel rows of alternate black and natural brown coir work which meet in a middle vertical line (2) on each side (at the time of examination I had not had sufficient experience to work out the exact detail); lower part (3) consists of horizontal rows of eight coils with coiled work of the Atiu continuous figure-of-eight technique and two incomplete courses (4) leaving a ga… Figure 4.—Cook Islands wooden bowls. Small beaker bowl without legs, (a, b) Mangaia (Cambridge University Mus., Z.6077), from G. Bennet, July 1824: a, rim opening, length 10 inches, greatest width 7 inches, showing pointed end (1) and base (2) with upward projecting knob (3); outer rim edge rounded off and inner edge inverted and sharp, making greatest diameter a little below upper rim; b, side view, height 3 inches. Medium-sized beaker bowl with legs, (c-e) Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., C8920): c, ri… Figure 6.—Pounding table, Atiu: round top 26 inches in diameter, 1 inch thick at outer edge and 6 inches thick at center; four legs, round in section, 2.25 inches from rim, diminishing in thickness to 4.25 inches at lower end; height, 10 inches Figure 60.—Ivory and wooden breast ornaments (Atiu): a-c, ivory ornament (Cambridge University Mus., Z.6097); d-e, wooden ornament (after Gudgeon). a, front; total height, 53 mm.; greatest width, 67 mm.; greatest thickness, 43 mm.; shows two balls (1, 1), and suspensory lug (2) with outer lip. b, from above: shows suspensory lug (2, 2) divided into two flanges by notch from side to side, with upper surface of flanges notched in transverse lines and inner lower part serrated; with central rectan… Figure 61.—Atiu neck ornament from Gruning collection (after Gruning): a, whale tooth ornament (1) shaped into two balls "not more than about two inches across", connected by an upper circular lug with constricted neck around which human hair braid (?) is tied for suspension to some turns (2) of braid tied around middle of coil of many folds of finely plaited human hair of which part on right (3) was preserved but left half (4) "of hair cords completely fell away on removal" from cave site; end… Figure 7.—Cook Islands basaltic pounders: a, simple concave head (Auckland Mus. 12868); b, c, simple convex head, Atiu (Bishop Mus. C2773); d, e, three-ridged head, smooth curve back and front (Bishop Mus., C2287); f, three-ridged head with concave crescentic edge (1) extending from lateral ridges (Auckland Mus. 12279); g, h, three-ridged head with straight edge (1) lower down (Bishop Mus., 6531); i, j, three-ridged head greatly projected upward from defining edge (1) (Bishop Mus., 6532); k, th… Figure 76.—Triangular adz, variation 1, Atiu (C2721). a, front: long, comparatively narrow blade and poll, narrower cutting edge and clearly defined lateral edges to blade, dropped shoulder formed by working down front surface of butt, lateral edges of butt rounded off; b, back: short bevel surface, straight transversely; median edge continued to hollow at poll; c, right side: sides of butt and blade markedly convex transversely, profile shows dropped shoulder with butt front surface on differe… Figure 79.—Triangular adz, variation 2, Atiu (C2731). a, front: badly chipped on left of cutting edge, raised shoulder; b, back: concave bevel surface with high apical point, butt rounded; c, right side: note raised shoulder with planes of butt and blade on same plane; d, sections. Weight, 21.75 oz Figure 80.—Triangular adz, variation 2, Atiu (C2730). a, front: raised-dropped shoulder; butt lateral edges somewhat sharp; b, back: bevel surface concave, no apical Point as postero-lateral sides do not meet and narrow surface between continued to poll; c, right side: shows up raised-dropped shoulder; d, sections. Weight, 13.75 oz Figure 98.—Quadrangular adz, type 3; Atiu (C2740). a, front: anterior surface of blade defined above by curved shoulder with convexity upward, and gradually widening to cutting edge; side edges of blade well defined; lateral surfaces seen on either side of blade. Butt slants backward and front surface worked to lower plane with side edges rounded off. b, back: occupied entirely by posterior surface of blade and butt with posterior side edges clearly defined on butt and blade; bevel surface conc… Plate 2 — Groups in Native Dress. A, Atiu: Men Wearing Coiled Caps and Plaited Belts: High Chiefess in Middle. B, Mangaia: Men Wearing Ponchos and Dance Masks Plate 3 — Houses: A, Dwelling House, Atiu; B, Canoe Shed, Atiu


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