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Also known as: Auau Enua.

Most southerly of the Cook Islands.

Mentioned in

Figure 1.—Maps of the Cook Islands: a, locality map of Cook Islands; b, Rarotonga: c, Atiu: d, Aitutaki: e, Mangaia: f, Mauke Figure 114.—Carved adz shafts, Mangaia. a, length of carved part, 62 mm., gradually expanding from diameter of 30 mm. to 44 mm. at proximal end; carved with Mangaian K-motif in three transverse panels around shafts, followed by longitudinal panels with slits between them, one more transverse panel, and finally short knobs at proximal end (A. W. F. Fuller coll., 19-11-29). b, rectangular enlargement of proximal end, 1.87 inches long by 1.62 inches wide; carved in three transverse panels with K-m… Figure 120.—Lashing of gunwale rail to underbody: 1, gunwale rail; 2, underbody; 3, lashing; 4, inner ledge (paevai); 5, outer ledge. a, Atiu; b, Mauke; c, Mangaia. The outboard side is to the left Figure 123.—Outrigger canoes: 1, hull or underbody; 2, gunwale rail; 3, bow cover; 4, stern cover; 5, float; 6, fore boom; 7, after boom; 8, thwart; 9, carrying stringer; 10, bow projection (tara kokiri); 11, stern post. a, Atiu: length, 14 feet 2 inches; note slope of bow and tara kokiri projection (10), blunter stern with short upward projection of stern cover (4); carrying stringer (9) passes above after boom (7) and thwart (8) and below fore boom (6). b, Mitiaro: length, 13 feet 10 inches; … Figure 125.—Canoe thwarts, viewed from bow with outrigger side to right: a, b, Mauke; c, d, Mangaia. a, upper surface of seat (1): length without projections, 13.6 inches; width in middle line, 7.75 inches, at two ends, 7.25 inches; port projection (2) perforated with two holes, 4 inches long, 2 inches wide, 1.5 inches thick; short starboard projection (3); two holes on starboard side for lashing seat to gunwale rail. b, front view of seat (1) with downward projection (6) 6.5 inches deep and 10… Figure 131.—Carved paddle, Mangaia (British Mus., 3000). a, full blade with shortened handle: total length, 1,740 mm.; blade length, 745 mm.; blade length from shoulder to widest part, 502 mm.; length widest part to tip, 243 mm. b, upper part of blade: concave shoulder, 150 mm. wide and 31 mm. thick in middle line; four rows of small triangles with bases forming continuous line. c, lower end of blade: greatest width, 220 mm. where sides form an obtuse angle; mesial ridge, 312 mm. long and 15 mm… Figure 132.—Carved painted paddle, Mangaia (American Mus. Nat. Hist., S.4801). a, shaft (1), length 815 mm., thickness 37 by 30 mm., with carved upper end (2); blade (3), length 970 mm., width at shoulder (4) 180 mm., width at widest part (5) 222 mm.; median carved panel (6) on front, 16 mm. wide, extending from tip to just above shoulder junction; carved transverse panel (7) extending from edge to edge just below shoulder edge. b, carved end of shaft, rectangular, 43 mm. wide, 40 mm. thick; ea… Figure 142.—Netting technique, Mangaia. a, 1, 1, upper cord for making upper part of first row of meshes, held by assistant; 2, 2, lower cord for completing meshes, attached to needle (2′); upper cord (1) on left is looped over suspensory cord (3) and is drawn down into a loop against upper edge of net gauge (4); lower cord (2) on left passes behind gauge and up on front to meet upper loop when meshing knot (5) is made; this is repeated until first row is completed. Meshing knot is shown on rig… Figure 144.—Nariki net, Mangaia: 1, 1, end poles, each held by one man; 2, top cord, threaded through marginal meshes; 3, 3, side cords, also threaded through marginal meshes and tied to poles by separate lashings at intervals. Net is much deeper than distance from top cord to ground, hence shows in folds Figure 150.—Gorge and toko hook. a, Rarotongan straight gorge (Bishop Mus., C2845): made of hard wood (1), 80 mm. long, round in section, 6 mm. thick in middle, and pointed at each end; thick two-ply bast cord (2) attached by doubling bast strands around it and plaiting into cord; another bast strip lashed around cord and gorge join; thin cord (3) usually attached to middle to tie bait on. b, toko hook, Mangaia (Bishop Mus., C2804): fork of hard ngangie wood; greatest length, 168 mm.; greatest … Figure 154.—Carved wooden hook from Mangaia (British Mus.): a, heavy dark wood; length, 287 mm. (11.5 inches); width, 165 mm. (6.5 inches); well formed shank knob (1) and well curved point (2); typical Mangaian carving in transverse panels commences below shank knob and continues to point, panels completely covered in original; short angular panels (3) on either side of bend to balance carving technique. b, enlargement of bend to show up angular panels (3) Figure 187.—Cook Islands spears, a, Atiu spear (Fuller coll., 3120): four-edged point; remaining length, 1,720 mm.; greatest width of blade point, 41 mm. and thick ness, 21 mm.; lower end of shaft, 33 by 31 mm. b, Atiu vero (in field): length, 12 feet, 4 inches; leaf point (1), 4.7 inches long, greatest width, 1.5 inches and thickness, 0.65 inch; middle shaft diameter, 1.6 inches; lower leaf point (2), 4.3 inches long, greatest width, 0.8 inch, thickness, 0.5 inch. c, Atiu vero (in field): leng… Figure 232.—Tapa and feather gods, Mangaia. a: length of body and legs, 330 mm.; middle body width, 100 mm.; two arms (1, 1), 50 and 60 mm. long; legs (2, 2): body of folded lengths of sennit and wrapped with white tapa and tied with spiral turn of fine thread; tropic bird tail feathers kept in position by thread lashings (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z.6094). b: smaller than Cambridge figure and without arms; length of body and legs 142 mm.; body width 22 to 24 mm.; legs (2, 2), 36 and 34 mm. long an… Figure 237.—Technique of carved slabs, Mangaia. a, cross section of rectangular slab; shaded sections regularly spaced are parts to be removed. b, cross section through lozenge holes; with shaded parts in a removed, slab divided into four ridges (1) in front and back and two (2) at ends; shaded portions show sections through middle of fore-and-aft lozenge holes (3) and end holes (4) between two end ridges which run into adjacent fore-and-aft holes; ridges average about 22 mm. in width. c, uprig… Figure 241.—Pedestal of carved slabs, Mangaia (L.M.S. coll.: a,30; b,31; c,32). a, pedestal concealed by feather ornamentation; height 54 mm., base diameter 72 mm.; divided into 7 radiating ridges, carved into two pillars with intervening arch; outer surface of top pillar (1) with K-motif, top of arch below it with two K's facing each other, and lower pillar concealed by feathers. b, base diameter 85 mm.; nine ridges each with two arches (1, 2) and no intervening pillar; sunken lozenge in inter… Figure 258.—Polynesian stone pounders: pestle form (a-c); medium form (d-e), flared form (f-i). a, Cook Islands, lateral projecting head with three low ridges (Bishop Mus., 6531). b, Mangareva, rounded circular head (Bishop Mus., C7632). c, Society Islands, laterally expanded head with three high ridges (Bouge coll.). d, Mangaia, head with lateral projections, flat upper surface, concave longitudinally; calcite (Bishop Mus., B3489). e, Austral Islands, head similar to d but with upper surface r… Figure 264.—Polynesian fan outlines. a, Aitutaki. b, Rarotonga. c, Mangaia. d, Tahiti (British Mus., Tah. 69), same technique as a and b. e, Marquesas, curved sides and twilled plaiting. f, Hawaii (Bishop Mus., C9232), found in burial cave, closed leaflets in check, triangular shape conforming to central Polynesian type. g, Hawaii (Bishop Mus., 7965), specialized form of fine fan peculiar to Hawaii. h, Samoa, reversed triangle with straight base on handle and curved sides; twilled plaiting. i, … Figure 265.—Polynesian cloth beaters (ike, i'e): a, Atiu, Cook Islands; b, Mangaia, Cook Islands, finishing beater; c, Tahiti; d, Marquesas; e, Austral Islands, general form; f, Tubuai, Austral Islands, crossed pattern; g, Rapa, crossed pattern; h, Hawaii, general form; i, Hawaii, zigzag pattern; j, Mangareva, showing wide smooth surface (1) and narrow grooved surface (2); k, Easter Island; l, New Zealand; m, Tonga Figure 266.—Types of poncho (tiputa). a, Tahiti: slit neck, plain sides and lower borders; yellow cloth with red fern leaves. b, Mangaia: slit neck, plain sides and lower borders; painted design. c, Atiu: circular serrated neck; plain sides and lower borders, breadfruit bast without design. d, Mangaia: circular serrated neck; serrated sides and lower borders; perforated triangular and lozenge motifs. e, Mangaia: circular serrated neck; serrated sides and fringed lower border; perforated motifs.… Figure 267.—Pearl-shell breast ornaments. a, Mangaia (Fuller coll.): outer rim border (1); free ends of coil (2) not seized; horizontal strands of hair braid (3) out side of lashings; lock of human hair (4); for details of similar ornament, see figure 65. b, Tahiti (British Mus., Tahiti case): three shells of different sizes, largest and smallest with edges serrated, largest and middle with strip of outer rim border; attached to human hair coil by cord through two holes pierced through all thre… Figure 27.—Mangaian perforation motifs: a, triangles on same base line; b, alternate triangles inverted; c, lozenge perforations in rows; d, larger triangles in group of three resembling tattoo motif (fig. 71, a) said to symbolize the three original tribes of Mangaia; e, serrated motifs Figure 271.—Evolution of the Mangaian triple triangle. a, b, double loop technique, Austral Islands; c, d, triple triangle, Cook and Society Islands; e, f, Mangaian triple triangle, Mangaia. a, front: lower (1) and upper (2) loops. b, side: lower and upper loops crossing on side to form one large triangle. c, front: lower loop (1) continued throughout; upper loop (2) continued for a few turns and then split (3) as shown by crossings in middle line. d, side: split loops in their vertical turns (… Figure 28.—Painted tapa patterns. a, Mauke: white cloth painted with black bars, black triangles in pairs with apices meeting giving hour-glass appearance and internally blaked with thin parallel lines, and zigzag bars formed by crossing black lines; horizontal bars (1) and triangles (1) painted yellow; rectangles (2) and triangles (2) in red (Bishop Mus., Bloxam ms.). b, shows carved heads (1) and tapa bundle with zigzag pattern (2) at one end and double rows of black lozenges separated by two… Figure 4.—Cook Islands wooden bowls. Small beaker bowl without legs, (a, b) Mangaia (Cambridge University Mus., Z.6077), from G. Bennet, July 1824: a, rim opening, length 10 inches, greatest width 7 inches, showing pointed end (1) and base (2) with upward projecting knob (3); outer rim edge rounded off and inner edge inverted and sharp, making greatest diameter a little below upper rim; b, side view, height 3 inches. Medium-sized beaker bowl with legs, (c-e) Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., C8920): c, ri… Figure 5.—Specialized bowls. Elliptical bowl with end projections (a, b), Aitutaki (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, 55422): a, side view; long end projections (1, 1), ornamental notches along rim, total length 20.75 inches, middle height 3.37 inches; b, rim opening, inside length 14.75 inches, middle width 8.12 inches, ends of projections (1, 1) with 7 transverse notches. Carved round bowl (c, d), Mangaia (Peabody Mus., Cambridge, 53516); c, side view, showing rectangular rim projection (1) and legs (… Figure 58.—Whale ivory and human bone necklace ornaments (Mangaia). a-c, foursided figures: a, length of top, middle, and bottom, 43, 38, 40 mm.; height of left, middle, and right, 20, 13, 18 mm.; greatest thickness, 11 mm.; front surface polished and convex vertically and horizontally; slightly raised flanges at top and bottom borders; two suspensory lugs perforated from side to side. b, back of a: flat without upper and lower border flanges. c, smaller ornament, front view; greatest length, 2… Figure 67.—Ornamental body cord from Mangaia (British Mus.). a, looped end: elements in looped end are loop of well-plaited sennit (1), 8 mm. wide and 5 mm. thick, loop of sennit closely wrapped with human hair (2), and a single length of hair-wrapped braid (3) with its end (4) neatly seized with fine sennit. Seized elements are three lengths of sennit, each 4 mm. wide, laid together in triangular form and seized closely with black hair twisted into a tight roll about 2 mm. thick. Seizing exten… Figure 71.—Tattoo motifs from Mangaia. a, puwakewake: on chest, shoulder and upper arm. b, manuta'i: encircles forearm with lower points toward hand; c, motupoki: curved double line following curve of hand between thumb and forefinger with ends on proximal phalanx of thumb and forefinger; d, e, ruru or kau: around wrist below manuta'i with points toward fingers; f, mokora: crosses on back of hand and fingers; g, pa'oro: on lower leg from knee to ankle; h, vava'anga: just above knee; i, pote'a: … Figure 82.—Triangular adz, variation 2, Mangaia (B3635) black basalt, a, front: long blade ground down below shoulder giving false appearance of raised-dropped shoulder but really dropped shoulder form; lateral edges of butt ground in such way as to lower lateral edges below original plane, b, back: concave bevel surface with high apical point and median edge extending to poll. c, right side: showing back slope of butt, also lateral edges of blade slightly touched to blunt sharp edge, d, sectio… Figure 83.—Triangular edge, ceremonial of variation 2, Mangaia (7860); very dark basalt, with well polished blade but unpolished butt. a, front: short butt with somewhat angular lateral edges; blade long, and wider at cutting edge which is convex downward; dropped shoulder. b, back: long bevel surface with apical point at butt junction, middle part slightly concave transversely but straight near cutting edge; dropped shoulder on front continued on sides and back; butt badly chipped on one side,… Figure 89.—Triangular adz, intermediate, Mangaia (C1451). a, front: blade smoothed, dropped shoulder with gradual slope to butt surface, butt lateral edges distinct; b, back: bevel surface straight and bevel apex at about half length of blade; median edge extends to poll. c, right side: showing comparative thinness of adz and slope of dropped shoulder. d, sections. Weight, 10.5 oz Figure 90.—Triangular adz, intermediate, Mangaia (private collection). a, front; finely polished butt and blade, well-marked dropped shoulder, sharp butt lateral edges; b, back: short, straight bevel surface but upper part slopes away in rounded median edge which continues to poll; c, right side: shows dropped shoulder with extension down sides to posterior median edge. d, sections. Weight, 1.25 oz Figure 94.—Small, thin quadrangular adz, type 1; Mangaia (C2748). a, front surface: straight transversely, convex longitudinally; width increases to cutting edge; front edges not clearly defined because chipped hollows are not ground out. b, back: shows rough chipping of sides slanting forward to make back surface narrower than front; bevel surface quadrangular but sloping onto back, not having clear chin line. c, right side. d, sections. Weight, 2.25 oz Plate 14 — Symbols of Gods: A, Aitutaki (British Mus., L.M.S., 28); B, Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 572); C, Aitu (British Mus., L.M.S., 94/35); D, E, Mitiaro (British Mus., L.M.S., no Number and 49); F, G, H, Mangaia (British Mus., L.M.S., 30, 32, 31); Mangaia (Oldman Coll., 432) Plate 2 — Groups in Native Dress. A, Atiu: Men Wearing Coiled Caps and Plaited Belts: High Chiefess in Middle. B, Mangaia: Men Wearing Ponchos and Dance Masks Plate 5 — A, Fan, Mangaia (Horniman Mus., 3,280). B, Paretumu Mat, Aitutaki; Left Top Corner. C, Koviri Mat, Aitutaki; Left Bottom Corner. D, E, Fan, Mangaia, E Back of D (Wesleyan Univ. Mus., 372) Plate 6 — Clothing: A, Tapa Beater, Aitu, Four Sides (Bishop Mus., C2814); B, Perforated Poncho, Mangaia (Bishop Mus., 8059) C, Plaited Girdle. Rarotonga (British Mus., 9963); D, E, Coiled Cap, Aitu (Bishop Mus., C2849) Plate 8 — Ornaments: A, Pearl-shell, Breast Ornament, Mangaia (Copenhagen National, Mus., 1.c. 307); B, pearl-Shell, Breast Ornament, Mangaia (British Mus., 9945); C, Decorative Cord, Mangaia (British Mus., ?) D, Ivory Neck-Laces, Mangaia (Cambridge Univ. Mus., Z. 6075, 6076) Plate 9 — Hafted Adzes: A, Aitutaki (Bishop Mus., 8040); B, Mangaia (Wesleyan Univ. Mus., 344); C, Mangaia (Auckland Mus., 1310)

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