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One of the Cook Islands.

Fig. 90. Polynesian carved figures. — a, Rarotonga; b, Aitutaki; c, Tahiti; d, Raivavae; e, Marquesas; f, New Zealand; g, Mangareva; h, Easter Is.; i, Hawaii; j, Tonga Figure 1.—Maps of the Cook Islands: a, locality map of Cook Islands; b, Rarotonga: c, Atiu: d, Aitutaki: e, Mangaia: f, Mauke Figure 10.—Coral and wooden pounders. a, coral pounder, Rarotonga (Bishop Mus., C8883): height middle line, 142 mm.; greatest width of head, 68 mm., thickness 34 mm.; neck, 54 mm. by 41 mm.; base, 124 mm. by 121 mm.; body greatly flared and basal surface very convex. b, side view of a. c, wooden pounder, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus.): height, 292 mm.; base diameter, 63 mm Figure 106.—Triple triangle pattern on working adzes: a , closed triple triangle (British Mus., + 1612), attributed to Rarotonga; c, overlapping triple triangle (Bishop Mus., 8040), Aitutaki. a, haft length 21.75 inches; foot length 4.25 inches, slight dorsal knob (1) on proximal end of shaft; heel with bilateral rounded projections (2), the lashing braid evidently had some fixation turns around the foot and adz butt and then made a couple of vertical turns over heel knobs, after which triple t… Figure 124.—Boom attachments to float. 1, float; 2, boom. a-c, Mangaian and Rarotongan straight boom with long branch and projecting end (3) for lashing with: a, two stays; b, three stays; and c, four stays. d-f, Atiu, Mauke, and Mitiaro curved boom with short branch, no end projection, and stays attached to boom on inner side of branch: d, Mauke with one inner stay; e, Mitiaro after boom with one outer stay; f, Mitiaro fore boom with two outer stays; g, Aitutaki with Y-shaped connective (4) Figure 127.—Aitutaki paddle (Cranmore Mus., Kent). a, front showing carved upper end (1) of shaft, narrow shoulders (2), carving on blade below shoulder (3) and long mesial edge (4). Total length, 2,425 mm.; shaft length, 1,073 mm.; blade length, 1,352 mm.; shaft diameter in middle, 52 mm., at shaft junction, 54 mm. by 45 mm.; blade width at shoulder, 82 mm., at widest part, 342 mm. b, details of front carving (a, 3) 183 mm. deep; these may be analyzed into transverse panels with serrated lower… Figure 128.—Paddle, probably from Aitutaki (W. O. Oldman coll.): 1, narrow shoulder; 2, incised curved lines below shoulders, two double curves with convexity downward; 3, second set of three triple curves with convexity upward; 4, median notched ridge at tip end Figure 129.—Aitutaki paddle without shoulders (W. O. Oldman coll., 368): total length, 78 inches; blade length, 35 inches; blade width, 6 inches, a, upper part of back of blade showing slope to shaft and carving (1). b, lower part of front of blade with long mesial ridge and, above it, four short transverse raised panels with serrated edges. c, enlargement of carving (a, 1): 1, slightly raised horizontal panel with serrated upper and lower edges, row of V-shaped figures with points opposite eve… Figure 13.—Ironwood thatch implements. a, thatching hook, Mauke (Bishop Mus., C2824): length, 11.5 inches; greatest width, 0.6 inch; greatest thickness, 0.3 inch; length of point from hook notch (1), 0.9 inch. b, thatch needle, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus.): length, 10 inches; greatest width, 0.5 inch Figure 130.—Aberrant paddle, Aitutaki (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 55419): length, 5 feet 9.25 inches, elliptical blade with greatest width, 9.75 inches. a, full length. b, blade enlarged: shows mesial ridge (1) extending full length of blade. c, side view of blade: lateral edge (2) of blade, showing projections (1, 1) of mesial ridge on each surface Figure 138.—Fish weirs, Aitutaki. a, pa kiokio, named Taketake: 1, 1, long side walls (kavi'i); 2, short end wall (po'o); 3, inner wall (tumu arero) to complete V-race and enclosure (4) with entrance opening (5); 6, rounded end (putaka); 7, 7, leaf sweeps extending V-shaped race, b, pa tute:1, 1, side walls; 2, opening where net is placed, c, pa tuakirua:1, 1, side walls converging toward shore; 2, stone house where fish take refuge, d, Arani fish weir: 1, 1, side walls here termed rauroa;2, en… Figure 143.—Netting technique, Aitutaki. a, 1, 1, upper cord with small ball; 2, 2, lower cord with large coil; 3, suspensory cord; 4, mesh gauge; upper cord (1) is looped over suspensory cord (3) and a loop (5) brought down to upper edge of gauge (4); lower cord (2) passes behind gauge and passes up in front where a loop (6) is passed over upper loop (5) without attempting to pass the large ball through upper loop (5). b, loop (6) is drawn out until it is large enough for the large ball to pas… Figure 145.—Scoop net without handle ('opai), Aitutaki. a, length, 7 feet 9 inches; greatest width, 2 feet 8 inches; length of crossbar (pukei), 15 inches; distance of crossbar from proximal end, 14 inches; depth of bag net, 5 feet 8 inches; frame (1) of two branches of ironwood each 9 feet 5 inches long, about 1 inch thick at near end and 0.5 inch thick at far end. b, attachment of net to frame (1) by one cord (2) which passes through marginal meshes and at intervals is fastened to frame and c… Figure 156.—Darts, Aitutaki. a, tumutumu:1, front end wrapped with bast; 2, back end, with right forefinger placed for throwing, b, teka kiore:1, wooden body; 2, midrib tail. c, teka ta manu'iri, showing string looped over knotted end (1) and other end wrapped around right forefinger. d, teka koki'i with string looped over end knot (1), wound spirally around dart (2), and attached to throwing stick (3) Figure 160.—Aitutaki kites, a, manu teketeke vai'i:1, 2, 3, three hibiscus rods arranged as shown and lashed together at common crossing place; 4, sennit lashed to rod ends to form marginal boundary of kite, bark cloth covered over frame and overlapped over marginal sennit (4); 5, 5, two lengths of sennit lashed to frame and then joined to form tail (6); 7, flying cord attached to frame crossing but if head of kite flew too high, flying cord was advanced to short crossbar (8). b, manu patiki:1,… Figure 168.—Aitutaki drum (Auckland Mus., 987). a, wooden body (1): height, 495 mm.; greatest diameter near top, 407 mm.; bottom diameter, 350 mm.; interior partition, 146 mm. from bottom. Upper opening edge (2) shows against skin cover; inner diameter, 222 mm. Shark-skin cover (3) in one piece covers upper opening and overlaps from 75 to 100 mm.; single strip of shark skin, 64 mm. wide, placed under outer edge of cover to reinforce part where holes are cut through both layers, 12 mm. from edge… Figure 169.—Painted design on Aitutaki drum (Auckland Mus., 987): consisting of sets of crosses, triangles, and vertical lines with spaced bilateral short curves Figure 170.—Painted design on Aitutaki drum (Auckland Mus., 8865): lower end of drum showing slots (1-1) with oblique crosses between slots and above, two sets of oblique lines crossing at ends and with short curved lines on either side of upper crossings; also oblique crosses between upper sets of crossings Figure 171.—Aitutaki drum (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, 86,236): a, height, 672 mm.; upper opening diameter, 240 mm.; bottom diameter, 330 mm.; dividing septum, 265 mm. from bottom: upper set of 15 rectangular slots (1), 75 mm. high and 37 mm. wide; top edge of slots, 197 mm. from bottom edge: lower set of 15 rectangular slots (2), 50 mm. high and 30 mm. wide; ends of lashing braids (3) wound round between slot rows: lower edge (4) clear of lashings. b, top of drum, showing direct lashing with flat… Figure 19.—Cook Islands seats. a, small Atiu type (Bishop Mus., C8882): seat (1), 19 inches long at sides and 18.75 inches in middle; width, 9.25 inches at ends, 8.75 inches in middle; edge 0.5 inch thick; height above ground, 4 inches in middle, and 6.12 and 6.62 inches at ends: leg (2) curved, heart shaped in section, with edge (3) toward middle transverse line; foot (4) expanded, heart shaped, with apex toward middle line. b, long Aitutaki type (Auckland Mus., 12994): seat (1), 7 feet, 9 inc… Figure 203.—Carved slabs, Aitutaki. a, probably breadfruit wood; total length, 457 mm.; greatest width, 62 mm.; greatest thickness, 18 mm.: top section (1) 112 mm. long with irregular side notches and mesial hole: middle section (2) with serrated sides and triangular depressions opposite alternate serrations; mesial raised longitudinal panel divided into serrated transverse bars: lower plain section (3) 34 mm. wide and 14 mm. thick at bottom end. (British Mus., L.M.S. coll., 112). b, brown wood… Figure 205.—Aitutaki carved slabs (Oldman coll.: a, no. 431; b, no.429). a, height, 23 inches; width, 4 inches; thickness, 0.75 inch. Side edges serrated, but sunken triangles do not always coincide with alternate teeth; raised middle panel with short horizontal rows of serrated bars characteristic of Aitutaki; two lowest bars not serrated; carved on one side only; lower end flared at sides, b, dark heavy wood; height, 20.75 inches; width, 5.75 inches; thickness, 1.25 inches. Top widely serrate… Figure 209.—Aitutaki god (British Mus., L.M.S., 95). a, front view: light wood, poor carving, total height 1,282 mm.; head length 148 mm.; head width 168 mm.; lower end 180 mm. by 145 mm.; forehead and nose on same plane with wood cut away to form lower plane for eyes and face, eyes and mouth formed by simple excisions, no ears, chin pointed, simple bust, without arms, column cut in transverse levels as shown. b, side view: showing transverse cuts coming around to sides but not reaching back, s… Figure 210.—Aitutaki goddess (British Mus., L.M.S., no number), a, front: total height including pedestal 525 mm.; head height 162 mm.; pedestal height 60 mm.;shoulder width 155 mm.; hip width 171 mm.; forehead with curved transverse line, with similar line below for eyebrows; nose formed by vertical mesial edge due to meeting of inclined planes of cheeks and bounded below by transverse cut; eyes and mouth formed by simple elliptical excisions; hands without fingers clasped on body; rectangular… Figure 212.—Aitutaki image (Hunterian Mus., Glasgow, E.395); total height with support, 16 inches. a, front: head pointed with sharp chin; eyes elliptical, formed by two curved incisions and also upper and lower lids; raised nose, narrow; mouth with upper and lower lips denned; small unpierced ears; square shoulders; slender arms with upper arms (1) free of body and small three-fingered hands; upper serrated edge and lower serrated bar on chest; protruding abdomen with low navel (2); high hips … Figure 214.—Aitutaki carved figure (Musee de Hopital de la Marine, Brest, 486). a, front: upper figure (1) with characteristic eyes, brows, nose, mouth, and sharp chin; ornamental band (2) across forehead; pierced ears; slender forearm with three-fingered hand; high hips, slender legs and mesial support (3); lower head (4) similar to upper but with mesial ridge on forehead; square shoulders with square slanting chest and three-fingered hands; lower part (5) with transverse notched ridges from s… Figure 22.—Technique of fine fan, Aitutaki. a, piece of thin cord (1) is tied to handle (2) some distance from distal end; two leaflets (3, 3) are placed with butt ends on either side of handle, and the cord makes turn (4) around them. Another pair of leaflets (5, 5) is placed in position below first pair and fixed with another turn (6) of the cord. In this way, successive pairs are added and fixed with spiral turns of the cord until full number of 16 to 24 pairs of leaflets are added. After la… Figure 23.—Rarotongan fan handles (a, plain, attributed to Rarotonga but probably from Aitutaki; b-e, carved with two heads in profile, looking outward from midline of junction): a, round wood, uncarved, 28 mm. in diameter at proximal end, and uncovered part, with shoulder (1) where sennit braid wrapping in lozenge pattern commences; total length of handle including tang, 390 mm. (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6100). b, 1, double head with narrow notch to mark division, eyes formed by five incised cu… Figure 254.—Geometrical carving motifs, Aitutaki: a, serrated edge; b, notched bar with opposing points; c, notched bar with alternating points; d, triangle; e, triangle with curved base and sides, approaching crescentic form; f, lozenge; g, ellipse; h, composite chevron and triangle; i, composite chevron and lozenge; j, incised curves; k, incised semicircles; l, serrated edge with triangles opposite every other edge point, characteristic combination; m, serrated edge, alternate triangles, and … Figure 256.—Plaited designs on sleeping mats, Aitutaki. a, viti motif. b, ni'oni'o (toothed). c: 1, katikativai; 2, 'etu matariki (little-eyed stars); 3, mata 'a (four eyes). d: 1, pi'a rikiriki (little box-in check); 2, pi'a rikiriki (little box-in twill); 3, 'onu (turtle). e, top, tapuae mokora (duck's feet); bottom, matautua. f, matakeke (teeth of saw). g, matakere, a favorite design, h, full border design with middle main motif of oblique squares formed by three white twilled-threes termed … Figure 262.—Fans with natural midrib handles. a, triangular shape: 1, midrib handle; 2, leaflets twisted over leaflet above on same side; 3, plaiting turned in for short distance to end at base (4). b, lozenge shape: 1, midrib handle; 2, leaflets crossed alternately to opposite side; 3, plaiting turned in but instead of ending in a straight base, it is continued to a point (4) to complete lozenge shape and form longer fan. — Note: the Rarotongan and Aitutaki fine fans follow the shape of a, and… Figure 264.—Polynesian fan outlines. a, Aitutaki. b, Rarotonga. c, Mangaia. d, Tahiti (British Mus., Tah. 69), same technique as a and b. e, Marquesas, curved sides and twilled plaiting. f, Hawaii (Bishop Mus., C9232), found in burial cave, closed leaflets in check, triangular shape conforming to central Polynesian type. g, Hawaii (Bishop Mus., 7965), specialized form of fine fan peculiar to Hawaii. h, Samoa, reversed triangle with straight base on handle and curved sides; twilled plaiting. i, … Figure 273.—Polynesian drums. a-d, direct upper attachment; e-h, indirect upper attachment. a, Aitutaki, Cook Islands, see figure 168: lower slot attachment. b, Tahiti, Society Islands (Cambridge University Mus.): lower slot attachment; height, 20.5 inches; upper diameter, 7.75 inches; lower diameter, 8.5 inches. c, Raivavae, Austral Islands (British Mus., L.M.S. coll.): lower attachment to rectangular slots with another row of unused rectangular slots above engaged slots; lower third carved; h… Figure 274.—Polynesian wooden images, front and side views. a, Rarotonga, fisherman's god (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, Mass., 53517). b, Aitutaki, goddess (British Mus., L.M.S.). c, Tahiti, sorcerer's image (ti'i) (British Mus., 7047). d, Raivavae, Austral Islands (British Mus., 54-12-29-120). e, Marquesas (Bishop Mus., 3020) f, New Zealand, carved figure with face tattooing pattern (Oldman coll., 14). g, Mangareva, god (La Rochelle Mus., H.498). h, Easter Island, carved figure (moai kava-kava) (O… Figure 39.—Aitutaki feather headdress. a, after Williams: 1, rim of coiled cap; 2, tiers of feathers; 3, tier of white feather bunches; 4, tiers of feathers; 5, tail feathers of tropic bird; 6, white feather bunches on sides; 7, tresses of human hair hanging down from back. b, same cap in British Museum: feather ornamentation disarranged from original technique by decay of wooden frame and cord lashings; 3, white feather bunches (some have fallen out); 5, tropic bird feathers showing attachment… Figure 4.—Cook Islands wooden bowls. Small beaker bowl without legs, (a, b) Mangaia (Cambridge University Mus., Z.6077), from G. Bennet, July 1824: a, rim opening, length 10 inches, greatest width 7 inches, showing pointed end (1) and base (2) with upward projecting knob (3); outer rim edge rounded off and inner edge inverted and sharp, making greatest diameter a little below upper rim; b, side view, height 3 inches. Medium-sized beaker bowl with legs, (c-e) Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., C8920): c, ri… Figure 5.—Specialized bowls. Elliptical bowl with end projections (a, b), Aitutaki (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, 55422): a, side view; long end projections (1, 1), ornamental notches along rim, total length 20.75 inches, middle height 3.37 inches; b, rim opening, inside length 14.75 inches, middle width 8.12 inches, ends of projections (1, 1) with 7 transverse notches. Carved round bowl (c, d), Mangaia (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, 53516); c, side view, showing rectangular rim projection (1) and legs (… Figure 66.—Pearl-shell breast ornaments from Aitutaki and Mauke. a, Aitutaki: single pearl shell (1) pierced with four holes along upper hinge margin for attachment of coil (2) of 32 strands of two-ply cord of bast fiber dyed brown; at ends of coil folds, a thicker two-ply cord (3) of undyed bast (hibiscus?) is tied for suspension around neck (Auckland Mus., 14488). b, Mauke: part of shell (1) is crescentic in form with upper concave edge; holes bored at each upper corner for attachment of sing… Figure 70.—Tattoo motifs from Aitutaki (a-e, recorded by Te Rangi Hiroa; f-i, recorded by Gudgeon). a, papavaro: continuous chevrons on abdomen and front of thighs, sometimes back. b, parepare: on shoulder, chest, and wrist, c, ruru: on wrists and forearms, d, manuta'i: vertical lines running down spine and oblique pairs running upward to mid-axillary line. e, tatatao: face pattern consisting of three series of three curved lines; first series above each eyebrow resembling Maori tiwhana motif, … Figure 71.—Tattoo motifs from Mangaia. a, puwakewake: on chest, shoulder and upper arm. b, manuta'i: encircles forearm with lower points toward hand; c, motupoki: curved double line following curve of hand between thumb and forefinger with ends on proximal phalanx of thumb and forefinger; d, e, ruru or kau: around wrist below manuta'i with points toward fingers; f, mokora: crosses on back of hand and fingers; g, pa'oro: on lower leg from knee to ankle; h, vava'anga: just above knee; i, pote'a: … Figure 8.—Cook Islands basaltic pounders, small bulbous type: a, head with convex curve (Bishop Mus., 6533); b, head with concave curve, Rarotonga (Otago University Mus., D.27.50); c, three-ridged head, Aitutaki (Otago University Mus., D.33.2062); d, unique with four projections, Rarotonga (Otago University Mus., D.35.352); e, three-ridged head, one lateral ridge broken, made of stalagmite, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus., 10713). Dimensions in millimeters: Height Head Neck Base Weight (oz.) a 122 42 3… Figure 87.—Triangular adz, intermediate, Aitutaki (C2760). a, front: butt and blade in same plane but separated by a raised shoulder; b, back: bevel surface concave with apical point above level of shoulder and median ridge extending to poll; c, right side: showing plane of butt and shoulder on same level with raised shoulder between. d, sections. Weight, 12.5 oz Plate 11 — Fish Traps: A, Anga Trap, Aitutaki; B, Inahi Trap, Aitutaki (Auckland Mus.) C, EEl Trap, Aitu (Bishop Mus., C2850); D, Funnel Entrance of c Plate 13 — Wooden Images of Gods: A, B, Goddess, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S.); C, Staff God, Rarotonga (Cambridge Univ. Mus., 101); D, E, Fisherman's God. Rarotonga (Munich Mus., 191) Plate 14 — Symbols of Gods: A, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S., 28); B, Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 572); C, Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 94/35); D, E, Mitiaro (British Mus., L.M.S., no Number and 49); F, G, H, Mangaia (British Mus., L.M.S., 30, 32, 31); Mangaia (Oldman Coll., 432) Plate 1 — Groups in Native Dress: A, Rarotonga, Priest Seated in Middle B, Aitutaki, Men Wearing Plaited Baldrics Plate 4 — Fans: A, B, Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., 2167); C, Rarotonga, Back (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6101); D, Cook Islands, Front (British Mus., L.M.S.) Plate 5 — A, Fan, Mangaia (Horniman Mus., 3,280). B, Paretumu Mat, Aitutaki; Left Top Corner. C, Koviri Mat, Aitutaki; Left Bottom Corner. D, E, Fan, Mangaia, E Back of D (Wesleyan Univ. Mus., 372) Plate 7 — Feather Headdresses: A, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S.); B, Rarotonga (British Mus., L.M.S.); C, Makea-Ariki Family, Rarotonga; D, Probably Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 120) Plate 9 — Hafted Adzes: A, Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., 8040); B, Mangaia (Wesleyan Univ. Mus., 344); C, Mangaia (Auckland Mus., 1310)

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